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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 297510 matches for " J. Cripps "
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The influence of IMF By on the nature of the nightside high-latitude ionospheric flow during intervals of positive IMF Bz
A. Grocott, S. V. Badman, S. W. H. Cowley, T. K. Yeoman,P. J. Cripps
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2004,
Abstract: This paper further addresses the issue of nightside flow bursts which occur during intervals of northward but strongly BY-influenced IMF. Recent discussions of such bursts concerned intervals during which the IMF BY component was negative. The present study concerns an interval of BY-positive IMF which occurred on 20 March 2002 (01:00-12:00UT). During the interval BY increased steadily from ~2 to 12nT, whilst the BZ component decreased steadily from ~10 to 0nT. There was thus a ~6-h sub-interval during which the IMF clock angle remained between 30° and 60°, such that moderate dayside reconnection and open flux production was maintained. It is found that flow bursts of a similar size and speed to those observed under BY negative (~1000m s-1, spanning 2-3h of MLT in the midnight sector) also occur when BY is positive. However, the direction of east-west flow is reversed, indicating that they are driven by processes in the magnetosphere which are directly related to the orientation of the IMF. It is suggested that they are caused by a reconfiguration of an asymmetric tail resulting from prolonged dayside reconnection with a BY-dominated IMF. This is consistent with previous suggestions that they are associated with convective transport following reconnection in the more distant tail. Analysis of ground magnetic data, auroral images and geosynchronous particle data also show associated features, but indicate that the flow bursts are not directly associated with substorms. Key words. Ionosphere (plasma convection; ionospheremagnetosphere interactions) – Magnetospheric Physics (magnetotail)
A blinded randomised controlled trial to determine the effect of enteric coating on enzyme treatment for canine exocrine pancreatic insufficiency
Aran Mas, Peter-John M Noble, Peter J Cripps, Daniel J Batchelor, Peter Graham, Alexander J German
BMC Veterinary Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-8-127
Abstract: Thirty-eight client-owned dogs with naturally occurring EPI were included in this multicentre, blinded, randomised controlled trial. Dogs received either an enteric-coated enzyme preparation (test treatment) or an identical preparation without the enteric coating (control treatment) over a period of 56 days.There were no significant differences in either signalment or cobalamin status (where cobalamin deficient or not) between the dogs on the test and control treatments. Body weight and body condition score increased in both groups during the trial (P<0.001) but the magnitude of increase was greater for the test treatment compared with the control treatment (P<0.001). By day 56, mean body weight increase was 17% (95% confidence interval 11-23%) in the test treatment group and 9% (95% confidence interval 4-15%) in the control treatment group. The dose of enzyme required increased over time (P<0.001) but there was no significant difference between treatments at any time point (P=0.225). Clinical disease severity score decreased over time for both groups (P=0.011) and no difference was noted between groups (P=0.869). No significant adverse effects were reported, for either treatment, for the duration of the trial.Enteric coating a pancreatic enzyme treatment improves response in canine EPI.Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is a common condition in dogs, resulting from inadequate functional reserve of pancreatic acinar tissue [1]. The most common cause of EPI is pancreatic acinar atrophy, although other causes have been reported, including chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic neoplasia and (possibly) congenital hypoplasia. Clinical signs only develop when a critical mass (e.g. >90%) of exocrine tissue has been lost, and result from maldigestion and subsequent malabsorption.Clinical management usually involves enzyme replacement therapy with the addition of dietary modification (e.g. highly digestible diet) and ancillary therapies (e.g. antibacterials) if response to e
Bayesian Non-Parametric Mixtures of GARCH(1,1) Models
John W. Lau,Ed Cripps
Journal of Probability and Statistics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/167431
Abstract: Traditional GARCH models describe volatility levels that evolve smoothly over time, generated by a single GARCH regime. However, nonstationary time series data may exhibit abrupt changes in volatility, suggesting changes in the underlying GARCH regimes. Further, the number and times of regime changes are not always obvious. This article outlines a nonparametric mixture of GARCH models that is able to estimate the number and time of volatility regime changes by mixing over the Poisson-Kingman process. The process is a generalisation of the Dirichlet process typically used in nonparametric models for time-dependent data provides a richer clustering structure, and its application to time series data is novel. Inference is Bayesian, and a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to explore the posterior distribution is described. The methodology is illustrated on the Standard and Poor's 500 financial index.
Checklist and Ecology of the Agaricales, Russulales and Boletales in the alpine zone of the Rocky Mountains (Colorado, Montana, Wyoming) at 3000-4000 m a.s.l.
