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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 654373 matches for " J. A; Montejo "
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Guidelines for specialized nutritional and metabolic support in the critically-ill patient: Update. Consensus SEMICYUC-SENPE: Liver failure and liver transplantation
Montejo González,J. C.; Mesejo,A.; Bonet Saris,A.;
Nutrición Hospitalaria , 2011,
Abstract: patients with liver failure have a high prevalence of malnutrition, which is related to metabolic abnormalities due to the liver disease, reduced nutrient intake and altera tions in digestive function, among other factors. in general, in patients with liver failure, metabolic and nutritional support should aim to provide adequate nutrient intake and, at the same time, to contribute to patients' recovery through control or reversal of metabolic alterations. in critically-ill patients with liver failure, current knowledge indicates that the organ failure is not the main factor to be considered when choosing the nutritional regi men. as in other critically-ill patients, the enteral route should be used whenever possible. the composition of the nutritional formula should be adapted to the patient's metabolic stress. despite the physiopathological basis classically described by some authors who consider amino acid imbalance to be a triggering factor and key element in maintaining encephalopathy, there are insufficient data to recommend "specific" solutions (branched-chain amino acid-enriched with low aromatic amino acids) as part of nutritional support in patients with acute liver failure. in patients undergoing liver transplantation, nutrient intake should be started early in the postoperative period through transpyloric access. prevention of the hepatic alterations associated with nutritional support should also be considered in distinct clinical scenarios.
Guidelines for specialized nutritional and metabolic support in the critically-ill patient: Update. Consensus SEMICYUC-SENPE: Liver failure and liver transplantation Recomendaciones para el soporte nutricional y metabólico especializado del paciente crítico: Actualización. Consenso SEMICYUC-SENPE: Insuficiencia hepática y trasplante hepático
J. C. Montejo González,A. Mesejo,A. Bonet Saris
Nutrición Hospitalaria , 2011,
Abstract: Patients with liver failure have a high prevalence of malnutrition, which is related to metabolic abnormalities due to the liver disease, reduced nutrient intake and altera tions in digestive function, among other factors. In general, in patients with liver failure, metabolic and nutritional support should aim to provide adequate nutrient intake and, at the same time, to contribute to patients' recovery through control or reversal of metabolic alterations. In critically-ill patients with liver failure, current knowledge indicates that the organ failure is not the main factor to be considered when choosing the nutritional regi men. As in other critically-ill patients, the enteral route should be used whenever possible. The composition of the nutritional formula should be adapted to the patient's metabolic stress. Despite the physiopathological basis classically described by some authors who consider amino acid imbalance to be a triggering factor and key element in maintaining encephalopathy, there are insufficient data to recommend "specific" solutions (branched-chain amino acid-enriched with low aromatic amino acids) as part of nutritional support in patients with acute liver failure. In patients undergoing liver transplantation, nutrient intake should be started early in the postoperative period through transpyloric access. Prevention of the hepatic alterations associated with nutritional support should also be considered in distinct clinical scenarios. Los pacientes con insuficiencia hepática presentan una elevada prevalencia de malnutrición. ésta se encuentra relacionada, entre otros factores, con las alteraciones del metabolismo derivadas de la enfermedad hepática, la disminución en la ingesta de nutrientes y las alteraciones en la función digestiva. De modo general, en los pacientes con insuficiencia hepática, el soporte metabólico-nutricional debe tener como objetivo el aporte adecuado de los requerimientos contribuyendo, al mismo tiempo, a la recuperación de los pacientes mediante el control o la reversión de las alteraciones metabólicas apreciadas. En los pacientes críticos que presentan insuficiencia hepática, los conocimientos actuales indican que ésta no parece ser un factor fundamental a la hora de considerar la pauta nutricional. Como en otros pacientes críticos, la vía de aporte de nutrientes debe ser la enteral, siempre que ello sea posible. La composición de la fórmula nutricional debe estar adaptada a la situación de estrés metabólico. A pesar de la base fisiopatológica, clásicamente descrita por algunos autores, que considera al disbal
Efecto de los tratamientos de semilla, la procedencia y el riego en el establecimiento de Hibiscus elatus Effect of seed treatments, provenance and irrigation on the establishment of Hibiscus elatus
Laura Montejo Valdés,J.A Sánchez
