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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 336573 matches for " J Michael Schmidt "
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Der Arbeitskreis interdisziplin re Hexenforschung
Schmidt, Jürgen-Michael
Zeitenblicke , 2002,
Abstract:
Population Physiology: Leveraging Electronic Health Record Data to Understand Human Endocrine Dynamics
D. J. Albers, George Hripcsak, Michael Schmidt
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048058
Abstract: Studying physiology and pathophysiology over a broad population for long periods of time is difficult primarily because collecting human physiologic data can be intrusive, dangerous, and expensive. One solution is to use data that have been collected for a different purpose. Electronic health record (EHR) data promise to support the development and testing of mechanistic physiologic models on diverse populations and allow correlation with clinical outcomes, but limitations in the data have thus far thwarted such use. For example, using uncontrolled population-scale EHR data to verify the outcome of time dependent behavior of mechanistic, constructive models can be difficult because: (i) aggregation of the population can obscure or generate a signal, (ii) there is often no control population with a well understood health state, and (iii) diversity in how the population is measured can make the data difficult to fit into conventional analysis techniques. This paper shows that it is possible to use EHR data to test a physiological model for a population and over long time scales. Specifically, a methodology is developed and demonstrated for testing a mechanistic, time-dependent, physiological model of serum glucose dynamics with uncontrolled, population-scale, physiological patient data extracted from an EHR repository. It is shown that there is no observable daily variation the normalized mean glucose for any EHR subpopulations. In contrast, a derived value, daily variation in nonlinear correlation quantified by the time-delayed mutual information (TDMI), did reveal the intuitively expected diurnal variation in glucose levels amongst a random population of humans. Moreover, in a population of continuously (tube) fed patients, there was no observable TDMI-based diurnal signal. These TDMI-based signals, via a glucose insulin model, were then connected with human feeding patterns. In particular, a constructive physiological model was shown to correctly predict the difference between the general uncontrolled population and a subpopulation whose feeding was controlled.
Electroweak Baryogenesis: Concrete in a SUSY Model with a Gauge Singlet
Stephan J. Huber,Michael G. Schmidt
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1016/S0550-3213(01)00250-4
Abstract: SUSY models with a gauge singlet easily allow for a strong first order electroweak phase transition (EWPT) if the vevs of the singlet and Higgs fields are of comparable size. We discuss the profile of the stationary expanding bubble wall and CP-violation in the effective potential, in particular transitional CP-violation inside the bubble wall during the EWPT. The dispersion relations for charginos contain CP-violating terms in the WKB approximation. These enter as source terms in the Boltzmann equations for the (particle--antiparticle) chemical potentials and fuel the creation of a baryon asymmetry through the weak sphaleron in the hot phase. This is worked out for concrete parameters.
Quantum Nature of Edge Magnetism in Graphene
Michael Golor,Stefan Wessel,Manuel J. Schmidt
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.046601
Abstract: It is argued that the subtle crossover from decoherence-dominated classical magnetism to fluctuation-dominated quantum magnetism is experimentally accessible in graphene nanoribbons. We show that the width of a nanoribbon determines whether the edge magnetism is on the classical side, on the quantum side, or in between. In the classical regime, decoherence is dominant and leads to static spin polarizations at the ribbon edges, which are well described by mean-field theories. The quantum Zeno effect is identified as the basic mechanism which is responsible for the spin polarization and thereby enables the application of graphene in spintronics. On the quantum side, however, the spin polarization is destroyed by dynamical processes. The great tunability of graphene magnetism thus offers a viable route for the study of the quantum-classical crossover.
Baryogenesis at the Electroweak Phase Transition for a SUSY Model with a Gauge Singlet
Stephan J. Huber,Michael G. Schmidt
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: SUSY models with a gauge singlet easily allow for a strongly first order electroweak phase transition (EWPT). We discuss the wall profile, in particular transitional CP violation during the EWPT. We calculate CP violating source terms for the charginos in the WKB approximation and solve the relevant transport equations to obtain the generated baryon asymmetry.
SUSY Variants of the Electroweak Phase Transition
Stephan J. Huber,Michael G. Schmidt
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1007/s100529900135
Abstract: The MSSM with a light right-handed stop and supersymmetric models with a singlet whose vev is comparable to that of the SU(2)_W Higgs allow for a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition even for a mass of the lightest Higgs around 100 GeV. After a short review of the standard model situation we discuss these supersymmetric models. We also compare perturbative calculations based on the dimensionally reduced 3-dimensional action with lattice results and present an analytic procedure based on an analogue of the stochastic vacuum model of QCD to estimate the nonperturbative contributions.
A Case Study on Covert Channel Establishment via Software Caches in High-Assurance Computing Systems
Wolfgang Schmidt,Michael Hanspach,J?rg Keller
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Covert channels can be utilized to secretly deliver information from high privileged processes to low privileged processes in the context of a high-assurance computing system. In this case study, we investigate the possibility of covert channel establishment via software caches in the context of a framework for component-based operating systems. While component-based operating systems offer security through the encapsulation of system service processes, complete isolation of these processes is not reasonably feasible. This limitation is practically demonstrated with our concept of a specific covert timing channel based on file system caching. The stability of the covert channel is evaluated and a methodology to disrupt the covert channel transmission is presented. While these kinds of attacks are not limited to high-assurance computing systems, our study practically demonstrates that even security-focused computing systems with a minimal trusted computing base are vulnerable for such kinds of attacks and careful design decisions are necessary for secure operating system architectures.
