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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 298067 matches for " J. Caro "
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Implementing Some Simple Strategies to Enhance Learners’ Listening Skills
John J. CARO
Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie Multidimensionala , 2013,
Abstract: This action research was carried out with an intermediate EFL class of 37 students (19 women and 18 men) at a prestigious public university of a major city in Ecuador. After I gave them the first quiz, I noticed that most of the class performed very poorly on the listening part. I decided to find out what the problem was and what I could do to help my students to improve their listening skills. When I asked the class why they thought they did badly on the listening they came up with different reasons: “The conversations were too difficult; they were confusing; people spoke too quickly; some of the vocabulary words in the conversations were new to us”. None of my students were aware of their lack of effective listening strategies. I told my learners I would give them some listening strategies that might help them improve their listening skills. I saw this problem like an opportunity to carry out an action research project to help my students to enhance their listening skills through the implementation of some simple listening strategies such as listening for gist (the main idea); listening for specific information (details); and avoiding being distracted by certain information that was mentioned in the conversations, but that did not pertain to the people or situation stated in the question. The students took 5 more quizzes after the first one and according to the results, their scores on the listening section improved significantly.
Impediments to mixing classical and quantum dynamics
J. Caro,L. L. Salcedo
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.60.842
Abstract: The dynamics of systems composed of a classical sector plus a quantum sector is studied. We show that, even in the simplest cases, (i) the existence of a consistent canonical description for such mixed systems is incompatible with very basic requirements related to the time evolution of the two sectors when they are decoupled. (ii) The classical sector cannot inherit quantum fluctuations from the quantum sector. And, (iii) a coupling among the two sectors is incompatible with the requirement of physical positivity of the theory, i.e., there would be positive observables with a non positive expectation value.
Current-induced magnetization changes in a spin valve due to incoherent emission of non-equilibrium magnons
V. I. Kozub,J. Caro
Physics , 2004,
Abstract: We describe spin transfer in a ferromagnet/normal metal/ferromagnet spin-valve point contact. Spin is transferred from the spin-polarized device current to the magnetization of the free layer by the mechanism of incoherent magnon emission by electrons. Our approach is based on the rate equation for the magnon occupation, using Fermi's golden rule for magnon emission and absorption and the non-equilibrium electron distribution for a biased spin valve. The magnon emission reduces the magnetization of the free layer. For anti-parallel alignment of the magnetizations of the layers and at a critical bias a magnon avalanche occurs, characterized by a diverging effective magnon temperature. This critical behavior can result in magnetization reversal and consequently to suppression of magnon emission. However, magnon-magnon scattering can lead to saturation of the magnon concentration at a large but finite value. The further behavior depends on the parameters of the system. In particular, gradual evolution of the magnon concentration followed by a magnetization reversal is possible. Another scenario corresponds to a step-like increase of the magnon concentration followed by a slow decrease. In the latter case a spike in the differential resistance is expected due to a contribution of electron-magnon scattering. A comparison of the obtained results to existing experimental data and theoretical approches is given.
Hospitalization for pertussis: profiles and case costs by age
Judith A O'Brien, J Jaime Caro
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-5-57
Abstract: ICD-9 codes (033.0, 033.9) were used to identify cases of pertussis in hospital discharge databases from roughly 1,000 US hospitals in 4 states (California, Florida, Maryland, Massachusetts). Data from 1996–1999 were examined by age group. Separate analyses were done for infants (<1 year) and children (1–11 years); however, adolescent and adult cases were combined into one group (12+ years), due to the small number of cases. Databases were used to determine demographics, health service utilization and care costs. Cost estimates include accommodations, ancillary and physician services, reported in 2002 US$.Of the 2,518 cases identified, 90% were infants. The inpatient case fatality rate was <1%. Of survivors, 99% were discharged home (6% with home health care); 1% required further sub-acute inpatient care. For the 2,266 infants, the mean LOS was 6 days at a cost of $9,586 per stay. Children (n = 191) had a mean LOS of 3.7 and cost of $4,729; adolescents/adults (n = 61, mean age 40 years) stayed on average 3.4 days with a cost of $5,683 per hospitalization.Infants are responsible for the bulk of hospitalizations and generate higher inpatient costs. Costly hospital care occurs, however, in patients with pertussis at all ages.Bordetella pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory illness that can have serious clinical consequences. It is endemic in the United States (US) and every 3 – 5 years an outbreak occurs [1]. It is most commonly thought of as a childhood disease, not ranking high on the list of differential diagnoses for adolescents or adults presenting with respiratory symptoms. While this may be understandable as the reported incidence of pertussis declined by 99.6% between the mid-1930s to 1970s [2] due to effective childhood vaccination programs, clinicians need to be aware that pertussis continues to be a problem that is on the rise. Since the late 1980s, the incidence of reported pertussis has been increasing in most age groups in the US, particularly amon
Crecimiento de películas delgadas de membranas de conducción iónica mediante la técnica PIMOCVD
García, G.,Caro, J.,Santiso, J.,Pardo, J. A.
