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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 654588 matches for " J. A. Goodman "
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Femtolensing: Beyond the Semi-Classical Approximation
A. Ulmer,J. Goodman
Physics , 1994, DOI: 10.1086/175422
Abstract: Femtolensing is a gravitational lensing effect in which the magnification is a function not only of the positions and sizes of the source and lens, but also of the wavelength of light. Femtolensing is the only known effect of $(10^{-13}-10^{-16} M_{\sun})$ dark-matter objects and may possibly be detectable in cosmological gamma-ray burst spectra. We present a new and efficient algorithm for femtolensing calculations in general potentials. The physical-optics results presented here differ at low frequencies from the semi-classical approximation, in which the flux is attributed to a finite number of mutually coherent images. At higher frequencies, our results agree well with the semi-classical predictions. Applying our method to a point-mass lens with external shear, we find complex events that have structure at both large and small spectral resolution. In this way, we show that femtolensing may be observable for lenses up to $10^{-11}$ solar masses, much larger than previously believed. Additionally, we discuss the possibility of a search for femtolensing of white dwarfs in the LMC at optical wavelengths.
Disease and the Extended Phenotype: Parasites Control Host Performance and Survival through Induced Changes in Body Plan
Brett A. Goodman,Pieter T. J. Johnson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020193
Abstract: By definition, parasites harm their hosts. However, some forms of parasite-induced alterations increase parasite transmission between hosts, such that manipulated hosts can be considered extensions of the parasite's phenotype. While well accepted in principle, surprisingly few studies have quantified how parasite manipulations alter host performance and survival under field and laboratory conditions.
Metastatic Rectal Adenocarcinoma of the Hip and Knee Joints: A Case Series  [PDF]
Adam C. Rothenberg, Karl J. Henrikson, Suzanne C. Schiffman, Mark A. Goodman
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2014.54039
Abstract:

Two cases are presented of patients with a history of metastatic rectal adenocarcinoma presenting with a painful joint effusion. Both cases are potential examples of metastasis to periarticular bone with local infiltration to the synovium, which is one proposed mechanism of intrasynovial metastasis. While skeletal metastases are a relatively common occurrence in metastatic adenocarcinoma, intraarticular metastasis is extremely rare. These cases highlight the need to consider metastasis in the differential of joint swelling in the setting of a history of adenocarcinoma.

Enhancement of second-order nonlinear-optical signals by optical stimulation
Aaron J. Goodman,William A. Tisdale
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.183902
Abstract: Second-order nonlinear optical interactions such as sum- and difference-frequency generation are widely used for bioimaging and as selective probes of interfacial environments. However, inefficient nonlinear optical conversion often leads to poor signal-to-noise ratio and long signal acquisition times. Here, we demonstrate the dramatic enhancement of weak second-order nonlinear optical signals via stimulated sum- and difference-frequency generation. We present a conceptual framework to quantitatively describe the interaction and show that the process is highly sensitive to the relative optical phase of the stimulating field. To emphasize the utility of the technique, we demonstrate stimulated enhancement of second harmonic generation (SHG) from bovine collagen-I fibrils. Using a stimulating pulse fluence of only 3 nJ/cm2, we obtain an SHG enhancement >10^4 relative to the spontaneous signal. The stimulation enhancement is greatest in situations where spontaneous signals are the weakest - such as low laser power, small sample volume, and weak nonlinear susceptibility - emphasizing the potential for this technique to improve signal-to-noise ratios in biological imaging and interfacial spectroscopy.
Evaluation of the Risk Factors for Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis in Early Stage Cervical Cancer  [PDF]
J. Ferdous, S. Khatun, S. Akhter, S. Chowdhury, S. Pervin, M. Amir, A. Goodman
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2018.912083
Abstract: Objective: This study evaluated the risk factors for pelvic lymph node metastasis in patients with early stage cervical cancer. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in the Division of Gynaecologic Oncology at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) between July 2014 and July 2015 to evaluate demographic factors and histopathological findings of women with cervical cancer stage IB-IIA who underwent primary radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection. Results: Fifty women aged 30 years or above were included in the study. Lymph node metastases were identified in 20% of patients. By univariate analysis, preoperative anemia, a history of smoking, tumor size greater than 4 cm and lack of cervical inflammatory reaction by histopathology were significant variables associated with lymph node metastasis. Multivariate analysis showed that the lack of inflammatory reaction in the uterine cervix was the most important predictor for pelvic lymph node metastasis when adjusting for other variables. Moderate to severe inflammatory reaction in the uterine cervix was 18 times less likely to have pelvic lymph node metastasis than those who had mild inflammation. Conclusion: An association was found between the presence of pelvic lymph node metastasis in cervical cancer and certain variables: the lack of contraceptive use, smoking, preoperative anemia, bulky tumors, invasion of deep two-third of the uterine cervix, mild inflammatory reaction in the cervix, and keratinizing carcinoma. After adjusting for other factors, presence or absence of inflammatory reaction in the cervix was found to be the most important predictor for pelvic lymph node metastasis.
