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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8039 matches for " Izhar Ahmad "
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Efficiency and Duality in Nondifferentiable Multiobjective Programming Involving Directional Derivative  [PDF]
Izhar Ahmad
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/am.2011.24057
Abstract: In this paper, we introduce a new class of generalized dI-univexity in which each component of the objective and constraint functions is directionally differentiable in its own direction di for a nondifferentiable multiobjective programming problem. Based upon these generalized functions, sufficient optimality conditions are established for a feasible point to be efficient and properly efficient under the generalised dI-univexity requirements. Moreover, weak, strong and strict converse duality theorems are also derived for Mond-Weir type dual programs.
On Second-Order Duality for Minimax Fractional Programming Problems with Generalized Convexity
Izhar Ahmad
Abstract and Applied Analysis , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/563924
Abstract: We focus our study on a discussion of duality relationships of a minimax fractional programming problem with its two types of second-order dual models under the second-order generalized convexity type assumptions. Results obtained in this paper naturally unify and extend some previously known results on minimax fractional programming in the literature.
Generalized Second-Order Mixed Symmetric Duality in Nondifferentiable Mathematical Programming
Ravi P. Agarwal,Izhar Ahmad,S. K. Gupta,N. Kailey
Abstract and Applied Analysis , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/103597
Abstract: This paper is concerned with a pair of second-order mixed symmetric dual programs involving nondifferentiable functions. Weak, strong, and converse duality theorems are proved for aforementioned pair using the notion of second-order -convexity/pseudoconvexity assumptions.
Duality in nondifferentiable minimax fractional programming with B-(p, r)-invexity
Ahmad Izhar,Gupta SK,Kailey N,Agarwal Ravi
Journal of Inequalities and Applications , 2011,
Abstract: In this article, we are concerned with a nondifferentiable minimax fractional programming problem. We derive the sufficient condition for an optimal solution to the problem and then establish weak, strong, and strict converse duality theorems for the problem and its dual problem under B-(p, r)-invexity assumptions. Examples are given to show that B-(p, r)-invex functions are generalization of (p, r)-invex and convex functions AMS Subject Classification: 90C32; 90C46; 49J35.
Epidemiology and Economic Benefits of Treating Goat Coccidiosis
Tauseef-ur-Rehman, Muhammad Nisar Khan*, Izhar Ahmad Khan1 and Mansoor Ahmad
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2011,
Abstract: A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Eimeria species and to compare the efficacy of Toltrazuril and Amprolium against coccidosis. Of the total 121 fecal samples examined for Eimeria, 67 (55.99%) were found infected with four species of Eimeria. Amongst the identified species, E. ninakohlyakimovae was the commonest one (49.25%) followed were E. arloingi, E. caprina and E. hirci with prevalence of 44.78, 25.37 and 19.40%, respectively. Kids had significantly (P<0.05) higher prevalence of Eimeria than adults. Higher prevalence of Eimeria was observed in female goats. Forty five Eimeria positive animals were randomly divided into three equal groups, i.e., groups A to C. Group A was treated with Amprolium (2g/40kg BW) and group B was treated with Toltrazuril (15mg/kg BW) for three days each while no drug was given to Group C. On day 7 post treatment, all goats of group B stopped shedding oocysts while 8 (53.33%) goats of group A stopped shedding oocysts. After the treatment, goats of group B gained 2.2 kg body weight over a period of 15 days compared 1.2 kg weight in group A. The lowest weight gain (0.5 kg) was in goats of group C (untreated control). No significant difference in milk yield of the three groups was recorded. It can be concluded that control of goat coccidiosis through single treatment of Toltrazuril is economically beneficial.
Engine Assembly Process Quality Improvement using Six Sigma
Dr. R.L. Shrivastava,Khwaja Izhar Ahmad,Tushar N. Desai
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2008,
Toqeer Ahmad, Rashida Kanwal, Izhar Hussain Athar1, Najam Ayub
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2002,
Abstract: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from camel milk by culturing the camel milk on specific media and pure culture was obtained by sub culturing. Purification of culture was confirmed by Gram's staining and identified by different bio-chemical tests. Camel milk contains lactic acid producing bacteria including Strpptococci such as S. cremoris and S. lactis and Lactobacilli such as L. acidophilus L. acidophilus grows more rapidly in camel milk than others as its growth is supported by camel milk. A variety of food can be preserved by lactic acid fermentation, so starter culture was prepared from strains which were isolated from camel milk. Camel and buffalo's milk cheese was prepared by using starter culture. The strains isolated from camel milk were best for acid production and can coagulate the milk in less lime. Camel milk cheese was prepared and compared with buffalo's milk cheese. It is concluded that cheese can be prepared successfully from camel milk and better results can be obtained by coagulating milk with starter culture.