Pastos y Forrajes , 2012,
Abstract: Se estudió la emergencia y el crecimiento de las plántulas de Hibiscus elatus en condiciones de vivero, en semillas sometidas a tratamientos de escarificación ácida en combinación o no con tratamientos de hidratación parcial en agua. Las semillas se colectaron en cuatro procedencias boscosas de la Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra del Rosario (dos bosques maduros siempreverdes estacionales y dos bosques secundarios) y se sometieron a diferentes frecuencias de riego (diario, días alternos y una vez por semana) durante su estancia en vivero. Los tratamientos pregerminativos fueron adecuados para incrementar la emergencia y el crecimiento de las plántulas en relación con el control (semillas no tratadas), para todas las procedencias, aunque el efecto positivo dependió del nivel de riego del sustrato. El estrés hídrico afectó de forma significativa el vigor de las plántulas, independientemente del tratamiento utilizado; sin embargo, bajo estas condiciones de siembra, el tratamiento hídrico resultó el más favorable para mejorar el funcionamiento de las plantas en las semillas colectadas en el bosque maduro; mientras que las del bosque secundario tuvieron una mejor habilidad para responder al estrés hídrico con el de escarificación, combinado con la hidratación parcial en agua. Se demostró que el empleo de tratamientos robustecedores a las semillas disminuyó el efecto da ino provocado por la insuficiente humedad del suelo sobre el establecimiento de las plántulas, independientemente del sitio de colecta. The emergence and growth of Hibiscus elatus seedlings under nursery conditions was studied, in seeds subject to acid scarification treatments in combination or not- with partial hydration treatments in water. The seeds were collected in four forest provenances of the Sierra del Rosario Biosphere Reserve (two seasonal evergreen mature forests and two secondary forests) and were subject to different irrigation frequencies (daily, alternate days and once a week) during their permanence in nursery. The pregerminative treatments were adequate to increase seedling emergence and growth with regards to the control (untreated seeds), for all provenances, although the positive effect depended on the irrigation rate of the substratum. The water stress significantly affected seedling vigor, independently from the treatment used; nevertheless, under these planting conditions, the water treatment was the most favorable to improve plant functioning in the seeds collected in the mature forest; while those from the secondary forest had a better ability to respond to water stress
Efecto de los tratamientos de hidratación-deshidratación en la germinacion, la emergencia y el vigor de las plántulas de Albizia lebbeck y Gliricidia sepium
Gonzalez,Yolanda; Sánchez,J. A; Reino,J; Montejo,Laura A;
Pastos y Forrajes , 2009,
Abstract: the effect of hydration-dehydration treatments on the germinative response, emergence and vigor of albizia lebbeck and gliricidia sepium seedlings was studied under different controlled conditions of caloric stress of the substratum. the treatments were: non hydrated seeds (t1); seeds hydrated until the end of stage i (t2); seeds hydrated until two hours before the beginning of visible germination (t3) and they were later dehydrated for 48 hours. a. lebbeck seeds were scarified with water at 80oc for 2' before hydrating. the seed germination of both species depended significantly on the interaction between the substratum temperature and hydration (p<0,001). in g. sepium the best results in germination were obtained with long periods (stage iii), and in a. lebbeck with short periods (stage i). the emergence showed significant effects due to the positive effects of scarification-partial hydration treatments in a. lebbeck (34 vs 10% in fresh and aged seeds, respectively) and without their combination in g. sepium (12 vs 8% in fresh and aged seeds, respectively). there was a significant increase in plant growth and development. the hydric treatments were concluded to revigorize the aged and fresh seeds from a. lebbeck and g. sepium; for which their application under similar conditions as in this study is recommended.
Efecto de los tratamientos de hidratación-deshidratación en la germinacion, la emergencia y el vigor de las plántulas de Albizia lebbeck y Gliricidia sepium Effect of hydration-dehydration treatments on the germination, emergence and vigor of Albizia lebbeck and Gliricidia sepium seedlings
Yolanda Gonzalez,J. A Sánchez,J Reino,Laura A Montejo
Pastos y Forrajes , 2009,
