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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 297555 matches for " J. Braine "
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A dynamical model for the Taffy galaxies UGC 12914/5
B. Vollmer,J. Braine,M. Soida
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201219668
Abstract: The spectacular head-on collision of the two gas-rich galaxies of the Taffy system, UGC 12914/15, gives us a unique opportunity to study the consequences of a direct ISM-ISM collision. To interpret existing multi-wavelength observations, we made dynamical simulations of the Taffy system including a sticky particle component. To compare simulation snapshots to HI and CO observations, we assume that the molecular fraction of the gas depends on the square root of the gas volume density. For the comparison of our simulations with observations of polarized radio continuum emission, we calculated the evolution of the 3D large-scale magnetic field for our simulations. The induction equations including the time-dependent gas-velocity fields from the dynamical model were solved for this purpose. Our simulations reproduce the stellar distribution of the primary galaxy, UGC 12914, the prominent HI and CO gas bridge, the offset between the CO and HI emission in the bridge, the bridge isovelocity vectors parallel to the bridge, the HI double-line profiles in the bridge region, the large line-widths (~200 km/s) in the bridge region, the high field strength of the bridge large-scale regular magnetic field, the projected magnetic field vectors parallel to the bridge and the strong total power radio continuum emission from the bridge. The stellar distribution of the secondary model galaxy is more perturbed than observed. The observed distortion of the HI envelope of the Taffy system is not reproduced by our simulations which use initially symmetric gas disks. The model allows us to define the bridge region in three dimensions. We estimate the total bridge gas mass (HI, warm and cold H2) to be 5 to 6 10^9 M_sun, with a molecular fraction M_H2/M_HI of about unity (abrigded).
The stellar mass to light ratio in the isolated spiral NGC 4414
O. Vallejo,J. Braine,A. Baudry
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20020261
Abstract: We present high resolution CO(1-0) interferometric observations and deep HST B-V-I images of the flocculent isolated Sc type spiral NGC 4414. The goal is to determine the stellar mass-to-light (M/L) ratio in a galactic disk. The stars are seen without a dust screen, the central gas mass is very low (undetected), and we show that the dark matter is negligible in the central regions. We have developed an axisymmetric analytical gravitational potential model to account for the central light (mass) profile, the dynamics of the molecular gas in the highly obscured molecular ring, and the stellar light profile outside the highly obscured region. The contribution of dark matter is constrained by the extremely extended HI rotation curve and is small, possibly negligible, at distances less than 5 -- 7 kpc from the center. Furthermore, the M/L ratios we derive are low, about 1.5 in I band and 0.5 in K' band. The B and V band M/L ratios vary greatly due to absorption by dust, reaching 4 in the molecular ring and decreasing to about 1.6 -- 1.8 at larger radii. This unequivocally shows that models, like most maximum disk models, assuming constant M/L ratios in an optical waveband, simply are not appropriate. We illustrate this by making mock maximum disk models with a constant V band M/L ratio. The key is having the central light distribution unobscured such that it can be used to trace the mass. A primitive attempt to determine the intrinsic M/L ratio yields values close to unity in the B,V, and I bands and slightly below 0.5 in K'.
Magnetic fields in the absence of spiral density waves - NGC 4414
M. Soida,R. Beck,M. Urbanik,J. Braine
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20021100
Abstract: We present three-frequency VLA observations of the flocculent spiral galaxy NGC 4414 made in order to study the magnetic field structure in absence of strong density wave flows. NGC 4414 shows a regular spiral pattern of observed polarization B-vectors with a radial component comparable in strength to the azimuthal one. The average pitch angle of the magnetic field is about 20$\degr$, similar to galaxies with a well-defined spiral pattern. This provides support for field generation by a turbulent dynamo without significant ``contamination'' from streaming motions in spiral arms. While the stellar light is very axisymmetric, the magnetic field structure shows a clear asymmetry with a stronger regular field and a smaller magnetic pitch angle in the northern disk. Extremely strong Faraday rotation is measured in the southern part of the disk, becoming Faraday thick at 6cm. The distribution of Faraday rotation suggests a mixture of axisymmetric and higher-mode magnetic fields. The strong Faraday effects in the southern region suggest a much thicker magnetoionic disk and a higher content of diffuse ionized gas than in the northern disk portion. An elongation of the 20cm total power emission is also seen towards the South. Although NGC 4414 is currently an isolated spiral, the asymmetries in the polarized radio emission may be sensitive tracers of previous encounters, including weak interactions which would chiefly affect the diffuse gas component without generating obvious long-term perturbations in the optical structure.
