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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 415586 matches for " J. E. Marteau "
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The OPERA global readout and GPS distribution system
J. Marteau
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2009.10.095
Abstract: OPERA is an experiment dedicated to the observation of $\nu_\mu$ into $\nu_\tau$ oscillations in appearance mode using a pure $\nu_\mu$ beam (CNGS) produced at CERN and detected at Gran Sasso. The experiment exploits a hybrid technology with emulsions and electronics detectors \cite{opera}. The OPERA readout is performed through a triggerless, continuously running, distributed and highly available system. Its global architecture is based on Ethernet-capable smart sensors with microprocessing and network interface directly at the front-end stage. An unique interface board is used for the full detector reading out ADC-, TDC- or Controller-boards. All the readout channels are synchronized through a GPS-locked common bidirectional clock distribution system developped on purpose in a PCI format. It offers a second line to address all channels and the off-line synchronization with the CNGS to select the events.
Effects of the Nuclear Correlations on the Neutrino-Oxygen Interactions
J. Marteau
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1007/s100500050274
Abstract: We perform a calculation of the absolute charged current neutrino- oxygen events rates relevant in the atmospheric neutrino experiments. The inclusive reaction cross-section is split into exclusive channels, which are classified according to the number of \v{C}erenkov rings they produce. The model includes the effects of residual interaction in a RPA scheme with both nucleon-hole and Delta-hole excited states and the effects of (np-nh) excitations (n=2,3). Our result is that although the flavor ratio $\mu/e$ remains almost unaffected by the nuclear effects considered here and often neglected in the Monte-Carlo simulations, the absolute events rates are subject to important modifications.
The OPERA experiment: a direct search of the $ν_μ\longrightarrow ν_τ$ oscillations
J. Marteau
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1142/9789814307529_0043
Abstract: The aim of the OPERA experiment is to search for the appearance of the tau neutrino in the quasi pure muon neutrino beam produced at CERN (CNGS). The detector, installed in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory 730 km away from CERN, consists of a lead/emulsion target complemented with electronic detectors. After a short pilot run in 2007, a first physics run took place from June to November 2008. The second physics run started in June 2009. At present a total (2008+2009) of 4.2 10$^{19}$ protons on target were delivered by the CNGS, producing more than 25,000 events in time coincidence in the OPERA detector. Among them \~4000 events occured in the target of the detector. In this paper the detector and the analysis strategy are described and the status of the analysis of the 2008 and 2009 runs is discussed.
OPERA first events from the CNGS neutrino beam
J. Marteau
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: The aim of the OPERA experiment is to search for the appearance of the tau neutrino in the quasi pure muon neutrino beam produced at CERN (CNGS). The detector, installed in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory 730 km away from CERN, consists of a lead/emulsion target complemented with electronic detectors. A report is given on the detector status (construction, data taking and analysis) and on the first successful 2006 neutrino runs.
Underestimating Calorie Content When Healthy Foods Are Present: An Averaging Effect or a Reference-Dependent Anchoring Effect?
Suzanna E. Forwood, Amy Ahern, Gareth J. Hollands, Paul C. Fletcher, Theresa M. Marteau
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071475
Abstract: Objective Previous studies have shown that estimations of the calorie content of an unhealthy main meal food tend to be lower when the food is shown alongside a healthy item (e.g. fruit or vegetables) than when shown alone. This effect has been called the negative calorie illusion and has been attributed to averaging the unhealthy (vice) and healthy (virtue) foods leading to increased perceived healthiness and reduced calorie estimates. The current study aimed to replicate and extend these findings to test the hypothesized mediating effect of ratings of healthiness of foods on calorie estimates. Methods In three online studies, participants were invited to make calorie estimates of combinations of foods. Healthiness ratings of the food were also assessed. Results The first two studies failed to replicate the negative calorie illusion. In a final study, the use of a reference food, closely following a procedure from a previously published study, did elicit a negative calorie illusion. No evidence was found for a mediating role of healthiness estimates. Conclusion The negative calorie illusion appears to be a function of the contrast between a food being judged and a reference, supporting the hypothesis that the negative calorie illusion arises from the use of a reference-dependent anchoring and adjustment heuristic and not from an ‘averaging’ effect, as initially proposed. This finding is consistent with existing data on sequential calorie estimates, and highlights a significant impact of the order in which foods are viewed on how foods are evaluated.
Choosing between an Apple and a Chocolate Bar: the Impact of Health and Taste Labels
Suzanna E. Forwood, Alexander D. Walker, Gareth J. Hollands, Theresa M. Marteau
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077500
Abstract: Increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables is a central component of improving population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest health is of lower importance than taste. This study assesses the impact of using a simple descriptive label to highlight the taste as opposed to the health value of fruit on the likelihood of its selection. Participants (N=439) were randomly allocated to one of five groups that varied in the label added to an apple: apple; healthy apple; succulent apple; healthy and succulent apple; succulent and healthy apple. The primary outcome measure was selection of either an apple or a chocolate bar as a dessert. Measures of the perceived qualities of the apple (taste, health, value, quality, satiety) and of participant characteristics (restraint, belief that tasty foods are unhealthy, BMI) were also taken. When compared with apple selection without any descriptor (50%), the labels combining both health and taste descriptors significantly increased selection of the apple (’healthy & succulent’ 65.9% and ‘succulent & healthy’ 62.4%), while the use of a single descriptor had no impact on the rate of apple selection (‘healthy’ 50.5% and ‘succulent’ 52%). The strongest predictors of individual dessert choice were the taste score given to the apple, and the lack of belief that healthy foods are not tasty. Interventions that emphasize the taste attributes of healthier foods are likely to be more effective at achieving healthier diets than those emphasizing health alone.
