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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 297324 matches for " J. Blommaert "
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Lumumba, Hammarskjoeld and the 1960 Congo crisis: a case of international misunderstanding
J. Blommaert
Afrika Focus , 1990,
Abstract: A number of influential works on the 1960 Congo Crisis, as well as most theoretical models of intercultural communication, consistently explain conflicts between culturally different participants in terms of features of ethnic communication style, cognition, value systems etc. A general picture emerges in which culture is seen as the cause of conflicts, misunderstandings, or communication breakdown. An analysis of six letters exchanged between Lumumba and Hammarskjoeld during one of the crucial episodes of the Congo Crisis reveals that ethnic features of communication style are the consequence, rather than the cause of conflicts.
Elemental abundances in AGB stars and the formation of the Galactic bulge
Uttenthaler S.,Blommaert J.A.D.L.,Lebzelter T.,Ryde N.
EPJ Web of Conferences , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20121906009
Abstract: We obtained high-resolution near-IR spectra of 45 AGB stars located in the Galactic bulge. The aim of the project is to determine key elemental abundances in these stars to help constrain the formation history of the bulge. A further aim is to link the photospheric abundances to the dust species found in the winds of the stars. Here we present a progress report of the analysis of the spectra.
Mid-IR period-magnitude relations for AGB stars
I. S. Glass,M. Schultheis,J. A. D. L. Blommaert,R. Sahai,M. Stute,S. Uttenthaler
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-3933.2009.00628.x
Abstract: Asymptotic Giant Branch variables are found to obey period-luminosity relations in the mid-IR similar to those seen at K_S (2.14 microns), even at 24 microns where emission from circumstellar dust is expected to be dominant. Their loci in the M, logP diagrams are essentially the same for the LMC and for NGC6522 in spite of different ages and metallicities. There is no systematic trend of slope with wavelength. The offsets of the apparent magnitude vs. logP relations imply a difference between the two fields of 3.8 in distance modulus. The colours of the variables confirm that a principal period with log P > 1.75 is a necessary condition for detectable mass-loss. At the longest observed wavelength, 24 microns, many semi-regular variables have dust shells comparable in luminosity to those around Miras. There is a clear bifurcation in LMC colour-magnitude diagrams involving 24 micron magnitudes.
Spectroscopy of the Pistol and Quintuplet Stars in the Galactic Centre
A. Moneti,J. A. D. L. Blommaert,F. Najarro,D. F. Figer,S. Stolovy
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: We present initial results of a spectroscopic study of the Pistol and of the cocoon stars in the Quintuplet Cluster. From ISOCAM CVF 5--17 micron spectroscopy of the field of the Pistol Star, we have discovered a nearly spherical shell of hot dust surrounding this star, a probable LBV. This shell is most prominent at lambda > 12 micron, and its morphology clearly indicates that the shell is stellar ejecta. Emission line images show that most of the ionised material is along the northern border of this shell, and its morphology is very similar to that of the Pistol HII region (Yusef-Zadeh & Morris, 1987, AJ, 94, 1178). We thus confirm that the ionisation comes from very hot stars in the core of the Quintuplet Cluster. An SWS spectrum of the Pistol Nebula indicates a harder ionising radiation than could be provided by the Pistol Star, but which is consistent with ionisation from Wolf-Rayet stars in the Quintuplet Cluster. The CVF 5--17 micron spectra of the cocoon stars in the Quintuplet do not show any emission feature that could help elucidate their nature.
Mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of the enigmatic cocoon stars in the Quintuplet Cluster
A. Moneti,S. Stolovy,J. A. D. L. Blommaert,D. F. Figer,F. Najarro
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20000192
Abstract: In an attempt to determine the nature of the enigmatic cocoon stars in the Quintuplet Cluster, we have obtained mid-infrared imaging and spectrophotometry of the cluster, using the CAM and SWS instruments on ISO, using SpectroCam-10 on the Palomar 5m telescope, and NICMOS on HST. The spectra show smooth continua with various dust and ice absorption features. These features are all consistent with an interstellar origin, and there is no clear evidence for any circumstellar contribution to these features. We find no spectral line or feature that could elucidate the nature of these sources. Detailed modeling of the silicate absorption features shows that they are best reproduced by the mu Cep profile, which is typical of the interstellar medium, with tau(sil) \sim 2.9. The high spatial resolution mid-IR images show that three of the five cocoon stars have spatially extended and asymmetric envelopes, with diameters of \sim 20,000 AUs. A reddening law similar to that of Lutz (1999) but with silicate features based on the mu Cep profile and normalized to our value of tau(sil) is used to deredden the observed spectrophotometry. The dereddened energy distributions are characterised by temperatures of 750-925 K, somewhat cooler than determined from near IR data alone. Models of optically thin and geometrically thick dust shells, as used by Williams et al. (1987) for very dusty, late-type WC stars, reproduce the observed SEDs from 4 to 17 mic, and imply shell luminosities of log(L/L(sun)) \sim 4.5-4.9 for the brightest four components. An analysis of the various suggestions proposed to explain the nature of the cocoon stars reveals serious problems with all the hypotheses, and the nature of these sources remains an enigma.
870 um observations of evolved stars with LABOCA
D. Ladjal,K. Justtanont,M. A. T. Groenewegen,J. A. D. L. Blommaert,C. Waelkens,M. J. Barlow
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200913147
Abstract: During their evolution, Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars experience a high mass-loss which leads to the formation of a Circumstellar Envelope (CSE) of dust and gas. The mass-loss process is the most important phenomenon during this evolutionary stage. In order to understand it, it is important to study the physical parameters of the CSE. The emission of the CSE in the (sub)millimetre range is dominated by the dust continuum. This means that (sub)millimetre observations are a key tool in tracing the dust and improving our knowledge of the mass-loss process. In this paper we analyse new sub-millimetre observations of 9 evolved stars in order to constrain the CSE physical parameters. The data were taken by the new APEX bolometer LABoCa. The fluxes at 870 um are derived and the extended emission is investigated. We compute the spectral energy distribution (SEDs) using a 1D radiative transfer code, DUSTY which we compared to literature data. Grain properties are calculated using both spherical grains distribution and a Continuous Distribution of Ellipsoids (CDE) and a comparison between the two is drawn. Synthetic surface brightness maps have been derived from the modelling and were compared to the LABoCa brightness maps. We detected the presence of extended emission around four stars. Physical parameters of the circumstellar envelope are derived from SED modelling, such as the dust chemical composition, the dust condensation temperature and the total mass of the envelope. It proves difficult however to fit the SED and the intensity profile simultaneously.
Determining the forsterite abundance of the dust around Asymptotic Giant Branch stars
B. L. de Vries,M. Min,L. B. F. M. Waters,J. A. D. L. Blommaert,F. Kemper
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200913588
Abstract: Aims. We present a diagnostic tool to determine the abundance of the crystalline silicate forsterite in AGB stars surrounded by a thick shell of silicate dust. Using six infrared spectra of high mass-loss oxygen rich AGB stars we obtain the forsterite abundance of their dust shells. Methods. We use a monte carlo radiative transfer code to calculate infrared spectra of dust enshrouded AGB stars. We vary the dust composition, mass-loss rate and outer radius. We focus on the strength of the 11.3 and the 33.6 \mu m forsterite bands, that probe the most recent (11.3 \mu m) and older (33.6 \mu m) mass-loss history of the star. Simple diagnostic diagrams are derived, allowing direct comparison to observed band strengths. Results. Our analysis shows that the 11.3 \mu m forsterite band is a robust indicator for the forsterite abundance of the current mass-loss period for AGB stars with an optically thick dust shell. The 33.6 \mu m band of forsterite is sensitive to changes in the density and the geometry of the emitting dust shell, and so a less robust indicator. Applying our method to six high mass-loss rate AGB stars shows that AGB stars can have forsterite abundances of 12% by mass and higher, which is more than the previously found maximum abundance of 5%.
