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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 297669 matches for " J. Bremer "
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Long-term trends in the ionospheric E and F1 regions
J. Bremer
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2008,
Abstract: Ground based ionosonde measurements are the most essential source of information about long-term variations in the ionospheric E and F1 regions. Data of such observations have been derived at many different ionospheric stations all over the world some for more than 50 years. The standard parameters foE, h'E, and foF1 are used for trend analyses in this paper. Two main problems have to be considered in these analyses. Firstly, the data series have to be homogeneous, i.e. the observations should not be disturbed by artificial steps due to technical reasons or changes in the evaluation algorithm. Secondly, the strong solar and geomagnetic influences upon the ionospheric data have carefully to be removed by an appropriate regression analysis. Otherwise the small trends in the different ionospheric parameters cannot be detected. The trends derived at individual stations differ markedly, however their dependence on geographic or geomagnetic latitude is only small. Nevertheless, the mean global trends estimated from the trends at the different stations show some general behaviour (positive trends in foE and foF1, negative trend in h'E) which can at least qualitatively be explained by an increasing atmospheric greenhouse effect (increase of CO2 content and other greenhouse gases) and decreasing ozone values. The positive foE trend is also in qualitative agreement with rocket mass spectrometer observations of ion densities in the E region. First indications could be found that the changing ozone trend at mid-latitudes (before about 1979, between 1979 until 1995, and after about 1995) modifies the estimated mean foE trend.
Investigations of long-term trends in the ionosphere with world-wide ionosonde observations*
J. Bremer
Advances in Radio Science : Kleinheubacher Berichte , 2004,
Abstract: Basing on model calculations by Roble and Dickinson (1989) for an increasing content of atmospheric greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere Rishbeth (1990) predicted a lowering of the ionospheric F2- and E-regions. Later Rishbeth and Roble (1992) also predicted characteristic longterm changes of the maximum electron density values of the ionospheric E-, F1-, and F2-layers. Long-term observations at more than 100 ionosonde stations have been analyzed to test these model predictions. In the E- and F1-layers the derived experimental results agree reasonably with the model trends (lowering of h'E and increase of oE and oF1, in the E-layer the experimental values are however markedly stronger than the model data). In the ionospheric F2-region the variability of the trends derived at the different individual stations for hmF2 as well as oF2 values is too large to estimate reasonable global mean trends. The reason of the large differences between the individual trends is not quite clear. Strong dynamical effects may play an important role in the F2-region. But also inhomogeneous data series due to technical changes as well as changes in the evaluation algorithms used during the long observation periods may influence the trend analyses.
Trends in the ionospheric E and F regions over Europe
J. Bremer
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: Continuous observations in the ionospheric E and F regions have been regularly carried out since the fifties of this century at many ionosonde stations. Using these data from 31 European stations long-term trends have been derived for different parameters of the ionospheric E layer (h' E, foE), F1 layer (foF1) and F2 layer (hmF2, foF2). The detected trends in the E and F1 layers (lowering of the E region height h'E; increase of the peak electron densities of the E and F1 layers, foE and foF1) are in qualitative agreement with model predictions of an increasing atmospheric greenhouse effect. In the F2 region, however, the results are more complex. Whereas in the European region west of 30° E negative trends in hmF2 (peak height of the F2 layer) and in the peak electron density (foF2) have been found, in the eastern part of Europe (east of 30° E) positive trends dominate in both parameters. These marked longitudinal differences cannot be explained by an increasing greenhouse effect only, here probably dynamical effects in the F2 layer seem to play an essential role. Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (Pressure · density and temperature) · Ionosphere (Mid-latitude ionosphere) · Radio science (Ionospheric propagation).
The mean solar magnetic field as an indicator of the interplanetary magnetic field
J. Bremer
Annals of Geophysics , 1996, DOI: 10.4401/ag-4003
Abstract: The Mean Solar Magnetic Field (MSMF) measured daily by ground based observations at the Standford Observatory shows similar structures like the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) near the Earth about 5 to 7 days later. The ionospheric effect in the mid-latitude F2-region due to such MSMF changes is most marked for strong MSMF changes from anti to pro sectors. The mean ionospheric response is very similar to the results obtained earlier with IMF sector structure data derived from Svalgaard (1976) and Wilcox (1982, private communication). Therefore, the MSMF data can successfully be used to predict the mean IMF sector structure and the mean ionospheric response 5 to 7 days in advance.
Long-term trends in the ionospheric F2 region with different solar activity indices
J. Mielich ,J. Bremer
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2013,
Abstract: A new comprehensive data collection by Damboldt and Suessmann (2012a) with monthly foF2 and M(3000)F2 median values is an excellent basis for the derivation of long-term trends in the ionospheric F2 region. Ionospheric trends have been derived only for stations with data series of at least 22 years (124 stations with foF2 data and 113 stations with M(3000)F2 data) using a twofold regression analysis depending on solar and geomagnetic activity. Three main results have been derived: Firstly, it could be shown that the solar 10.7 cm radio flux F10.7 is a better index for the description of the solar activity than the relative solar sunspot number R as well as the solar EUV proxy E10.7. Secondly, the global mean foF2 and hmF2 trends derived for the interval between 1948 and 2006 are in surprisingly good agreement with model calculations of an increasing atmospheric greenhouse effect (Rishbeth and Roble, 1992). Thirdly, during the years 2007 until 2009, the hmF2 values and to a smaller amount the foF2 values strongly decrease. The reason for this effect is a reduction of the thermospheric density and ionization due to a markedly reduced solar EUV irradiation and extremely small geomagnetic activity during the solar cycle 23/24 minimum.
