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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 434608 matches for " J. D. Moore "
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Growth rates of stratospheric HCFC-22
D. P. Moore ,J. J. Remedios
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2008,
Abstract: The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding onboard ENVISAT (MIPAS-E) offers the opportunity to detect and spectrally resolve many atmospheric minor constituents affecting atmospheric chemistry. In this paper, we describe an algorithm produced to retrieve HCFC–22 profiles from MIPAS-E measurements made in 2003 and present results from this scheme between 300 and 50 mb. By comparison with ATMOS (AT–3) version 3 data, we find a mean Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude (20–50° N) HCFC–22 growth rate between 1994 and 2003 of 5.4±0.7 pptv/yr in the lower stratosphere (LS) and a mean LS Southern Hemisphere growth rate (60–80° S) of 6.0±0.7 pptv/yr in the same period. We test the feasibility of using a global data set to estimate the chemical lifetime of HCFC–22 in the LS and we derive this for two regions: 20–50° N (246±38 years) and 60–80° S (274±34 years). From these data we note a global LS lifetime of 260±25 years, significantly longer than previous estimates.
Seasonality of Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using the MIPAS-E instrument
D. P. Moore ,J. J. Remedios
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2010,
Abstract: The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding onboard ENVISAT (MIPAS–E) offers the opportunity to detect and spectrally resolve many atmospheric minor constituents affecting atmospheric chemistry. In this paper, we retrieve global, seasonal PAN volume mixing ratio (vmr) data from MIPAS-E measurements made in January, March, August and October 2003 and present results from this scheme between approximately 300 and 150 hPa. The total error on a single PAN retrieval is better than 20% outside the tropics and better than 50% in the tropics where uncertainties in water vapor dominate the total error budget. We observe clear differences in the seasonal cycle of PAN in our data, linked closely to biomass burning regions and growing seasons. Highest Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude PAN vmrs were observed in August (300–600 pptv on average) compared with the January and October data (less than 250 pptv on average). In the March 2003 data we observe highest PAN vmrs in the tropics with evidence of vmrs between 600 and 1000 pptv over Eastern Asia and over the Central Pacific at 333 hPa. The vertical distribution of PAN as a function of latitude (i.e. the zonal mean) highlights the strong inter-annual variability of PAN in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), most pronounced poleward of 40° N (up to 400 pptv over the year). The variability of PAN in the tropical UTLS is also significant and we derive a variability of up to 250 pptv in the averages between January and October 2003. These results represent the first seasonal observations of PAN in the UTLS.
Growth rates of stratospheric HCFC-22
D. P. Moore,J. J. Remedios
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding onboard ENVISAT (MIPAS-E) offers the opportunity to detect and spectrally resolve many atmospheric minor constituents affecting atmospheric chemistry. In this paper, we describe an algorithm produced to retrieve HCFC–22 profiles from MIPAS-E measurements made in 2003 and present results from this scheme between 300 and 50 mb. By comparison with ATMOS (AT–3) version 3 data, we find a mean Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude (20–50° N) HCFC–22 growth rate between 1994 and 2003 of 5.4±0.7 pptv/yr in the lower stratosphere (LS) and a mean LS Southern Hemisphere growth rate (60–80°S) of 6.0±0.7 pptv/yr in the same period. We test the feasibility of using a global data set to estimate the chemical lifetime of HCFC–22 in the LS and we derive this for two regions; 20–50° N (259±38 years) and 60–80° S (288±34 years). From these data we note a global LS lifetime of 274±25 years, significantly longer than previous estimates.
Seasonality of Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using the MIPAS-E instrument
D. P. Moore,J. J. Remedios
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding onboard ENVISAT (MIPAS-E) offers the opportunity to detect and spectrally resolve many atmospheric minor constituents affecting atmospheric chemistry. In this paper, we retrieve global, seasonal PAN volume mixing ratio (vmr) data from MIPAS-E measurements made in January, March, August and October 2003 and present results from this scheme between approximately 300 and 150 hPa. The total error on a single PAN retrieval is better than 20% outside the tropics and better than 50% in the tropics where uncertainties in water vapor dominate the total error budget. We observe clear differences in the seasonal cycle of PAN in our data, linked closely to biomass burning regions and growing seasons. Highest Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude PAN vmrs were observed in August (300–600 pptv on average) compared with the January and October data (less than 250 pptv on average). In the March 2003 data we observe highest PAN vmrs in the tropics with evidence of vmrs between 600 and 1000 pptv over Eastern Asia and over the Central Pacific at 333 hPa. The vertical distribution of PAN as a function of latitude (i.e. the zonal mean) highlights the strong inter-annual variability of PAN in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), most pronounced poleward of 40° N (up to 400 pptv over the year). The variability of PAN in the tropical UTLS is also significant and we derive a variability of up to 250 pptv in the averages between January and October 2003. These results represent the first seasonal observations of PAN in the UTLS.
