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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 298019 matches for " J. Coleman "
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Book Review: "English Dictionaries 800–1700: The Topical Tradition" And "A History of Roget's Thesaurus: Origins, Development, and Design."
J Coleman
Lexikos , 2006,
Abstract: Werner Hüllen. English Dictionaries 800–1700: The Topical Tradition. 1999, 525 pp. ISBN 0-19-823796-0. Oxford: Clarendon. Werner Hüllen. A History of Roget's Thesaurus: Origins, Development, and Design. 2004, 410 pp. ISBN 0-19-925472-9. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
The PB1-F2 protein of Influenza A virus: increasing pathogenicity by disrupting alveolar macrophages
J Robert Coleman
Virology Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-4-9
Abstract: An intrinsic property of all viruses is their need to either subvert and/or subdue the host immune response to establish a productive replication cycle. The mechanism by which this avoidance proceeds is greatly varied throughout the phyla of viruses; however either must occur in order for a virus to spread and propagate. The enhancement of this ability to subvert and disable host immunity is directly correlated to increased viral pathogenicity in the host [3]. For example the 3C viral protease of Poliovirus cleaves the p65-RelA subunit of NF-κB, a transcription factor involved in the cellular innate immune response [4]. Another human pathogen, Influenza A virus, has many well-elucidated mechanisms used to avoid both the innate and adaptive human immune responses. Since the current concern over the possible emergence of an Influenza A virus pandemic has arisen, Influenza A virus's mechanisms of evasion are of great significance. The main culprit of evasion on the cellular level is the NS1 protein, which is responsible for inactivation of the host innate immune response by preventing activation of PKR from INF-α/β signaling, thus allowing replication and viral protein synthesis to proceed unabated in the host cell [5]. Additionally, Influenza A virus has the ability to escape the host's humoral immunity by a phenomenon known as antigenic drift. This mutation driven phenomena produces changes both in amino acids and glycosylation patterns of the two virus envelope glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) [6]. This concept of antigenic drift is significant because it contributes to the continued, seasonal pathogenicity associated with epidemic Influenza A virus, i.e. the need for a new flu vaccine each year. Since Influenza manipulates and creates new antigenic determinates via mutations, the human population becomes steadily immunologically inept, where by circulating antibodies are incapable of, or have a reduced capacity to, neutralize a repeat infect
A multi-spacecraft survey of magnetic field line draping in the dayside magnetosheath
I. J. Coleman
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2005,
Abstract: When the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) encounters the Earth's magnetosphere, it is compressed and distorted. This distortion is known as draping, and plays an important role in the interaction between the IMF and the geomagnetic field. This paper considers a particular aspect of draping, namely how the orientation of the IMF in a plane perpendicular to the Sun-Earth line (the clock angle) is altered by draping in the magnetosheath close to the dayside magnetopause. The clock angle of the magnetosheath field is commonly estimated from the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) measured by upstream monitoring spacecraft either by assuming that the draping process does not significantly alter the clock angle ("perfect draping") or that the change in clock angle is reasonably approximated by a gas dynamic model. In this paper, the magnetosheath clock angles measured during 36 crossings of the magnetopause by the Geotail and Interball-Tail spacecraft are compared to the upstream IMF clock angles measured by the Wind spacecraft. Overall, about 30% of data points exhibit perfect draping within ±10°, and 70% are within 30°. The differences between the IMF and magnetosheath clock angles are not, in general, well-ordered in any systematic fashion which could be accounted for by hydrodynamic draping. The draping behaviour is asymmetric with respect to the y-component of the IMF, and the form of the draping distribution function is dependent on solar wind pressure. While the average clock angle observed in the magnetosheath does reflect the orientation of the IMF to within ~30° or less, the assumption that the magnetosheath field direction at any particular region of the magnetopause at any instant is approximately similar to the IMF direction is not justified. This study shows that reconnection models which assume laminar draping are unlikely to accurately reflect the distribution of reconnection sites across the dayside magnetopause.
Thermal currents in highly correlated systems
J. Moreno,P. Coleman
Physics , 1996,
Abstract: Conventional approaches to thermal conductivity in itinerant systems neglect the contribution to thermal current due to interactions. We derive this contribution to the thermal current and show how it produces important corrections to the thermal conductivity in anisotropic superconductors. We discuss the possible relevance of these corrections for the interpretation of the thermal conductivity of anisotropic superconductors.
Ultrasound attenuation in gap-anisotropic systems
J. Moreno,P. Coleman
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.53.R2995
Abstract: Transverse ultrasound attenuation provides a weakly-coupled probe of momentum current correlations in electronic systems. We develop a simple theory for the interpretation of transverse ultrasound attenuation coefficients in systems with nodal gap anisotropy. Applying this theory we show how ultrasound can delineate between extended-s and d-wave scenarios for the cuprate superconductors.