The peculiar cluster HS 327 in the Large Magellanic Cloud: can OH/IR stars and carbon stars be twins?
Jacco Th. van Loon,A. A. Zijlstra,L. Kaper,G. F. Gilmore,C. Loup,J. A. D. L. Blommaert
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20000529
Abstract: The obscured OH/IR star IRAS05298-6957 in the LMC was recently noticed to be member of the small double cluster HS 327 that also contains a carbon star (van Loon et al., 1998, A&A 329, 169). Hence they are coeval and have (nearly) the same progenitor mass, which can only be understood if Hot Bottom Burning (HBB) has prevented IRAS05298-6957 from being a carbon star. We present extensive visual and near-IR photometric data for >10^4 stars in and around HS 327, and spectroscopic data for some of the brightest AGB stars amongst these. Colour-magnitude diagrams are used to estimate the age for the cluster and its members, and luminosities are derived for the stars for which spectra have been obtained. The age for IRAS05298-6957 and the carbon star is estimated to be about 200 Myr. This corresponds to a Main-Sequence progenitor mass of about 4.0 M_sun --- the first direct measurement of the lower mass threshold for HBB. This agrees with stellar evolution models that, however, fail to reproduce the low luminosity of the carbon star.
Determining the forsterite abundance of the dust around AGB stars
B. L. de Vries,M. Min,L. B. F. M. Waters,J. A. D. L. Blommaert,F. Kemper
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: We present a diagnostic tool to determine the forsterite abundance of the dust ejected by AGB stars. Our method is based on a comparison between the observed strength of spectral bands of forsterite and model calculations. We show that the 11.3 {\mu}m forsterite band is a robust indicator of the forsterite abundance of the current mass-loss period for AGB stars with an optically thick dust shell. The 33.6 {\mu}m band of forsterite is sensitive to changes in the density and the geometry of the emitting dust shell, and so a less robust indicator. We apply this method to six high mass-loss rate AGB stars, showing that AGB stars can have forsterite abundances of 12% by mass and higher, which is more than the previously found maximum abundance of 5%.
Understanding AGB evolution in Galactic bulge stars from high-resolution infrared spectroscopy
S. Uttenthaler,J. A. D. L. Blommaert,P. R. Wood,T. Lebzelter,B. Aringer,M. Schultheis,N. Ryde
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv1052
Abstract: An analysis of high-resolution near-infrared spectra of a sample of 45 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars towards the Galactic bulge is presented. The sample consists of two subsamples, a larger one in the inner and intermediate bulge, and a smaller one in the outer bulge. The data are analysed with the help of hydrostatic model atmospheres and spectral synthesis. We derive the radial velocity of all stars, and the atmospheric chemical mix ([Fe/H], C/O, $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C, Al, Si, Ti, and Y) where possible. Our ability to model the spectra is mainly limited by the (in)completeness of atomic and molecular line lists, at least for temperatures down to $T_{\rm eff}\approx3100$ K. We find that the subsample in the inner and intermediate bulge is quite homogeneous, with a slightly sub-solar mean metallicity and only few stars with super-solar metallicity, in agreement with previous studies of non-variable M-type giants in the bulge. All sample stars are oxygen-rich, C/O$<$1.0. The C/O and carbon isotopic ratios suggest that third dredge-up (3DUP) is absent among the sample stars, except for two stars in the outer bulge that are known to contain technetium. These stars are also more metal-poor than the stars in the intermediate or inner bulge. Current stellar masses are determined from linear pulsation models. The masses, metallicities and 3DUP behaviour are compared to AGB evolutionary models. We conclude that these models are partly in conflict with our observations. Furthermore, we conclude that the stars in the inner and intermediate bulge belong to a more metal-rich population that follows bar-like kinematics, whereas the stars in the outer bulge belong to the metal-poor, spheroidal bulge population.
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