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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 299405 matches for " Jürgen Becker "
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An Interface for a Decentralized 2D Reconfiguration on Xilinx Virtex-FPGAs for Organic Computing
Christian Schuck,Bastian Haetzer,Jürgen Becker
International Journal of Reconfigurable Computing , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/273791
Abstract: Partial and dynamic online reconfiguration of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) is a promising approach to design high adaptive systems with lower power consumption, higher task specific performance, and even build-in fault tolerance. Different techniques and tool flows have been successfully developed. One of them, the two-dimensional partial reconfiguration, based on the Readback-Modify-Writeback method implemented on Xilinx Virtex devices, makes them ideally suited to be used as a hardware platform in future organic computing systems, where a highly adaptive hardware is necessary. In turn, decentralisation, the key property of an organic computing system, is in contradiction with the central nature of the FPGAs configuration port. Therefore, this paper presents an approach that connects the single ICAP port to a network on chip (NoC) to provide access for all clients of the network. Through this a virtual decentralisation of the ICAP is achieved. Further true 2-dimensional partial reconfiguration is raised to a higher level of abstraction through a lightweight Readback-Modify-Writeback hardware module with different configuration and addressing modes. Results show that configuration data as well as reconfiguration times could be significantly reduced.
Reconfiguration Techniques for Self-X Power and Performance Management on Xilinx Virtex-II/Virtex-II-Pro FPGAs
Christian Schuck,Bastian Haetzer,Jürgen Becker
International Journal of Reconfigurable Computing , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/671546
Abstract: Xilinx Virtex-II family FPGAs support an advanced low-skew clock distribution network with numerous global clock nets to support high-speed mixed frequency designs. Digital Clock Managers in combination with Global Clock Buffers are already in place to generate the desired frequency and to drive the clock networks with different sources, respectively. Currently, almost all designs run at a fixed clock frequency determined statically during design time. Such systems cannot take the full advantage of partial and dynamic self-reconfiguration. Therefore, we introduce a new methodology that allows the implemented hardware to dynamically self-adopt the clock frequency during runtime by reconfiguring the Digital Clock Managers. We also present a method for online speed monitoring which is based on a two-dimensional online routing. The created speed maps of the FPGA area can be used as an input for the dynamic frequency scaling. Figures for reconfiguration performance and power savings are given. Further, the tradeoffs for reconfiguration effort using this method are evaluated. Results show the high potential and importance of the distributed dynamic frequency scaling method with little additional overhead. 1. Introduction Xilinx Virtex FPGAs have been designed with high-performance applications in mind. They feature several dedicated Digital Clock Managers (DCMs) and Digital Clock Buffers for solving high-speed clock distribution problems. Multiple clock nets are supported to enable highly heterogeneous mixed frequency designs. Usually all clock frequencies for the single clock nets and the parameters for the DCMs are determined during design time through static timing analysis. Targeting maximum performance these parameters strongly depend on the longest combinatorial path (critical path) between two storage elements. For minimum power the required throughput of the design unit determines the lower boundary of the possible clock frequency. In both cases nonadjusted clock frequencies lead to waste of either processing power or energy [1, 2]. Considering the feature of partial and dynamic self-reconfiguration of Xilinx Virtex FPGAs, during runtime a high dynamic and flexibility arises. Static analysis methods are no longer able to sufficiently determine an adjusted clock frequency during design time. At the same time a new partial module is reconfigured onto the FPGA grid, its critical path changes, and in turn the clock frequency has to be adjusted as well during runtime to fit the new critical path. On the other side the throughput requirement of the
HIC@RE … and its relevance for a company like RIEMSER
Müller, Berno,Becker, Jürgen
GMS Krankenhaushygiene Interdisziplin?r , 2011,
Abstract: The increased incidence of infections caused by methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) burdens the healthcare systems with significant additional costs. Simple measures such as active MRSA screening can lead to a reduction of infectious events and massive savings. To establish an effective and comprehensive strategy for prevention and eradication of MRSA, the cooperation and networking of all stakeholders in the health care system is necessary. Pharmaceutical companies are part of the health care system; they therefore have a vital and ethical interest that care within the health system will be further optimized and thus continue to remain affordable. The targets of the HIC@RE project demonstrate the interests of the pharmaceutical and health-care research company RIEMSER Arzneimittel AG, so that a sufficient rationale is given for cooperation in this project.