C. L. Cripps , E. Horak
Sommerfeltia , 2008, DOI: 10.2478/v10208-011-0005-5
Abstract: Previously, the Rocky Mountain alpine zone was a mycological blank spot. There have only been a few scattered records of macrofungi from this region and limited number of publications. This alpine survey covers the Beartooth Plateau in Montana/Wyoming for the North-central Floristic Region (lat 45°N) and the Front Range, San Juan Mountains, Sawatch Range for the Southern Floristic Region in Colorado (lat 36°-38°N), and reports over 165 species in 46 genera and 11 families (ca 1 500 collections). It is estimated that over 75% are known arctic-alpine macromycetes and the remainder are Rocky Mountain species. Of these, we estimate that 2-5% are new to science, 75% are new records for this Rocky Mountain alpine zone, and that over half will be new to Colorado or Montana/Wyoming. Approximately 56% are mycorrhizal species associated with Salix reticulata, S. arctica, S. planifolia, S. glauca, Betula nana = B. glandulosa, Dryas octopetala and Polygonum viviparum. Mycorrhizal species that occur with Betula are rare in the Rockies due to a paucity of this host. The most diverse mycorrhizal family is the Cortinariaceae with over 74 species, primarily of Inocybe and Cortinarius. Saprobic genera associate with a diversity of bryophytes or are terrestrial primarily in grassland; macrofungi on woody debris are rare. A greater diversity occurs in southern mountain ranges which are more diverse in geology and habitat. The southern extent of the Rockies at latitudes of 36-38°N likely includes the southernmost extent of certain Arctic-alpine fungi such as Arrhenia auriscalpium for the Northern hemisphere. Macrofungal fruitings are sparse compared to those in maritime arctic-alpine habitats due to a well-defined continental climate with drying winds, low relative humidity, periodic droughts, fire, strong diurnal temperature fluctuations and high elevations of 3 000-4 000 m. This report helps complete distributions of arctic-alpine fungi, and discusses the ecology of individual taxonomic groups in relation to other Arctic-alpine areas.
Haemophilus influenzae and smoking-related obstructive airways disease
Otczyk DC, Clancy RL, Cripps AW
International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S19359
Abstract: emophilus influenzae and smoking-related obstructive airways disease Original Research (3546) Total Article Views Authors: Otczyk DC, Clancy RL, Cripps AW Published Date June 2011 Volume 2011:6 Pages 345 - 351 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S19359 Diana C Otczyk1, Robert L Clancy2, Allan W Cripps1 1School of Medicine, Griffith Health Institute, Griffith Health, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia; 2Immunology Unit, Hunter Area Pathology Service and University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia Background: Intralumenal bacteria play a critical role in the pathogenesis of acute infective episodes and airway inflammation. Antigens from colonizing bacteria such as nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) may contribute to chronic lung disease through an immediate hypersensitivity response. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of specific NTHi-IgE antibodies in subjects with chronic bronchitis (CB) and COPD who had smoked. Methods: Serum, sputum, and saliva samples were collected from subjects with CB and moderate–severe COPD and healthy aged-matched controls. Total IgE and specific NTHi IgE were measured by enzyme linked immmunosorbent assay. Throat swabs were examined for the presence of NTHi. Results: The results demonstrate that: i) specific NTHi IgE antibodies occur at a low level in healthy subjects; ii) those with both CB and moderate–severe COPD have elevated specific NTHi IgE antibody compared with healthy controls, with higher levels in those with most severe disease; iii) IgE levels are greater in those with moderate–severe COPD than in those with CB. They demonstrate specific NTHi IgE antibody is regularly found at higher than normal levels in COPD. Conclusion: The detection of IgE antibody to colonizing bacteria in all subjects with CB or moderate–severe COPD identifies a possible mechanism of bronchospasm in these subjects amenable to specific intervention therapy.