Nano-motion Dynamics are Determined by Surface-Tethered Selectin Mechanokinetics and Bond Formation
Brian J. Schmidt,Jason A. Papin,Michael B. Lawrence
PLOS Computational Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000612
Abstract: The interaction of proteins at cellular interfaces is critical for many biological processes, from intercellular signaling to cell adhesion. For example, the selectin family of adhesion receptors plays a critical role in trafficking during inflammation and immunosurveillance. Quantitative measurements of binding rates between surface-constrained proteins elicit insight into how molecular structural details and post-translational modifications contribute to function. However, nano-scale transport effects can obfuscate measurements in experimental assays. We constructed a biophysical simulation of the motion of a rigid microsphere coated with biomolecular adhesion receptors in shearing flow undergoing thermal motion. The simulation enabled in silico investigation of the effects of kinetic force dependence, molecular deformation, grouping adhesion receptors into clusters, surface-constrained bond formation, and nano-scale vertical transport on outputs that directly map to observable motions. Simulations recreated the jerky, discrete stop-and-go motions observed in P-selectin/PSGL-1 microbead assays with physiologic ligand densities. Motion statistics tied detailed simulated motion data to experimentally reported quantities. New deductions about biomolecular function for P-selectin/PSGL-1 interactions were made. Distributing adhesive forces among P-selectin/PSGL-1 molecules closely grouped in clusters was necessary to achieve bond lifetimes observed in microbead assays. Initial, capturing bond formation effectively occurred across the entire molecular contour length. However, subsequent rebinding events were enhanced by the reduced separation distance following the initial capture. The result demonstrates that vertical transport can contribute to an enhancement in the apparent bond formation rate. A detailed analysis of in silico motions prompted the proposition of wobble autocorrelation as an indicator of two-dimensional function. Insight into two-dimensional bond formation gained from flow cell assays might therefore be important to understand processes involving extended cellular interactions, such as immunological synapse formation. A biologically informative in silico system was created with minimal, high-confidence inputs. Incorporating random effects in surface separation through thermal motion enabled new deductions of the effects of surface-constrained biomolecular function. Important molecular information is embedded in the patterns and statistics of motion.
Movement Coordination or Movement Interference: Visual Tracking and Spontaneous Coordination Modulate Rhythmic Movement Interference
Veronica Romero, Charles Coey, R. C. Schmidt, Michael J. Richardson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044761
Abstract: When an actor performs a rhythmic limb movement while observing a spatially incongruent movement he or she exhibits increased movement orthogonal to the instructed motion. Known as rhythmic movement interference, this phenomenon has been interpreted as a motor contagion effect, whereby observing the incongruent movement interferes with the intended movement and results in a motor production error. Here we test the hypothesis that rhythmic movement interference is an emergent property of rhythmic coordination. Participants performed rhythmic limb movements at a self-selected tempo while observing a computer stimulus moving in a congruent or incongruent manner. The degree to which participants visually tracked the stimulus was manipulated to influence whether participants became spontaneously entrained to the stimulus or not. Consistent with the rhythmic coordination hypothesis, participants only exhibited the rhythmic movement interference effect when they became spontaneously entrained to the incongruent stimulus.
Estimating the regional distribution of men who have sex with men (MSM) based on Internet surveys
Ulrich Marcus, Axel J Schmidt, Osamah Hamouda, Michael Bochow
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-180
Abstract: We compared participants from two separate MSM behavioural surveys with each other and with the distribution of user profiles of the largest contact and dating website for gay and other MSM in Germany in terms of the representativeness of the regional distribution. In addition, we compared the regional distribution of reportedly HIV positive survey participants with the regional distribution of HIV notifications within the national surveillance system that can be attributed to transmission through homosexual contacts.Regional distribution of survey participants was almost identical in both surveys, despite little overlap between survey participants. Slight discrepancies between surveys and user profiles could be observed. Proportional regional distribution of survey participants with HIV diagnosis resembled national surveillance data.Considering the difficulties to obtain representative data by other sampling methods for "hidden" populations like MSM, internet-based surveys may provide an easy and low cost tool to estimate the regional population distribution – at least in Western post-industrialized countries. Some uncertainties remain about the exact place of residence of MSM in larger cities or catchment areas of these cities. Slightly different results from different datasets may be due to unequal popularity of MSM websites in different regions. The total population size of the MSM population can be estimated based on e.g. data from representative national population surveys. Both estimates can then be combined to calculate the absolute size of regional MSM populations.National infectious disease surveillance data for sexually transmitted infections, if they collect information on the gender of sexual partners, usually refer diagnosis or infection incidence in MSM to the general population or the general male population. However, this approach neglects specific migration processes that lead to a concentration of sexual minorities such as men who have sex with me
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