Abstract: Se investigó el efecto de los tratamientos de hidratación-deshidratación en la respuesta germinativa, la emergencia y el vigor de las plántulas de Albizia lebbeck y Gliricidia sepium, a diferentes condiciones controladas de estrés calórico del sustrato. Los tratamientos fueron: semillas no hidratadas (T1); semillas hidratadas hasta el final de la fase I (T2); semillas hidratadas hasta dos horas antes del inicio de la germinación visible (T3), y posteriormente se deshidrataron durante 48 horas. Las semillas de A. lebbeck se escarificaron con agua a 80oC durante 2' antes de hidratar. La germinación de las semillas de ambas especies dependió significativamente de la interacción entre la temperatura del sustrato y la hidratación (P<0,001). En G. sepium los mejores resultados en la germinación se obtuvieron con largos períodos (fase III), y en A. lebbeck con períodos cortos (fase I). La emergencia mostró diferencias significativas debido al efecto positivo de los tratamientos de escarificación - hidratación parcial en A. lebbeck (34 vs 10% en las semillas frescas y envejecidas, respectivamente) y sin la combinación de estos en G. sepium (12 vs 8% en semillas frescas y envejecidas, respectivamente). Hubo un incremento significativo en el crecimiento y desarrollo de las plantas. Se concluye que los tratamientos hídricos revigorizaron las semillas envejecidas y frescas de A. lebbeck y G. sepium, por lo que se recomienda su aplicación en condiciones similares a las del presente estudio. The effect of hydration-dehydration treatments on the germinative response, emergence and vigor of Albizia lebbeck and Gliricidia sepium seedlings was studied under different controlled conditions of caloric stress of the substratum. The treatments were: non hydrated seeds (T1); seeds hydrated until the end of stage I (T2); seeds hydrated until two hours before the beginning of visible germination (T3) and they were later dehydrated for 48 hours. A. lebbeck seeds were scarified with water at 80oC for 2' before hydrating. The seed germination of both species depended significantly on the interaction between the substratum temperature and hydration (P<0,001). In G. sepium the best results in germination were obtained with long periods (stage III), and in A. lebbeck with short periods (stage I). The emergence showed significant effects due to the positive effects of scarification-partial hydration treatments in A. lebbeck (34 vs 10% in fresh and aged seeds, respectively) and without their combination in G. sepium (12 vs 8% in fresh and aged seeds, respectively). There was a signific
Nutrición artificial en la hiperglucemia y Diabetes mellitus en pacientes críticos
López Martínez,J.; Mesejo Arizmendi,A.; Montejo González,J. C.;
Nutrición Hospitalaria , 2005,
Abstract: the need to strictly control glucose levels, even in non-diabetic patients, has recently emerged following the publication of the results that indicate the possibility of reducing the morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. since hyperglycemia is one of the most frequent metabolic impairments in these patients, insulin therapy is a necessity in most of the cases. in order to prevent hyperglycemia and its associated complications, nutritional support must be adjusted to the patient's requirements, avoiding hyponutrition. whenever possible, nutrients supply should be done through the digestive route. parenteral nutrition is more often accompanied by hyperglycemia and requires an increase in insulin dosage to control it. there are two types of enteral diets designed to help controlling hyperglycemic conditions: carbohydrates rich diets, and fat rich diets. in general terms, carbohydrates rich diets may be recommended in type 1 diabetic patients who are in a stable condition, and fat rich diets in type 2 diabetes and in stress hyperglycemia. in both cases, the use of low glycemic index carbohydrates is recommended. protein in-take should be adjusted to the patients' metabolic stress level. in diabetic patients with acute disease, an increase in antioxidants intake is recommended.
Efectos combinados de escarificación y de hidratación parcial en la germinación de semillas frescas de leguminosas
González,Yolanda; Sánchez,J. A; Reino,J; Mu?oz,Bárbara; Montejo,Laura;
Pastos y Forrajes , 2008,
Abstract: a simple classification design with factorial arrangement and five replications (25 seeds each) was used in order to know the germination of fresh legume seeds subject to different pregerminative hydration-dehydration treatments and controlled conditions of caloric stress of the substratum. the germinative performance before scarification treatments was previously studied: water at 80oc for 2' (in crotalaria sp. seeds) and h2so4 at 96% during 10' (in seeds from indigofera sp., desmanthus virgatus and centrosema pubescens), which were combined with a treatment of partial hydration in water at alternate temperature of 25/30oc (optimum germination thermoperiod). the partial hydration was carried out until two hours before the beginning of visible germination; in the scarified seeds of indigofera sp., d. virgatus, crotalaria sp. and c. pubescens, this moment was reached at 15, 16, 16 and 19 hours, respectively. air-dehydration took place for 48 hours, until reaching approximately the initial moisture content of the seeds (7-12% on fresh matter base). in all the species, except in d. virgatus, the partial hydration treatments increased the germination percentage, although they caused a higher germination rate. the partial hydration treatments in water are concluded to be adequate for increasing germination of the studied species, except in d. virgatus, under controlled conditions of caloric stress.