LiV$_2$O$_4$: frustration induced heavy fermion metal
J. Hopkinson,P. Coleman
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.89.267201
Abstract: We propose a two-stage spin quenching scenario for the unusual heavy fermion state realized in the mixed valent metal LiV$_2$O$_4$. In this theory, local valence fluctuations are responsible for the formation of partially quenched, spin 1/2 moments below room temperature. Frustration of the intersite spin couplings then drives the system to produce the heavy Fermi liquid seen at low temperatures. The anomalous resistivity and the sign change of the Hall constant can be understood naturally within this model, which also predicts a unique symmetry for the heavy quasiparticle bands that may be observed in de Haas-van Alphen experiments.
Susy atomic model
J. Hopkinson,P. Coleman
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: We present the simplest model to which one can apply the supersymmetric Hubbard operators recently introduced. For the atomic model, $H=-E_d X_{00}$, where $X_{00} = |0><0|$ is a Hubbard operator and $E_d$ is the energy of the localized spin level, we show how one can develop exact solutions for the entropy and heat capacity as a function of temperature. With this gold standard we are able to develop a controlled approximation scheme to field theoretically treat the susy approximation at the level of mean field + gaussian corrections and test its accuracy against the widely used slave boson and slave fermion approximations. We find that in addition to slave boson and slave fermion solutions, a new class of solutions exists in the physical case Q = 1, N = 2 which can be properly treated by neither previously existing approach. The phase diagram generated by the mean field saddle-point bears a superficial resemblance to the V-shaped phase diagram common to systems close to a quantum critical point and may provide a natural starting point for investigations of strongly correlated models capturing this physics.
LiV2O4: evidence for two-stage screening
J. Hopkinson,P. Coleman
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1016/S0921-4526(01)01477-6
Abstract: LiV2O4, a frustrated mixed valent metal (d^1 <-> d^2), is argued to undergo two spin-screening processes. The first quenches the effective spin to produce the spin 1/2 behavior seen below room temperature[1], while the second produces the heavy fermi liquid character seen at low temperatures[2]. We present here a preliminary discussion of a t-J model with strong Hund's coupling of the strongly correlated d-electrons. Valence fluctuations of the Hubbard operators (S = {1/2} <-> 1) combined with the frustration of the underlying corner-shared tetrahedral vanadium lattice are the essential components of our model.
Efflux in Fungi: La Pièce de Résistance
Jeffrey J. Coleman,Eleftherios Mylonakis
PLOS Pathogens , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000486
Abstract: Pathogens must be able to overcome both host defenses and antimicrobial treatment in order to successfully infect and maintain colonization of the host. One way fungi accomplish this feat and overcome intercellular toxin accumulation is efflux pumps, in particular ATP-binding cassette transporters and transporters of the major facilitator superfamily. Members of these two superfamilies remove many toxic compounds by coupling transport with ATP hydrolysis or a proton gradient, respectively. Fungal genomes encode a plethora of members of these families of transporters compared to other organisms. In this review we discuss the role these two fungal superfamilies of transporters play in virulence and resistance to antifungal agents. These efflux transporters are responsible not only for export of compounds involved in pathogenesis such as secondary metabolites, but also export of host-derived antimicrobial compounds. In addition, we examine the current knowledge of these transporters in resistance of pathogens to clinically relevant antifungal agents.
Extracorporeal life support for status asthmaticus: the breath of life that's often forgotten
Nana Coleman, Heidi J Dalton
Critical Care , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/cc7757
Abstract: The Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry reports 64 uses of ECLS during the period from 1986 to 2007, including 13 patients from Children's Healthcare of Atlanta at Egleston, as presented by Hebbar and coworkers [1] in their discussion of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) for refractory severe status asthmaticus (SSA). Overall survival was 100% in the Egleston cohort and 92% in the remaining 51 patients reported in the ELSO registry. It is of interest to note that all of the 13 survivors from the Egleston series had no reported neurological sequelae. This outcome is comparable to the 6% incidence of neurological complications (seizure and intracranial hemorrhage) observed in the larger group; however, in neither group were neurological sequelae correlated with overall outcome.The observed characteristics of patients receiving ECLS for SSA was similar between the two groups. In general, patients who received ECLS had a median age of 10 years; before ECLS they had a serum pH of less than 7.0, an arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) above 120 torr, and an arterial oxygen tension above 50 torr. The percentage of patients in whom venovenous (VV) cannulation was used was higher in the Egleston group than in the ELSO group (92% versus 82%), but over time more patients underwent VV cannulation. Despite these demographic characteristics, there were no statistically significant differences in survival and outcome between the two groups.Although previous studies [2,3] have considered outcomes for ECLS for status asthmaticus in adults, the work of Hebbar and coworkers [1] is the first to discuss pediatric outcomes comprehensively. In our opinion, the clinical outcomes observed in both the Egleston and the larger ELSO series support the early use of ECLS in status asthmaticus, and moreover they highlight the need to define clinical parameters that should prompt strong consideration of ECLS. We advocate a system that first identifies patients at high risk
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