A modified index for the description of the ionospheric short- and long-term activity
J. Mielich ,J. Bremer
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2010,
Abstract: A modified ionospheric activity index AI has been developed on the basis of ionospheric foF2 observations. Such index can be helpful for an interested user to get information about the current state of the ionosphere. Using ionosonde data of the station Juliusruh (54.6° N; 13.4° E) this index has been tested for the time interval from January 1996 until December 2008. This index has no diurnal and seasonal variations, only a small positive dependence on the solar activity could be found. The variability of this index has, however, a marked seasonal variability with maxima during the equinoxes, a clear minimum in summer, and enhanced values in winter. The observed variability of AI is strongly correlated with the geomagnetic activity, most markedly during the equinoxes, whereas the influence of the solar activity is markedly smaller and mostly insignificant. Strong geomagnetic disturbances cause in middle latitudes in general negative disturbances in AI, mostly pronounced during equinoxes and summer and only partly during winter, thus in agreement with the current physical knowledge about ionospheric storms.
The influence of geomagnetic activity on mesospheric summer echoes in middle and polar latitudes
O. Zeller,J. Bremer
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2009,
Abstract: The dependence of mesospheric VHF radar echoes during summer months on geomagnetic activity has been investigated with observation data of the OSWIN radar in Kühlungsborn (54° N) and of the ALWIN radar in Andenes (69° N). Using daily mean values of VHF radar echoes and of geomagnetic activity indices in superimposed epoch analyses, the comparison of both data sets shows in general stronger radar echoes on the day of the maximum geomagnetic activity, the maximum value one day after the geomagnetic disturbance, and enhanced radar echoes also on the following 2–3 days. This phenomenon is observed at middle and polar latitudes and can be explained by precipitating particle fluxes during the ionospheric post storm effect. At polar latitudes, the radar echoes decrease however during and one day after very strong geomagnetic disturbances. The possible reason of this surprising effect is discussed.
Status ontyczny osoby z perspektywy neuronauk (The ontological status of a person from the perspective of neurosciences)
Józef Bremer
Analiza i Egzystencja , 2010,
Abstract: Contemporary inquiry of the ontological status of a person is a matter of both philosophy and neurosciences. This article examines the question of person ontology from two interconnected perspectives. The first one is a philosophical perspective represented by J. Searle, T. Nagel, D. Dennett and T. Metzinger; the other one is the perspective of the neuroscientific researches. The neuroscientific studies are founded on the data which are taken from the results of psychosurgical operations and of the brain tissue transplantations. The question of preservation and alteration of personal identity is one of the central subjects of further analysis and therapy which follow the mentioned medical operations. Both adherents and opponents of such surgical operations refer to the same concepts; however, they represent different understanding of the terms: numerical” or qualitative identity” of the person and his or her brain. I conclude that a comprehensive analysis of personal identity requires both philosophical and scientific approach, which would result in a new kind of neurophilosophy, similar to that what G. Northoff and A. Heinzel call the First-Person Neuroscience”
Domestic wells have high probability of pumping septic tank leachate
J. E. Bremer,T. Harter
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2012,
Abstract: Onsite wastewater treatment systems are common in rural and semi-rural areas around the world; in the US, about 25–30% of households are served by a septic (onsite) wastewater treatment system, and many property owners also operate their own domestic well nearby. Site-specific conditions and local groundwater flow are often ignored when installing septic systems and wells. In areas with small lots (thus high spatial septic system densities), shallow domestic wells are prone to contamination by septic system leachate. Mass balance approaches have been used to determine a maximum septic system density that would prevent contamination of groundwater resources. In this study, a source area model based on detailed groundwater flow and transport modeling is applied for a stochastic analysis of domestic well contamination by septic leachate. Specifically, we determine the probability that a source area overlaps with a septic system drainfield as a function of aquifer properties, septic system density and drainfield size. We show that high spatial septic system density poses a high probability of pumping septic system leachate. The hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer has a strong influence on the intersection probability. We find that mass balance calculations applied on a regional scale underestimate the contamination risk of individual drinking water wells by septic systems. This is particularly relevant for contaminants released at high concentrations, for substances that experience limited attenuation, and those that are harmful even at low concentrations (e.g., pathogens).
Influence of the interplanetary magnetic field on the variability of the mid-latitude F2-layer
J. Bremer,J. Lastovicka,Y. Tulunay
Annals of Geophysics , 1996, DOI: 10.4401/ag-4005
Abstract: The structure of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) is responsible for an essential part of the variability of the ionospheric plasma as demonstrated by investigations of the influence of IMF sector boundary crossings as well as of ?Bz-changes (defined from satellite observations) to the maximal electron density of the F2-layer at different stations in mid-latitudes. It could be shown that negative Bz-values cause distinct negative ionospheric effects. Maximal effects were detected at high geomagnetic latitudes (ionospheric response decreases with decreasing latitude), high solar/geomagnetic activity, equinoxes and night-time conditions.
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