OALib Journal期刊

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匹配条件: “J. A. Alalade” ,找到相关结果约653318条。
The Effect of Short-term Frozen Storage on the Chemical Composition and Coliform Microflora of Wara Cheese `Wara Cheese under Frozen Storage`
O.A. Alalade,J.A. Adeneye
American Journal of Food Technology , 2007,
Abstract: The effect of short-term frozen (-20°C) storage on the chemical composition, pH and coliform bacterial count (cbc) of Wara cheese was investigated. Wara cheese at day old contained 31.00% total solids, 38.26% fat, 33.14% protein, 3.39% ash, 69.00% moisture, 376.50 * 105 cfu g-1 coliform bacteria and a pH of 5.04. At the end of 3 days of frozen storage, average total solids, fat, protein, moisture and ash were found, respectively, 33.25, 35.45, 36.63, 66.75 and 3.88%, while values for pH and cbc were 4.65 and 63.50 * 105 cfu g-1. Daily differences obtained in the parameters observed during frozen storage were similar except for the total solids content that was significantly different (p<0.01). A superior and highly significant correlation (r = 0.664, p<0.01) was found between pH and cbc, while cbc had a positive correlation (r = 0.366) with moisture content.
Proximate Composition and Phytochemical Screenings of Crotalaria retusa Leaves and Seeds  [PDF]
J. A. Alalade, J. A. Akinlade, A. A. Akingbade, C. B. Emiola, I. A. Adebisi
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105058
The leaves and seeds of Crotalaria retusa were evaluated for the proximate, mineral and anti-nutritional contents in a completely randomized design. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used in determination of the seeds and leaves for phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron. Anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) including tannin, oxalate and phytate were also determined using appropriate technique. The result of proximate analysis indicated that leaves and seeds had high crude protein (18.00% and 14.63%), dry matter (94.78% and 90.98%), Ash (7.00% and 8.02%), crude fiber for both leaves (12.75%) and seed (28.44%) and the ether extract was (4.60%) and (5.03%) for leaves and seeds respectively. Mineral analysis indicated the Crotalaria retusa leave and seeds contained some essential mineral such as %P (0.37%) leave and (0.47%) seeds, %K (0.97%, 0.68%), %Mg (0.48%, 0.64%), %Ca (0.58%, 0.78%) and Fe (76.10 mg/kg) for leaves and (70.10 mg/kg) seeds of Crotalaria retusa. The leaves and seeds of Crotalaria retusa had low concentration of anti-nutrient factors; phytate (0.01%) leave and (0.06%) seed, oxalate (0.07%) leave and (0.09%) seed, tannin contents were (0.02%) and (0.05%) for leaves and seeds respectively. The overall results suggested that Crotalaria retusa leaves and seeds were of high nutritionally quality due to high protein and mineral contents with low presence of anti-nutritional factors.
A Survey of Some Dry Season Feed Materials for Small Ruminants in Ogbomoso, Nigeria
F.G. Sodeinde,Akinlade J.A,V.O. Asaolu,M.A. Oladipo S.R. Amao,J.A.Alalade
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: The study was conducted to find out the feed materials available for small ruminants in the five local government area of Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. One hundred questionnaires were administered within the five zones. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that 60% kept goats alone, 20% tended only sheep while 20% kept both sheep and goats, respectively. About 50% got their animals from local markets while others goat theirs as gifts or from contractual agreements. Flock sizes of 1-6 goats and 1-10 sheep were pre dominant among respondents. Fed materials commonly used in the dry season are agro-industrial by-products, by-products of grain processing, peels of crops, crop residues kitchen waste and roughages including pastures and browse plants. Forages are abundant in the wet season, therefore little supplementation is done. The quality and quantity of these materials tend to be affected by the location and season.
Mineral and Antinutritional Contents of Some Forage Legumes Consumed by Small Ruminants in the Derived Savanna of Nigeria
F.G. Sodeinde,V.O. Asaolu,M.A.Oladipo,J.A.Akinlade,A.O. Ige,S.R. Amao,J.A. Alalade
Research Journal of Agronomy , 2012,
Abstract: Experiment were conducted to evaluate the nutritive of 15 forage legumes collected from 5 locations Ogbomoso local government area of Oyo state in Nigeria. Analysis carried out for macro and micro-mineral contents of these plants showed high percentages of Mg (0.31), P (0.28), Ca (1.25), Na (0.02) and K (2.44). Overall mean levels were 23.64 ppm for Zn, 315.66 for Fe, 86.42 for Mn, 9.43 for Cu and 108.90 for Se. In all forages the concentrations of physic-acid (28.55-316.22mg g-1), physic-phosphorus (20.1792.50 mg g-1), oxalates (0.540.82) and nitrates (0.13-0.66%) were moderate to high. Saponin and hydrogen cyanide contents were inherently low or low due to a high drying temperature of the samples. Tannin acid differed considerably among the different species, being absent or low in some forages and extremely high in others. These differences may be genetic or due to cultural practices and soil composition. The nutritional implications of the results are discussed.