Nutrición artificial en la hiperglucemia y Diabetes mellitus en pacientes críticos Artificial nutrition in hyperglycemia and Diabetes mellitus in critically ill patients
J. López Martínez,A. Mesejo Arizmendi,J. C. Montejo González
Nutrición Hospitalaria , 2005,
Abstract: La necesidad de controlar de manera estricta los niveles de glucemia, incluso en pacientes no diabéticos, ha surgido recientemente tras la publicación de los resultados que indican que con ello puede conseguirse un descenso en la morbi-mortalidad de los pacientes críticos. Dado que la hiperglucemia es una de las alteraciones metabólicas predominantes en estos pacientes, el tratamiento con insulina es una necesidad en la mayoría de los casos. Con el fin de prevenir la hiperglucemia y sus complicaciones asociadas, el aporte energético debe ajustarse a los requerimientos de los pacientes, evitando la hipernutrición. Siempre que sea posible, deberá intentarse al aporte de nutrientes por vía digestiva. La nutrición parenteral se acompa a con mayor frecuencia de hiperglucemia y requiere un aumento en las dosis de insulina necesarias para su control. Existen dos tipos de dietas enterales dise adas para ayudar a corregir las situaciones hiperglucémicas: dietas ricas en carbohidratos y dietas ricas en grasa. En líneas generales, pueden recomendarse las dietas ricas en hidratos de carbono en los pacientes diabéticos tipo 1 que se encuentren en situación estable y las dietas ricas en grasas en la diabetes tipo 2 y en la hiperglucemia de estrés. Se recomienda, en ambos casos, el empleo de hidratos de carbono con bajo índice glucémico. El aporte proteico debe ajustarse al nivel de estrés metabólico de los pacientes. Se recomienda un aumento en el aporte de antioxidantes en los pacientes diabéticos con enfermedad aguda. The need to strictly control glucose levels, even in non-diabetic patients, has recently emerged following the publication of the results that indicate the possibility of reducing the morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Since hyperglycemia is one of the most frequent metabolic impairments in these patients, insulin therapy is a necessity in most of the cases. In order to prevent hyperglycemia and its associated complications, nutritional support must be adjusted to the patient's requirements, avoiding hyponutrition. Whenever possible, nutrients supply should be done through the digestive route. Parenteral nutrition is more often accompanied by hyperglycemia and requires an increase in insulin dosage to control it. There are two types of enteral diets designed to help controlling hyperglycemic conditions: carbohydrates rich diets, and fat rich diets. In general terms, carbohydrates rich diets may be recommended in type 1 diabetic patients who are in a stable condition, and fat rich diets in type 2 diabetes and in stress hyperglycemia. I
III Mesa de Trabajo SENPE-Baxter: nutrición parenteral complementaria en el paciente crítico
García de Lorenzo,A.; Grau,T.; Montejo,J. C.; Ortiz Leyba,C.; Ruiz Santana,S.;
Nutrición Hospitalaria , 2008,
Abstract: in the setting of a multidisciplinary debate, and after reviewing the available evidence as well as the experience from experts, the indications and management guidelines for complementary parenteral nutrition (cpn) in the critically ill patient are established. the conclusion refers to the importance of its indication in all the cases where enteral nutrition (en) is insufficient to cover at least 60% of the caloric-protein target. at least 80% of the patient's caloric requirements should be covered with en and cpn, with the recommendation of targeting 100% of the demands.
Valoración germinativa de 20 accesiones de leguminosas almacenadas en condiciones desfavorables Germinative evaluation of 20 legume accessions stored under unfavorable conditions
Bárbara C Mu?oz,J. A Sánchez,Laura A Montejo,Yolanda González
Pastos y Forrajes , 2009,
Abstract: Se valoró la respuesta germinativa de 20 accesiones de leguminosas procedentes de diferentes tiempos de almacenamiento, en condiciones inadecuadas de humedad y temperatura, y sometidas a tratamientos de escarificación térmica y ácida antes de la siembra, con distintas temperaturas del sustrato. Independientemente del tiempo de almacenamiento, el contenido de humedad de las semillas fue inferior al 15%. Las semillas de las accesiones con más de 12 a os presentaron porcentajes de germinación inferiores al 10% para todos los tratamientos de siembra ensayados, excepto en Centrosema pubescens cv. CIAT 438, Crotalaria sp. cv. Derecha, Crotalaria spectabilis, Crotalaria brownii cv. 687, Macroptilium atropurpureum, Stylosanthes guianensis cv. CIAT 136 y Mimosa invisa. El resto de las accesiones presentaron diferentes grados de pérdida de la viabilidad. Las de mejor respuesta germinativa fueron Crotalaria sp. cv. Derecha, M. invisa e Indigofera sp., debido a que alcanzaron porcentajes de germinación final superiores al 70% para, al menos, uno de los termoperíodos de siembra ensayados. An evaluation was made of the germinative response of 20 legume accessions from different storage times, under inadequate humidity and temperature conditions, and subject to thermal and acid scarification treatments before seeding, with different temperatures of the substratum. Independently from the storage time, the moisture content of the seeds was lower than 15%. The seeds from the accessions with more than 12 years showed germination percentages lower than 10% for all the essayed planting treatments, except in Centrosema pubescens cv. CIAT 438, Crotalaria sp. cv. Derecha, Crotalaria spectabilis, Crotalaria brownii cv. 687, Macroptilium atropurpureum, Stylosanthes guianensis cv. CIAT 136 and Mimosa invisa. The other accessions showed different degrees of viability loss. The best germinative response occurred in Crotalaria sp. cv. Derecha, M. invisa and Indigofera sp., because they reached final germination percentages higher than 70% for, at least, one of the studied seeding thermoperiods.
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