Selected Papers from the 2011 International Conference on Reconfigurable Computing and FPGAs (ReConFig 2011)
René Cumplido,Peter Athanas,Jürgen Becker
International Journal of Reconfigurable Computing , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/597323
Selected Papers from the 2011 International Conference on Reconfigurable Computing and FPGAs (ReConFig 2011)
René Cumplido,Peter Athanas,Jürgen Becker
International Journal of Reconfigurable Computing , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/597323
Abstract: The seventh edition of the International Conference on Reconfigurable Computing and FPGAs (ReConFig 2011) was held in Cancun, Mexico, from November 30 to December 2, 2011. This special issue covers actual and future trends on reconfigurable computing and FPGA technology given by academic and industrial specialists from all over the world. All papers in this special issue are extended versions of selected papers presented at ReConFig 2011, for final publication they were peer-reviewed to ensure that they are presented with the breadth and depth expected from this high-quality journal. There are a total of 11 papers in this issue. The following 4 papers correspond to the track titled General sessions. In “Analysis of fast radix-10 digit recurrence algorithms for fixed-point and floating-point dividers on FPGAs,” M. Baesler and S. O. Voigt present five different radix-10 digit recurrence dividers for FPGA architectures. All five architectures apply a radix-10 digit recurrence algorithm but differ in the quotient digit selection (QDS) function. In “Runtime scheduling, allocation and execution of real-time hardware tasks onto Xilinx FPGAs subject to fault occurrence,” Iturbe et al. present describes a novel way to exploit the computation capabilities delivered by modern field-programmable gate Arrays (FPGAs), not only towards a higher performance, but also towards an improved reliability. Computation-specific pieces of circuitry are dynamically scheduled and allocated to different resources on the chip based on a set of novel algorithms which are described in detail. In “Object recognition and pose estimation on embedded hardware: SURF-based system designs accelerated by FPGA Logic,” Schaeferling et al. describe two embedded systems for object detection and pose estimation using sophisticated point features. The feature detection step of the Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) algorithm is accelerated by a special IP core. The first system performs object detection and is completely implemented in a single medium-size Virtex-5 FPGA. The second system is an augmented reality platform, which consists of an ARM-based microcontroller and intelligent FPGA-based cameras which support the main system. In “Adaptive multiclient network-on-chip memory core: hardware architecture, software abstraction layer and application exploration,” D. G?hringer et al. present the hardware architecture and the software abstraction layer of an adaptive multiclient Network-on-Chip (NoC) memory core. The advantages of the novel memory core in terms of performance, flexibility, and
Dysfunctional Attitudes and Anxiety Sensitivity in the Manifestation and First Onset of Social Anxiety Disorder versus Specific Phobia and Healthy: A Prospective Longitudinal Study  [PDF]
Myriam Rudaz, Eni S. Becker, Jürgen Margraf, Thomas Ledermann, Andrea H. Meyer, Michelle G. Craske
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.714168
Abstract: This study evaluated the role of two cognitive vulnerability factors, anxiety sensitivity and dysfunctional attitudes, in the prediction of the manifestation and onset of social anxiety disorder relative to specific phobia and relative to healthy controls. Women, aged between 18 and 24 years, were studied at baseline and 18 months later using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Lifetime-ADIS-IV-L and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-ASI and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale-DAS. First, 52 women with current social anxiety disorder were compared to 97 women with current specific phobia and 1124 healthy controls (cross-sectional analysis). Second, 24 women with a first incidence of social anxiety disorder were compared to 55 women with a first incidence of specific phobia and 684 healthy controls (longitudinal analysis). Multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusted for baseline anxiety and depressive severity, revealed that a) dysfunctional attitudes were elevated in women with current social anxiety disorder versus healthy controls as well as women with current specific phobia in the cross-sectional analysis and b) dysfunctional attitudes were elevated in women who subsequently developed social anxiety disorder versus healthy controls in the longitudinal analysis. However, dysfunctional attitudes were not predictive for women who developed social anxiety disorder during the study relative to women who developed specific phobia. The results suggest that dysfunctional attitudes are a marker of severity for social anxiety disorder relative to other phobias and a risk factor for phobias more generally. Anxiety sensitivity seems not to contribute to the manifestation and onset of social anxiety disorders.