Chemical Composition and the Feeding Value of Azolla (Azolla pinnata) Meal for Egg-Type Chicks
O.A. Alalade,E.A. Iyayi
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2006,
Abstract: Biochemical and nutritional studies were carried out to evaluate the potential of Azolla (Azolla pinnata R. Brown) meal, AZM, as a feed resource in the diet of egg-type chicks. In a completely randomized design, 30 two weeks old Nera brown chicks were assigned to each of the four dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10 and 15% azolla meal. Chemical analysis indicated that azolla meal contained (%DM) 21.4 crude protein, 12.7 crude fibre, 2.7 ether extract, 16.2 ash and 47.0 carbohydrate. A gross energy value of 2039 kcal kg-1 was obtained. The concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium were 1.16%, 1.29%, 1.25% and 0.25% respectively, while those of sodium, manganese, iron, copper and zinc were 23.79ppm, 174.42ppm, 755.73ppm, 16.74ppm and 87.59ppm respectively. The chemical score index showed the potential of azolla meal as a good source of protein. Leucine, lysine, arginine and valine were the predominant essential amino acids while tryptophan and the sulphur-containing amino acids were deficient. All AZM diets depressed feed intake. Average weekly weight gains (AWWG) were 95.43g, 95.22g, 98.62g and 93.44g for 0, 5, 10 and 15% AZM respectively. Average weekly feed intake decreased (p< 0.05) from 286.95g/bird to 224.38g/bird as the level of AZM increased to 15%. A non-statistically better AWWG of 98.62g and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of 2.54 was obtained on diet containing 10% AZM. Based on these results, AZM, as an unconventional feed resource has a potential as a feedstuff for chicks. Above all, for improved performance, diets of chicks can be formulated with inclusion of AZM up to 10%.
Nutrient and Anti-Nutrient Content of Soy-Enriched Tapioca  [PDF]
Folake O. Samuel, Bolanle O. Otegbayo, Titilope Alalade
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.36105
Abstract: Tapioca is a cassava-based food product made in the form of irregular lumps of partly gelatinized starch grits. Tapioca was enriched with varying proportions of soybean flour (0, 85% - 15%, 75% - 25%, 50% - 50%) to produce Soy-tapioca (ST). Nutrient and anti-nutrient composition of ST were determined by standard methods, while sensory evaluation was also carried out. Results showed significant increase in protein, fat and mineral contents of tapioca as the level of soy-substitution increased. There was a decrease in the cyanogenic potential and an increase in the level of trypsin inhibitor as soy-substitution increased. Tannin, phytic acid and oxalate contents of the soy-tapioca samples were below minimum levels of safety. ST (50% - 50%) was more nutrient dense than the other products, but ST (85% - 15%) was more accepted in terms of colour, taste and texture. ST suggests a safe, nutritious and acceptable food product that can enhance food and nutrition security among cassava consuming populations.
Performance and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits fed bacterial protein meal
AA Fatufe, IO Matanmi, AO Alalade
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2010,
Abstract: In an 84 days feeding trial, the effect of feeding bacterial protein meal (BPM) either as a replacement for fish meal or for groundnut cake meal in growing rabbits was examined. A total of 20 growing rabbits having an initial body weight of 617.2 (standard error 25) g were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments. A control diet based mainly on agro-industrial by-product palm kernel meal was formulated to meet the nutrient requirement of growing rabbits. Other conventional protein and energy rich ingredients such as maize, groundnut cake (GNC) and fish meal (FM) were included as composite at levels up to 17% of the weight. Bacterial protein meal (Streptomyces sp., species not specified by the manufacturer) with a crude protein, fat and fibre content of 70, 6.5 and 4.1%, respectively was added to the control diet (diet I) either as a replacement for FM at 0, 20 and 40 g/kg in diets I, II and III or as a replacement for GNC at 34 and 68 g/kg in diets IV and V, respectively. Each diet was offered to four rabbits housed individually in raised metal hutches with wire screen floors with each hutch representing an experimental unit. The rabbits were individually weighed on a weekly basis until the end of the experiment. Water and feed were supplied ad libitum and daily voluntary feed intake was monitored. Growing rabbits responded non-significantly (p> 0.05) in feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion to BPM as a replacement for either FM or GNC over the 84 days of experiment. Six rabbits (3 rabbits from each treatment) on diet I (zero inclusion of BPM) and diet V (highest level of BPM inclusion) were slaughtered at 12 weeks to determine carcass composition. The inclusion of BPM in diet V reduced the skin weight significantly (p<0.004) and kidney fat weight (p<0.067), while dressing percentage and other carcass indices were not significantly (p>0.05) affected. It was concluded that BPM can completely (to 100 %) replace FM and GNC in the diet of growing rabbits. BPM also reduced kidney fat content (which is an index of carcass fatness). BPM can be fed (up to 6.8% of the total diet) to 5 - 6 weeks old rabbits through finishing with no adverse effect on growth or carcass characteristics.