Boletín de la Sociedad Espa?ola de Cerámica y Vidrio , 2004,
Abstract: In this work, we describe the preparation of YSZ layers on porous and non-porous substrates using the Pulsed Injection MOCVD technique for solid electrolyte applications. In this technique, the vapour phase is obtained by injecting micro-droplets of the desired solution delivered from a container kept at room temperature into a heated evaporator connected to a deposition chamber. The droplet characteristics, volume, precursor concentration and injection frequency will control and determine the thickness and the microstructure of the layers. The system offers a high degree of repeatability of the liquid volume injected and thus a high reproducibility of the layers from low to high growth rates. This process has been optimised in order to obtain dense YSZ membranes to be used as solid electrolytes in SOFC, oxygen generators and oxygen sensors. Future work will consist in the preparation of anode-electrolyte-cathode multilayered devices. For this purpose, experimental parameters have been studied and optimised in order to obtain thin YSZ membranes on dense and porous substrates. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados preliminares sobre películas delgadas de YSZ obtenidas mediante la nueva técnica de MOCVD de inyección pulsada para su aplicación como electrolitos sólidos. La originalidad de esta técnica consiste en la preparación e introducción de la fase vapor que se realiza mediante la inyección pulsada de micro-gotas de la solución líquida, que contiene los precursores de los elementos a depositar, dentro de la zona de reacción. Las características de la gota: tama o, concentración de la solución y frecuencia de inyección determinan el espesor y la micro-estructura de las capas obtenidas. Este método, además de muy reproducible, permite obtener fácilmente estructuras multicapas con bajos ritmos de crecimiento para epitaxias o con altos ritmos de crecimiento para la obtención de heteroestructuras. Se ha puesto a punto esta técnica para la obtención de capas densas de YSZ (circona estabilizada con itria), material comúnmente utilizado como electrolito sólido de alta temperatura en sondas de oxígeno, generadores de oxígeno y SOFC (pilas de combustible de estado sólido). Se pretende obtener dichos dispositivos en forma de multicapas del tipo ánodo/electrolito/cátodo. Para ello, se han depositado capas de YSZ sobre silicio para optimizar los parámetros de depósito pero también sobre sustratos porosos activos que puedan actuar como electrodo en los dispositivos anteriormente descritos.
Health and economic impact of combining metformin with nateglinide to achieve glycemic control: Comparison of the lifetime costs of complications in the U.K
Alexandra J Ward, Maribel Salas, J Jaime Caro, David Owens
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1478-7547-2-2
Abstract: An existing model that simulates the long-term course of type 2 diabetes in relation to glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and post-prandial glucose (PPG) was used to compare the combination of nateglinide with metformin to monotherapy with metformin. Complication rates were estimated for major diabetes-related complications (macrovascular and microvascular) based on existing epidemiologic studies and clinical trial data. Utilities and costs were estimated using data collected in the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS). Survival, life years gained (LYG), quality-adjusted life years (QALY), complication rates and associated costs were estimated. Costs were discounted at 6% and benefits at 1.5% per year.Combination therapy was predicted to reduce complication rates and associated costs compared with metformin. Survival increased by 0.39 (0.32 discounted) and QALY by 0.46 years (0.37 discounted) implying costs of £6,772 per discounted LYG and £5,609 per discounted QALY. Sensitivity analyses showed the results to be consistent over broad ranges.Although drug treatment costs are increased by combination therapy, this cost is expected to be partially offset by a reduction in the costs of treating long-term diabetes complications.Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent disease with complications that cause substantial financial burden [1]. Improving glycemic control can influence the prognosis for patients with type 2 diabetes as it reduces the risk of developing microvascular complications (nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy) [2]. Recent guidelines from the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommend the initial use of diet and exercise and, when these fail to maintain glycemic control, metformin should be prescribed [3]. Monotherapy with any treatment, however, is often unable to sustain target HbA1c levels of 6.5–7.5% in the majority of patients. They are therefore expected to require additional therapy within six years [4].Sulphonylureas have bee
Double $Λ$ and the $Λ-Λ$ Interaction
J. Caro,C. García-Recio,J. M. Nieves
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1016/S0375-9474(98)00304-2
Abstract: The $\Lambda$-$\Lambda$ effective interaction, in the channel $L=S=0$, in the nuclear medium is fitted to the available binding energies, $B_{\Lambda\Lambda}$, of double $\Lambda$ hypernuclei: $^{6}_{\Lambda\Lambda}$He, $^{10}_{\Lambda\Lambda}$Be and $^{13}_{\Lambda\Lambda}$B. The mesonic decay of these hypernuclei is also investigated. Finally, this effective interaction is used to predict the binding energies and mesonic decays widths of heavier double $\Lambda$ hypernuclei.