Plant pathogens as biocontrol agents for Cirsium arvense – an answer to Müller and Nentwig
Michael Cripps,Graeme Bourdot,Karen Bailey
NeoBiota , 2012, DOI: 10.3897/neobiota.13.3137
Abstract: /none/
Haemophilus influenzae and smoking-related obstructive airways disease
Otczyk DC,Clancy RL,Cripps AW
International Journal of COPD , 2011,
Abstract: Diana C Otczyk1, Robert L Clancy2, Allan W Cripps11School of Medicine, Griffith Health Institute, Griffith Health, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia; 2Immunology Unit, Hunter Area Pathology Service and University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, AustraliaBackground: Intralumenal bacteria play a critical role in the pathogenesis of acute infective episodes and airway inflammation. Antigens from colonizing bacteria such as nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) may contribute to chronic lung disease through an immediate hypersensitivity response. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of specific NTHi-IgE antibodies in subjects with chronic bronchitis (CB) and COPD who had smoked.Methods: Serum, sputum, and saliva samples were collected from subjects with CB and moderate–severe COPD and healthy aged-matched controls. Total IgE and specific NTHi IgE were measured by enzyme linked immmunosorbent assay. Throat swabs were examined for the presence of NTHi.Results: The results demonstrate that: i) specific NTHi IgE antibodies occur at a low level in healthy subjects; ii) those with both CB and moderate–severe COPD have elevated specific NTHi IgE antibody compared with healthy controls, with higher levels in those with most severe disease; iii) IgE levels are greater in those with moderate–severe COPD than in those with CB. They demonstrate specific NTHi IgE antibody is regularly found at higher than normal levels in COPD.Conclusion: The detection of IgE antibody to colonizing bacteria in all subjects with CB or moderate–severe COPD identifies a possible mechanism of bronchospasm in these subjects amenable to specific intervention therapy.Keywords: nontypeable Haemophilus influenza, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, IgE, smoking
Ocean Acidification Affects Prey Detection by a Predatory Reef Fish
Ingrid L. Cripps, Philip L. Munday, Mark I. McCormick
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022736
Abstract: Changes in olfactory-mediated behaviour caused by elevated CO2 levels in the ocean could affect recruitment to reef fish populations because larval fish become more vulnerable to predation. However, it is currently unclear how elevated CO2 will impact the other key part of the predator-prey interaction – the predators. We investigated the effects of elevated CO2 and reduced pH on olfactory preferences, activity levels and feeding behaviour of a common coral reef meso-predator, the brown dottyback (Pseudochromis fuscus). Predators were exposed to either current-day CO2 levels or one of two elevated CO2 levels (~600 μatm or ~950 μatm) that may occur by 2100 according to climate change predictions. Exposure to elevated CO2 and reduced pH caused a shift from preference to avoidance of the smell of injured prey, with CO2 treated predators spending approximately 20% less time in a water stream containing prey odour compared with controls. Furthermore, activity levels of fish was higher in the high CO2 treatment and feeding activity was lower for fish in the mid CO2 treatment; indicating that future conditions may potentially reduce the ability of the fish to respond rapidly to fluctuations in food availability. Elevated activity levels of predators in the high CO2 treatment, however, may compensate for reduced olfactory ability, as greater movement facilitated visual detection of food. Our findings show that, at least for the species tested to date, both parties in the predator-prey relationship may be affected by ocean acidification. Although impairment of olfactory-mediated behaviour of predators might reduce the risk of predation for larval fishes, the magnitude of the observed effects of elevated CO2 acidification appear to be more dramatic for prey compared to predators. Thus, it is unlikely that the altered behaviour of predators is sufficient to fully compensate for the effects of ocean acidification on prey mortality.
Developmental Profiles of Mucosal Immunity in Pre-school Children
Patricia Ewing,Diana C. Otczyk,Stefano Occhipinti,Jennelle M. Kyd,Maree Gleeson,Allan W. Cripps
Clinical and Developmental Immunology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/196785
Abstract: This study investigated the effect of attending pre-school on mucosal immunity. Children 3.5 to 5 years of age who attended pre-school were observed for a 10 month period. Demographic information was collected on previous childcare experiences, the home environment and clinical information relating to the child and the family. A daily illness log was kept for each child. A multivariate longitudinal analysis of the relation between immunoglobulins in saliva and age, gender, childcare experience, pre-school exposure, number of siblings, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), atopy and hospitalisation was conducted. There was a positive association of higher IgA levels with the winter season and with children being older than 4 years (<.001), having attended childcare prior to commencing pre-school (<.05), and having been exposed to ETS at home (<.05). Lower IgA levels were associated with being atopic (<.05). Higher IgG levels were associated with exposure to ETS (<.001), while lower levels were associated to having atopy. Higher IgM levels were associated with previous childcare experience (<.01) whilst having been hospitalised was associated with having low salivary IgM levels (<.01). Lagged analyses demonstrated that immunological parameters were affected by the number of respiratory infections in the preceding 2 months.
Epithelial Cell Coculture Models for Studying Infectious Diseases: Benefits and Limitations
Benjamin L. Duell,Allan W. Cripps,Mark A. Schembri,Glen C. Ulett
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/852419
Abstract: Countless in vitro cell culture models based on the use of epithelial cell types of single lineages have been characterized and have provided insight into the mechanisms of infection for various microbial pathogens. Diverse culture models based on disease-relevant mucosal epithelial cell types derived from gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and pulmonary organ systems have delineated many key host-pathogen interactions that underlie viral, parasitic, and bacterial disease pathogenesis. An alternative to single lineage epithelial cell monoculture, which offers more flexibility and can overcome some of the limitations of epithelial cell culture models based on only single cell types, is coculture of epithelial cells with other host cell types. Various coculture models have been described, which incorporate epithelial cell types in culture combination with a wide range of other cell types including neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes. This paper will summarize current models of epithelial cell coculture and will discuss the benefits and limitations of epithelial cell coculture for studying host-pathogen dynamics in infectious diseases.
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