Survival of molecular gas in Virgo's hot intracluster medium: CO near M86
K. M. Dasyra,F. Combes,P. Salome,J. Braine
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201218775
Abstract: We carried out CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) observations of 21 different regions in the vicinity of M86, NGC4438, and along the 120 kpc-long, Ha-emitting filamentary trail that connects them, aiming to test whether molecular gas can survive to be transferred from a spiral to an elliptical galaxy in Virgo's 10^7K intracluster medium (ICM). We targeted Ha-emitting regions that could be associated with the interface between cold molecular clouds and the hot ionized ICM. The data, obtained with the 30m telescope of the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique, led to the detection of molecular gas close to M86. CO gas with a recession velocity that is similar to that of the stars, -265 km/s, and with a corresponding H2 mass of 2*10^7 M_sun, was detected ~10 kpc southeast of the nucleus of M86, near the peak of its HI emission. We argue that it is possible for this molecular gas either to have formed in situ from HI, or to have been stripped from NGC4438 directly in molecular form. In situ formation is nonetheless negligible for the 7*10^6 M_sun of gas detected at 12:26:15.9+12:58:49, at ~10 kpc northeast of M86, where no (strong) HI emission is present. This detection provides evidence for the survival of molecular gas in filaments for timescales of ~100 Myr. An amount equivalent to 5*10^7 M_sun of H2 gas that could be lost to the ICM or to neighboring galaxies was also discovered in the tidal tail northwest of NGC4438. A scenario of gas being alternatively brought to M86 from NGC4388 on its south was also examined but it was considered unlikely due to the non detection of CO below or at the HI stream velocities, 2000-2700 km/s.
Health systems research is the best medicine
Braine Theresa
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2005,
Was 2005 the year of natural disasters?
Braine Theresa
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2006,
Reaching Mexico's poorest
Braine Theresa
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2006,
Mexico's quest for a complete mortality data set
Braine Theresa
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2006,
The influence of the cluster environment on the star formation efficiency of 12 Virgo spiral galaxies
B. Vollmer,. O. I. Wong,J. Braine,A. Chung,J. D. P. Kenney
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201118690
Abstract: The influence of the environment on gas surface density and star formation efficiency of cluster spiral galaxies is investigated. We extend previous work on radial profiles by a pixel-to pixel analysis looking for asymmetries due to environmental interactions. The star formation rate is derived from GALEX UV and Spitzer total infrared data. As in field galaxies, the star formation rate for most Virgo galaxies is approximately proportional to the molecular gas mass. Except for NGC 4438, the cluster environment does not affect the star formation efficiency with respect to the molecular gas. Gas truncation is not associated with major changes in the total gas surface density distribution of the inner disk of Virgo spiral galaxies. In three galaxies, possible increases in the molecular fraction and the star formation efficiency with respect to the total gas, of factors of 1.5 to 2, are observed on the windward side of the galactic disk. A significant increase of the star formation efficiency with respect to the molecular gas content on the windward side of ram pressure-stripped galaxies is not observed. The ram-pressure stripped extraplanar gas of 3 highly inclined spiral galaxies shows a depressed star formation efficiency with respect to the total gas, and one of them (NGC 4438) shows a depressed rate even with respect to the molecular gas. The interpretation is that stripped gas loses the gravitational confinement and associated pressure of the galactic disk, and the gas flow is diverging, so the gas density decreases and the star formation rate drops. However, the stripped extraplanar gas in one highly inclined galaxy (NGC 4569) shows a normal star formation efficiency with respect to the total gas. We propose this galaxy is different because it is observed long after peak pressure, and its extraplanar gas is now in a converging flow as it resettles back into the disk.
12CO(1-0) observations of NGC 4848: a Coma galaxy after stripping
B. Vollmer,J. Braine,C. Balkowski,V. Cayatte,W. J. Duschl
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20010800
Abstract: We study the molecular gas content and distribution in the Coma cluster spiral galaxy NGC 4848. Plateau de Bure interferometric CO(1-0) observations reveal a lopsided H_2 distribution with an off-center secondary maximum coincident with the inner part of the HI. NGC 4848 is not at all deficient in molecular gas as it contains M_H_2~4x10^9 M_solar. At the interface between the CO and HI emission regions, about 8 kpc NW of the center, however, strong star formation is present as witnessed by Halpha and radio continuum emission. This is the region in which earlier Fabry-Perot observations revealed a double-peaked Halpha line, indicating gas at two different velocities at the same sky position. In order to understand these observations, we present the results of numerical simulations of the ISM-ICM interaction. We suggest that NGC 4848 already passed through the center of the cluster about 4x10^8 years ago. At the observed stage ram pressure has no more direct dynamical influence on the galaxy's ISM. We observe the galaxy when a fraction of the stripped gas is falling back onto the galaxy. Ram pressure is thus a short-lived event with longer-lasting consequences. The combination of ram-pressure and rotation results in gas at different velocities colliding where the double-peaked Halpha line is observed. Ram-pressure can thus result, after re-accretion, in displaced molecular gas without the H_2 itself being pushed efficiently by the ICM. A scenario where two interactions take place simultaneously is also consistent with the available data but less probable on the basis of our numerical simulations.
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