Examination of Systematic Errors in Abundances Derived From Nebular Spectra
Brian D. Moore,Reginald J. Dufour
Revista mexicana de astronomía y astrofísica , 2005,
Abstract:
Edge Excitations of the $ν= 2/3$ Spin-Singlet Quantum Hall State
J. E. Moore,F. D. M. Haldane
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.55.7818
Abstract: The spectrum of edge excitations is derived for the spin-unpolarized $\nu = 2$ and $\nu = 2/3$ FQHE. Numerical diagonalization of a system of six electrons on a disc confirms that the edge $\nu = 2/3$ spin-singlet FQHE state consists of oppositely directed spin and charge branches on the same physical edge. The highly correlated $\nu = 2/3$ singlet edge is shown to have the same spin branch as the $\nu = 2$ singlet edge, providing evidence that the same $SU(2)_{k = 1}$ Kac-Moody algebra describes all unmixed spin branches. The spin and charge branches of the singlet state at $\nu = 2/3$ are less coupled than the two branches of the spin-polarized state at the same filling factor, suggesting that the conductance along an edge may increase sharply across the polarized-unpolarized transition.
Supersymmetric Electroweak Phase Transition: Baryogenesis versus Experimental Constraints
J. M. Cline,G. D. Moore
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.3315
Abstract: We use the two loop effective potential to study the first order electroweak phase transition in the minimial supersymmetric standard model. A global search of the parameter space is made to identify parameters compatible with electroweak baryogenesis. We improve on previous such studies by fully incorporating squark and Higgs boson mixing, by using the latest experimental constraints, and by computing the latent heat and the sphaleron rate. We find the constraints tan beta > 2.1, top squark mass < 172 GeV, and Higgs mass < 107 GeV (becoming more or less restrictive if the heavy stop has mass less than or greater than 1 TeV). We also find that the change in tan beta in the bubble wall is rarely greater than 0.001, which severely constrains the mechanism of baryogenesis.
Global distributions of acetone in the upper troposphere from MIPAS spectra
D. P. Moore, J. J. Remedios,A. M. Waterfall
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2012,
Abstract: This study reports the first global measurements of acetone (C3H6O) in the upper troposphere (UT). Profiles were obtained between 9 km and 15 km from measurements made by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) onboard Envisat in August 2003. Errors per profile are lower than 40 % between 180 hPa and 350 hPa. We report strong hemispheric differences in the acetone volume mixing ratios (VMRs), with average concentrations highest in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) mid-latitude UT, between 1000 pptv and 1600 pptv with maxima up to 2300 pptv. Our results show a strong enhancement of acetone relative to CO, particularly over Europe (7 pptv ppbv 1), confirming aircraft studies. Ten-day backward trajectories from these high European values show strong contributions from air flows over North America (56 %) and 25 % from Southernmost Asia. Enhanced acetone is also observed over Greenland, Siberia and biomass burning regions of Africa. Zonal distributions show that acetone VMRs decrease rapidly with increasing altitude (decreasing pressure), particularly in the NH. Poleward of 45° S, acetone VMRs remain fairly consistent with average VMRs between 400 pptv and 500 pptv. In 5-day averages at 9 km, NH VMRs poleward of 45° N are consistently higher than Southern Hemisphere observations poleward of 45° S, by between 750 pptv and 1100 pptv. The results show a clear influence of mid-latitude and transport processes on the acetone summertime distribution.
Accuracy of rainfall measurement for scales of hydrological interest
S. J. Wood,D. A. Jones,R. J. Moore
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2000,
Abstract: The dense network of 49 raingauges over the 135 km2 Brue catchment in Somerset, England is used to examine the accuracy of rainfall estimates obtained from raingauges and from weather radar. Methods for data quality control and classification of precipitation types are first described. A super-dense network comprising eight gauges within a 2 km grid square is employed to obtain a 'true value' of rainfall against which the 2 km radar grid and a single 'typical gauge' estimate can be compared. Accuracy is assessed as a function of rainfall intensity, for different periods of time-integration (15 minutes, 1 hour and 1 day) and for two 8-gauge networks in areas of low and high relief. In a similar way, the catchment gauge network is used to provide the 'true catchment rainfall' and the accuracy of a radar estimate (an area-weighted average of radar pixel values) and a single 'typical gauge' estimate of catchment rainfall evaluated as a function of rainfall intensity. A single gauge gives a standard error of estimate for rainfall in a 2 km square and over the catchment of 33% and 65% respectively, at rain rates of 4 mm in 15 minutes. Radar data at 2 km resolution give corresponding errors of 50% and 55%. This illustrates the benefit of using radar when estimating catchment scale rainfall. A companion paper (Wood et al., 2000) considers the accuracy of rainfall estimates obtained using raingauge and radar in combination. Keywords: rainfall, accuracy, raingauge, radar
Static and dynamic calibration of radar data for hydrological use
S. J. Wood,D. A. Jones,R. J. Moore
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2000,
Abstract: The HYREX dense raingauge network over the Brue catchment in Somerset, England is used to explore the accuracy of calibrated (raingauge-adjusted) weather radar data. Calibration is restricted to the use of any single gauge within the catchment so as to simulate the conditions in a typical rainfall monitoring network. Combination of a single gauge and a radar estimate is used to obtain calibrated radar estimates, with the 'calibration factor' varying dynamically from one time-frame to the next. Comparing this dynamic calibration with a static (long-term) calibration factor indicates the distance from a gauge over which the dynamic calibration is useful. A tapered calibration factor is implemented which behaves in the same way as the raw dynamic calibration at short distances, tending towards the static calibration factor at larger distances. This hybrid approach outperforms raingauge, uncalibrated radar, and statically-calibrated radar estimates of rainfall for the majority of raingauges in the catchment. The results provide valuable guidance on the density of raingauge network to employ in combination with a weather radar for flood estimation and forecasting. Keywords: radar, raingauge, calibration, rainfall, accuracy
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