Altered Cerebellar-Cerebral Functional Connectivity in Geriatric Depression
Emmanuel Alalade, Kevin Denny, Guy Potter, David Steffens, Lihong Wang
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020035
Abstract: Although volumetric and activation changes in the cerebellum have frequently been reported in studies on major depression, its role in the neural mechanism of depression remains unclear. To understand how the cerebellum may relate to affective and cognitive dysfunction in depression, we investigated the resting-state functional connectivity between cerebellar regions and the cerebral cortex in samples of patients with geriatric depression (n = 11) and healthy controls (n = 18). Seed-based connectivity analyses were conducted using seeds from cerebellum regions previously identified as being involved in the executive, default-mode, affective-limbic, and motor networks. The results revealed that, compared with controls, individuals with depression show reduced functional connectivity between several cerebellum seed regions, specifically those in the executive and affective-limbic networks with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and increased functional connectivity between the motor-related cerebellum seed regions with the putamen and motor cortex. We further investigated whether the altered functional connectivity in depressed patients was associated with cognitive function and severity of depression. A positive correlation was found between the Crus II–vmPFC connectivity and performance on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised delayed memory recall. Additionally, the vermis–posterior cinglate cortex (PCC) connectivity was positively correlated with depression severity. Our results suggest that cerebellum–vmPFC coupling may be related to cognitive function whereas cerebellum–PCC coupling may be related to emotion processing in geriatric depression.
Effect of Annealing Temperature on Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of Pure CdS Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis Technique  [PDF]
A. Hasnat, J. Podder
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry (AMPC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ampc.2012.24034

Effect of annealing temperature on the properties of CdS thin films are carried out in this work. Nanocrystalline cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films were prepared using spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) technique and the structural, optical and electrical properties were investigated for different annealing temperature (as deposited, 300, 400 & 500 C). The surface morphology and compositional properties studied by SEM and EDX respectively. The crystal structure of CdS thin film was studied by X-ray diffraction. The crystallite size and lattice constant of SPD CdS thin films were investigated. The optical parameters such as transmittance, absorption coefficient and energy band gap of the films with thermal annealing temperature was investigated by UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The variation of band gap values of CdS thin film samples were found to be in the range of 2.51 to 2.8 eV. Electrical resistivity measurements were carried out in fourprobe Vander Pauw method at different temperature. So CdS films may be a good candidate for suitable application in various optoelectronic devices.

The 1964 Wellington Study of Beatlemania Revisited  [PDF]
A. J. W. Taylor
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.515190
Abstract: In June 1964, an Honours class in clinical psychology set out to objectify the major parameters of crowd and audience reaction to the Beatles’ during the group’s three-day visit to Wellington, New Zealand. Advance publicity had warned of the “mass-hysteria” to be expected at the sight, sound and lyrics of the four lads from Liverpool. Adolescents anticipated their arrival eagerly, while the authorities were disparaging and somewhat fearful of the breakdown in law and order that might occur. The findings were published in Britain in 1966, taken a little further in the United States in1968, and the original published once more in Britain in 1992 by special request to encourage more psychologists to undertake research off campus. When writers from those countries mentioned the study recently near the 50th anniversary of the Beatles’ visit, it seemed interesting to review the accretion of similar studies that might have occurred. Sadly, the outcome showed that psychologists had not taken mass-audience research any further. Hence it was thought appropriate to lift the Wellington study from obscurity, in the hope of inspiring the next generation to make amends.

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