Neutrino-Oxygen interactions: role of nuclear physics in the atmospheric neutrino anomaly
J. Marteau,J. Delorme,M. Ericson
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: The apparent anomaly in the ratio of muon to electron atmospheric neutrinos first observed by Kamiokande and IMB has been confirmed by Super-Kamiokande and Soudan-2. The experimental analysis, including the asymmetry in the zenithal distributions of the $ \mu-\mathrm{type} $ events in Super-Kamiokande gives a strong support to the neutrino oscillation hypothesis to solve the anomaly. In this work we are interested by the role of nuclear physics in the neutrino-oxygen reactions used to detect the atmospheric neutrinos. We point out that multi-nucleon excitations of np-nh type and that nuclear correlations could modify an experimental analysis \`a la Super-Kamiokande because they lead to a substantial enhancement of the number of 1 \v{C}erenkov ring retained events.
Pion Scalar Density and Chiral Symmetry Restoration at Finite Temperature and Density
G. Chanfray,D. Davesne,J. Delorme,M. Ericson,J. Marteau
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1007/s100500070111
Abstract: This paper is devoted to the evaluation of the pionic scalar density at finite temperature and baryonic density. We express the latter effect in terms of the nuclear response evaluated in the random phase approxima- tion. We discuss the density and temperature evolution of the pionic density which governs the quark condensate evolution. Numerical evalua- tions are performed.
Correction: Emotional impact of screening: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Ruth E Collins, Laureen M Lopez, Theresa M Marteau
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-752
Abstract: We have now extracted the correct data from these two studies which resulted in revised pooled Standardised Mean Differences (SMDs). None of the conclusions reached in the uncorrected version of the paper has been revised in the light of these changes.We describe here the changes arising from this error as shown in corrected form in the accompanying revised Tables 1 and 2 and Figure 2.(i) The number of participants included has now been amended to reflect the altered data extracted from studies 25 and 30, altering this from 170,045 to 170,277 participants, as shown in Table 1 and Table 2.(ii) The SMDs from the meta-analyses have been recalculated resulting in changes to the pooled SMDs now shown in Figure 2 where corrections have been made to the data for sections (a) (b) and (d).(iii) The sensitivity analyses have been redone so that studies 25 and 30, in addition to study 26, were removed to assess the impact of measurements in the primary outcome being made in all those randomised to be screened regardless of whether or not they attended (as opposed to those randomised and who attended).The inclusion of the two further studies did not alter the outcome of this sensitivity analysis, which reveals no impact on the primary outcome.In making these changes we became aware of three other errors that had not been corrected at final draft stage of the publishing process. These are described below:(iv) In the abstract, we erroneously reported the number of studies assessing depression as four. It should be five.(v) Data from [25] were erroneously included in pooled estimates of short term anxiety and depression by screening test outcome.(vi) The references listed as including data from attenders and non attenders in the intervention arm should now read: [25,26,27 & 30] and the reference to those including only attenders should correctly read: [24,28,29,31-35].We regret any inconvenience that these corrections might have caused. We wish to thank Dr. Simon Griffin for bring
Emotional impact of screening: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Ruth E Collins, Laureen M Lopez, Theresa M Marteau
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-603
Abstract: Studies selected for inclusion were (a) randomised controlled trials in which (b) participants in one arm underwent screening and received test results, and those in a control arm did not, and (c) emotional outcomes were assessed in both arms. MEDLINE via PubMed (1950 to present), EMBASE (1980 to present), PsycINFO (1985 to present) using OVID SP, and CINAHL (1982 to present) via EBSCO were searched, using strategies developed with keywords and medical subject headings. Data were extracted on emotional outcomes, type of screening test and test results.Of the 12 studies that met the inclusion criteria, six involved screening for cancer, two for diabetes, and one each for abdominal aortic aneurysms, peptic ulcer, coronary heart disease and osteoporosis. Five studies reported data on anxiety, four on depression, two on general distress and eight on quality of life assessed between one week and 13 years after screening (median = 1.3 years).Meta-analyses revealed no significant impact of screening on longer term anxiety (pooled SMD 0.01, 95% CI -0.10, 0.11), depression (pooled SMD -0.04, 95% CI -.12, 0.20), or quality of life subscales (mental and self-assessed health pooled SMDs, respectively: 0.03; -0.01, (95% CI -.02, 0.04; 0.00, 95% CI -.04, 0.03).Screening does not appear to have adverse emotional impacts in the longer term (> 4 weeks). Too few studies assessed outcomes before four weeks to comment on the shorter term emotional impact of screening.Screening for disease and estimating disease risk using biomarkers such as cholesterol or blood pressure have formed a routine part of healthcare for over 50 years [1]. The term mass screening is often used when screening involves the examination of large populations or cohorts. The emotional impact of such screening was largely unquestioned until the publication of a paper presenting evidence of increased absenteeism following the detection of hypertension [2]. Since then there have been numerous reports of the emotional
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