HoneyComb: An Application-Driven Online Adaptive Reconfigurable Hardware Architecture
Alexander Thomas,Michael Rückauer,Jürgen Becker
International Journal of Reconfigurable Computing , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/832531
Abstract: Since the introduction of the first reconfigurable devices in 1985 the field of reconfigurable computing developed a broad variety of architectures from fine-grained to coarse-grained types. However, the main disadvantages of the reconfigurable approaches, the costs in area, and power consumption, are still present. This contribution presents a solution for application-driven adaptation of our reconfigurable architecture at register transfer level (RTL) to reduce the resource requirements and power consumption while keeping the flexibility and performance for a predefined set of applications. Furthermore, implemented runtime adaptive features like online routing and configuration sequencing will be presented and discussed. A presentation of the prototype chip of this architecture designed in 90 nm standard cell technology manufactured by TSMC will conclude this contribution. 1. Introduction Reconfigurable architectures aim to reach the performance and energy-efficiency of application-specific integrated circuits while the flexibility is increased, therefore closing the gap between ASICs and general-purpose processors. For data-oriented applications an increase in performance compared to general-purpose processors can be reached by mapping operations to a possibly large set of functional units, which are working in parallel. In contrast to ASICs, their actual function and the interconnection between the units are not determined during design and manufacturing but may be changed at runtime to support a wider range of applications. For example, in a mesh-based architecture, a flexible communication network connects the functional units (FUs) on demand. Since the FUs are communicating directly by exchanging the intermediate results through the communication network, memory accesses for temporary data storage are avoided and memory bandwidth usage is reduced to a minimum. The overall data throughput is at maximum and very close to the ideal performance that can be reached by ASIC implementations. However, this approach is not without limitations. The increased flexibility comes at the cost of additional hardware. The flexible communication network for FUs requires a lot of multiplexers, communication lines, configuration registers, and additional logic to control the configuration mechanisms. Depending on the type of the reconfigurable approach (coarse-grained or fine-grained) the overhead of the configuration registers and control logic can be considerable. An example for this fact is given by field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) [1, 2], which require a
Absence of mutations in the coding sequence of the potential tumor suppressor 3pK in metastatic melanoma
Houben Roland,Becker Jürgen C,Rapp Ulf R
Journal of Carcinogenesis , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1477-3163-4-23
Abstract: Background Activation of Ras or Raf contributes to tumorigenesis of melanoma. However, constitutive Raf activation is also a characteristic of the majority of benign melanocytic nevi and high intensity signaling of either Ras or Raf was found to induce growth inhibition and senescence rather than transformation. Since the chromosome 3p kinase (3pK)) is a target of the Ras/Raf/Mek/Erk signaling pathway which antagonizes the function of the oncogene and anti-differentiation factor Bmi-1, 3pK may function as a tumor suppressor in tumors with constitutive Ras/Raf activation. Consequently, we tested whether inactivating 3pK mutations are present in melanoma. Methods 30 metastatic melanoma samples, which were positive for activating mutations of either BRaf or NRas, were analyzed for possible mutations in the 3pk gene. The 10 coding exons and their flanking intron sequences were amplified by PCR and direct sequencing of the PCR products was performed. Results This analysis revealed that besides the presence of some single nucleotide polymorphisms in the 3pk gene, we could not detect any possible loss of function mutation in any of these 30 metastatic melanoma samples selected for the presence of activating mutations within the Ras/Raf/Mek/Erk signaling pathway. Conclusion Hence, in melanoma with constitutively active Ras/Raf inactivating mutations within the 3pk gene do not contribute to the oncogenic phenotype of this highly malignant tumor.