Double $Λ$ Hypernuclei and the Nuclear Medium Effective $ΛΛ$ Interaction
J. Caro,C. Garcia-Recio,J. Nieves
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1016/S0375-9474(98)00640-X
Abstract: We fit the $^1 S_0 \Lambda\Lambda$ interaction in the nuclear medium to the masses of the experimentally known double-$\Lambda$ hypernuclei: $^{\phantom{6}6}_{\Lambda\Lambda}$He, $^{10}_{\Lambda\Lambda}$Be and $^{13}_{\Lambda\Lambda}$B. We derive this effective interaction from OBE J\"ulich $\Lambda\Lambda$-type potentials and using both Hartree-Fock and variational approaches. We find that the inclusion of $\Lambda\Lambda$ correlations in the variational scheme leads to significant differences and a better understanding of the dynamical features of the system. We investigate the sensitivity of the binding energies and the mesonic decay widths of the above double-$\Lambda$ hypernuclei to the $\omega \Lambda\Lambda $ coupling and the form factor at the $\sigma \Lambda\Lambda$ vertex. We also use this effective interaction to predict binding energies and pionic decay widths of heavier double-$\Lambda$ hypernuclei, not discovered yet. Finally, we discard the existence of $^1 S_0$ $\Lambda\Lambda$ bound states provided the $\Lambda\Lambda-\Xi N$ coupling can be neglected.
Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria: A Review  [PDF]
Emiliano J. Quinto, Pilar Jiménez, Irma Caro, Jesús Tejero, Javier Mateo, Tomás Girbés
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.518190
Abstract: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play a critical role in food production and health maintenance. There is an increasing interest in these species to reveal the many possible health benefits associated with them. The actions of LAB are species and strain specific, and depend on the amount of bacteria available in the gastrointestinal tract. Consumers are very concerned of chemical preservatives and processed foods. However, products with or processed with LAB are accepted as a natural way to preserve food and promote health. This paper aimed to review the recent data in regard to the role of probiotic LAB in the preservation of foods, in the immunomodulation in the gastrointestinal tract, and in its health benefits
β2-Adrenergic Ion-Channel Coupled Receptors as Conformational Motion Detectors
Lydia N. Caro,Christophe J. Moreau,Jean Revilloud,Michel Vivaudou
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018226
Abstract: Ion Channel-Coupled Receptors (ICCRs) are artificial proteins comprised of a G protein-coupled receptor and a fused ion channel, engineered to couple channel gating to ligand binding. These novel biological objects have potential use in drug screening and functional characterization, in addition to providing new tools in the synthetic biology repertoire as synthetic K+-selective ligand-gated channels. The ICCR concept was previously validated with fusion proteins between the K+ channel Kir6.2 and muscarinic M2 or dopaminergic D2 receptors. Here, we extend the concept to the distinct, longer β2-adrenergic receptor which, unlike M2 and D2 receptors, displayed barely detectable surface expression in our Xenopus oocyte expression system and did not couple to Kir6.2 when unmodified. Here, we show that a Kir6.2-binding protein, the N-terminal transmembrane domain of the sulfonylurea receptor, can greatly increase plasma membrane expression of β2 constructs. We then demonstrate how engineering of both receptor and channel can produce β2-Kir6.2 ICCRs. Specifically, removal of 62–72 residues from the cytoplasmic C-terminus of the receptor was required to enable coupling, suggesting that ligand-dependent conformational changes do not efficiently propagate to the distal C-terminus. Characterization of the β2 ICCRs demonstrated that full and partial agonists had the same coupling efficacy, that an inverse agonist had no effect and that the stabilizing mutation E122 W reduced agonist-induced coupling efficacy without affecting affinity. Because the ICCRs are expected to report motions of the receptor C-terminus, these results provide novel insights into the conformational dynamics of the β2 receptor.
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