Health, Climate Change and Sustainability: A Systematic Review and Thematic Analysis of the Literature
A. Nichols, V. Maynard, B. Goodman and J. Richardson
Environmental Health Insights , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Evidence of climate change and its impact continues to be accumulated, and it is argued that the consequences of climate change are likely to result in an increased demand on health services. It has been claimed that climate change presents new challenges for health services and that strategies should be adopted to address these challenges. Aim: The aim of this systematic review was to map published literature on health, climate change and sustainability by categorising papers according to their focus on effects, strategy and actions, and to provide a thematic analysis of their content. Methods: Systematic searches were conducted via a range of healthcare related databases i.e. Pubmed, Medline, CINAHL, AMED, ASSIA, IBSS and ISI Web of Knowledge. Searches focussed upon papers published in English between 1998 and 2008. Retrieved papers were studied by the authors in order to inform the thematic analysis of their content. Results: A total of 114 publications were retrieved, of which 36 met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. These 36 publications were categorised and are discussed according to their focus on: effects/impacts, strategy/policy, action/examples. Conclusions: A number of papers report the potential health effects of climate change while others report policies and strategies to tackle these effects. However there is an urgent need to identify and report on the implementation of strategies to mitigate and adapt to these challenges and to publish real examples of actions. Actions that are taken need to be evidence/policy based, and implementations monitored, evaluated and published.
Health, Climate Change and Sustainability: A Systematic Review and Thematic Analysis of the Literature
A. Nichols,V. Maynard,B. Goodman,J. Richardson
Environmental Health Insights , 2009,
Abstract: Background: Evidence of climate change and its impact continues to be accumulated, and it is argued that the consequences of climate change are likely to result in an increased demand on health services. It has been claimed that climate change presents new challenges for health services and that strategies should be adopted to address these challenges. Aim: The aim of this systematic review was to map published literature on health, climate change and sustainability by categorising papers according to their focus on effects, strategy and actions, and to provide a thematic analysis of their content. Methods: Systematic searches were conducted via a range of healthcare related databases i.e. Pubmed, Medline, CINAHL, AMED, ASSIA, IBSS and ISI Web of Knowledge. Searches focussed upon papers published in English between 1998 and 2008. Retrieved papers were studied by the authors in order to inform the thematic analysis of their content. Results: A total of 114 publications were retrieved, of which 36 met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. These 36 publications were categorised and are discussed according to their focus on: effects/impacts, strategy/policy, action/examples. Conclusions: A number of papers report the potential health effects of climate change while others report policies and strategies to tackle these effects. However there is an urgent need to identify and report on the implementation of strategies to mitigate and adapt to these challenges and to publish real examples of actions. Actions that are taken need to be evidence/policy based, and implementations monitored, evaluated and published.
Interpretation of the Underground Muon Charge Ratio
P. A. Schreiner,J. Reichenbacher,M. C. Goodman
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2009.06.002
Abstract: The MINOS experiment has observed a rise in the underground muon charge ratio $r_\mu$ = ${\mu^+/\mu^-}$. This ratio can be related to the atmospheric production ratios of ${\pi^+/\pi^-}$ and ${K^+/K^-}$. Our analysis indicates that the relevant variable for studying the charge ratio+ $\ecos$, rather than $\emu$. We compare a simple energy dependent parameterization of the rise in the charge ratio with more detailed previously published Monte Carlo simulations and an analytical calculation. We also estimate the size of two previously neglected effects in this context: the charge sign dependency of the dE/dx in rock, and the energy dependence of heavy primaries on the derived ${K^+/K^-}$ ratio.
Reduced dielectric screening and enhanced energy transfer in single and few-layer MoS2
Ferry Prins,Aaron J. Goodman,William A. Tisdale
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1021/nl5019386
Abstract: We report highly efficient non-radiative energy transfer from cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots to monolayer and few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). The quenching of the donor quantum dot photoluminescence increases as the MoS2 flake thickness decreases, with the highest efficiency (>95%) observed for monolayer MoS2. This counterintuitive result arises from reduced dielectric screening in thin layer semiconductors having unusually large permittivity and a strong in-plane transition dipole moment, as found in MoS2. Excitonic energy transfer between a 0D emitter and a 2D absorber is fundamentally interesting and enables a wide range of applications including broadband optical down-conversion, optical detection, photovoltaic sensitization, and color shifting in light-emitting devices.
Grazing-angle scattering of electromagnetic waves in gratings with varying mean parameters: grating eigenmodes
D. K. Gramotnev,S. J. Goodman,T. A. Nieminen
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1080/09500340310001608811
Abstract: A highly unusual pattern of strong multiple resonances for bulk electromagnetic waves is predicted and analysed numerically in thick periodic holographic gratings in a slab with the mean permittivity that is larger than that of the surrounding media. This pattern is shown to exist in the geometry of grazing-angle scattering (GAS), that is when the scattered wave (+1 diffracted order) in the slab propagates almost parallel to the slab (grating) boundaries. The predicted resonances are demonstrated to be unrelated to resonant generation of the conventional guided modes of the slab. Their physical explanation is associated with resonant generation of a completely new type of eigenmodes in a thick slab with a periodic grating. These new slab eigenmodes are generically related to the grating; they do not exist if the grating amplitude is zero. The field structure of these eigenmodes and their dependence on structural and wave parameters is analysed. The results are extended to the case of GAS of guided modes in a slab with a periodic groove array of small corrugation amplitude and small variations in the mean thickness of the slab at the array boundaries.
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