Use of Gypsum to Increase Fertilizer Efficiency on Normal Soils
Banaras H. Niazi,Izhar-ul-Haq,M. Salim,Manzoor Ahmad
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: Field experiments were conducted on maize and wheat under normal soil conditions at Qalla, Charsadda and Tarnab, Peshawar irrigated with canal water to evaluate the effect of gypsum application on the efficiency of NPK fertilizers. Gypsum was applied @ 0, 500 and 1000 kg ha-1 with two levels of fertilizers i.e. recommended dose of NPK (120,90, 60 kg ha-1) and half dose (60, 45 and 30 kg ha-1) respectively. Maximum grain (3605 kg ha-1) and stalk (9922 kg ha-1) yield of maize was recorded at Qalla by the application of recommended dose of NPK with 1000 kg gypsum ha-1. The NPK with 500 kg gypsum ha-1 ranked second in this respect. Half dose of the NPK without any gypsum gave minimum grain (2248 kg ha-1) and stalk (3435 kg ha-1) yield. The yields were non- significantly different at Tarnab under the same treatment compared with that of Qalla. During the second year, the soil conditions improved and yield of grain (2883 kg ha-1) as well as stalk (15833 kg ha-1) was better at both sites. Wheat yield was non-significantly different at Tarnab. Uptake of different ions was variable. Uptake of P, K, Zn and Cu decreased while that of Mn and Fe increased during the second year. Maximum yield of maize grain (2883 kg ha-1) and stalk (15833 kg ha-1) with half dose and wheat grain (3605 kg ha-1) and stalk (12910 kg ha-1) was obtained by application of 1000 kg ha-1 gypsum with full dose of NPK.
The Performance of Two Mothers Wavelets in Function Approximation
Mohd Fazril Izhar Mohd Idris,Zaki Ahmad Dahlan,Hj. Kamaruzaman Jusoff
Journal of Mathematics Research , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/jmr.v1n2p135
Abstract: Research into Wavelet Neural Networks was conducted on numerous occasions in the past. Based on previous research, it was noted that the Wavelet Neural Network could reliably be used for function approximation. The research conducted included comparisons between the mother functions of the Wavelet Neural Network namely the Mexican Hat, Gaussian Wavelet and Morlet Functions. The performances of these functions were estimated using the Normalised Square Root Mean Squared Error (NSRMSE) performance index. However, in this paper, the Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) was used as the performance index. In previous research, two of the best mother wavelets for function approximations were determined to be the Gaussian Wavelet and Morlet functions. An in-depth investigation into the two functions was conducted in order to determine which of these two functions performed better under certain conditions. Simulations involving one-dimension and two-dimension were done using both functions. In this paper, we can make a specifically interpretation that Gaussian Wavelet can be used for approximating function for the function domain [?1, 1]. While Morlet function can be used for big domain. All simulations were done using Matlab V6.5.
Development of Individual Learners: Perspective on the Uncertain Future Contribution of E-Learning
Zaki Ahmad Dahlan,Nor Arzami Othman,Mohd Fazril Izhar Mohd Idris,Hj. Kamaruzaman Jusoff
Computer and Information Science , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/cis.v2n3p182
Abstract: E-learning in the educational world has grown and changed rapidly in recent years. Both private and public sector organizations have embraced the practice of reaching their students at a distance via new technologies afforded them by Information Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure. E-learning is grounded on technology, and without it, its practice would be difficult, if not impossible. We can see that the use of the internet and ICT are becoming an important part of learning and teaching strategies in many educational institutions. Knowing that education has always been an important engine for economic development, the Malaysian government has taken initiative steps to implement public awareness on the ICT issues. An important part of e-learning has been to contribute to the development of individual learners whatever their life circumstances. E-learning as a field of educational endeavor is at a crucial juncture in its historical development. The notion of learning at a distance has gained wide acceptance across the developed world. Instructors, physically and temporally separated from learners using newly emerging information and communication technologies, are widespread. The potential of latest technology has adopted in creating new learning environments. The rational behind this endeavor is the expectation that unique features of the Information Communication technology. It also can include a range of powerful media forms and its interactive capability that support sophisticated range and interaction in teaching. As a result, these approaches will provide a rich environment for teaching.
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