Constitutive activation of the Ras-Raf signaling pathway in metastatic melanoma is associated with poor prognosis
Houben Roland,Becker Jürgen,Kappel Andreas,Terheyden Patrick
Journal of Carcinogenesis , 2004,
Abstract: Background Genes of the Raf family encode kinases that are regulated by Ras and mediate cellular responses to growth signals. Recently, it was shown that activating mutations of BRaf are found with high frequency in human melanomas. The Ras family member most often mutated in melanoma is NRas. Methods The constitutive activation of the Ras/Raf signaling pathway suggests an impact on the clinical course of the tumor. To address this notion, we analyzed tumor DNA from 114 primary cutaneous melanomas and of 86 metastatic lesions obtained from 174 patients for mutations in BRaf (exons 15 and 11) and NRas (exons 1 and 2) by direct sequencing of PCR products and correlated these results with the clinical course. Results In 57.5% of the tumors either BRaf or NRas were mutated with a higher incidence in metastatic (66.3%) than in primary lesions (50.9%). Although the majority of BRaf mutations affected codon 599, almost 15% of mutations at this position were different from the well-described exchange from valine to glutamic acid. These mutations (V599R and V599K) also displayed increased kinase and transforming activity. Surprisingly, the additional BRaf variants D593V, G465R and G465E showed a complete loss of activity in the in vitro kinase assay; however, cells overexpressing these mutants displayed increased Erk phosphorylation. The correlation of mutational status and clinical course revealed that the presence of BRaf/NRas mutations in primary tumors did not negatively impact progression free or overall survival. In contrast, however, for metastatic lesions the presence of BRAF/NRAS mutations was associated with a significantly poorer prognosis, i.e. a shortened survival. Conclusion We demonstrate a high – albeit lower than initially anticipated – frequency of activating BRaf mutations in melanoma in the largest series of directly analyzed tumors reported to date. Notably, the clinical course of patients harboring activating BRaf mutations in metastatic melanoma was significantly affected by the presence of a constitutive BRaf activation in these.
Specific tumor-stroma interactions of EBV-positive Burkitt's lymphoma cells in the chick chorioallantoic membrane
Jürgen Becker, Ana Covelo-Fernandez, Frederike von Bonin, Dieter Kube, J?rg Wilting
Vascular Cell , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2045-824x-4-3
Abstract: All cell-lines formed solid tumors. However, we observed strong differences in the behavior of EBV+ and EBV- cell-lines. Tumor borders of EBV+ cells were very fuzzy and numerous cells migrated into the CAM. In EBV- tumors, the borders were much better defined. In contrast to EBV- cells, the EBV+ cells induced massive immigration of chick leukocytes at the tumor borders and the development of granulation tissue with large numbers of blood vessels and lymphatics, although the expression of pro- and anti-angiogenic forms of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors/receptors was the same in all BL cell-lines tested. The EBV+ cell-lines massively disseminated via the lymphatics and completely occluded them.Our data suggest that the EBV+ cells attract pro-angiogenic leukocytes, which then induce secondary tumor-stroma interactions contributing to the progression of BL. We show that the CAM is a highly suitable in vivo model to study the differential behavior of BL cell-lines.With conventional chemotherapy, long-term remission can be achieved in approximately 60% of patients with disseminated "aggressive" Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) [1]. The disease incidence is increasing, but etiologic factors contributing to this phenomenon remain still largely unknown. Although it is a curable disease, many patients do not achieve complete remission, or they relapse after conventional chemotherapy. Tumor- and host-related parameters are likely to reflect some underlying biologic mechanisms and differences in the response to therapy [2,3]. One suggestion is that deregulated components of the immune system may be linked to the incidence and clinical course of lymphomas, and the development of acute or chronic inflammatory reactions at the tumor site. Cytokines, as major mediators of inflammation, were found to be associated with the transformation of lymphatic malignancies either as autocrine growth factors for the transformed cells or as factors rebuilding the tumor microenvironment, likely a
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