Abstract:
Various models of QCD vacuum predict that it is dominated by excitations that are predominantly self-dual or anti-self-dual. In this work we look at the tendency for self-duality in the case of pure-glue SU(3) gauge theory using the overlap-based definition of the field-strength tensor. To gauge this property, we use the absolute X-distribution method which is designed to quantify the dynamical tendency for polarization for arbitrary random variables that can be decomposed in a pair of orthogonal subspaces.

Abstract:
We present some of the reasoning and results substantiating the notion that spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking (SChSB) in QCD is encoded in local chiral properties of Dirac eigenmodes. Such association is possible when viewing chirality as a dynamical effect, measured with respect to the benchmark of statistically independent left-right components. Following this rationale leads to describing local chiral behavior by a taylor-made correlation, namely the recently introduced correlation coefficient of polarization C_A. In this language, correlated modes (C_A>0) show dynamical preference for local chirality while anti-correlated modes (C_A<0) favor anti-chirality. Our conclusion is that SChSB in QCD can be viewed as dominance of low-energy correlation (chirality) over anti-correlation (anti-chirality) of Dirac sea. The spectral range of local chirality, chiral polarization scale Lambda_ch, is a dynamically generated scale in the theory associated with SChSB. One implication of these findings is briefly discussed.

Abstract:
The validity of recently proposed equivalence between valence spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking (vSChSB) and chiral polarization of low energy Dirac spectrum (ChP) in SU(3) gauge theory, is examined for the case of twelve mass-degenerate fundamental quark flavors. We find that the vSChSB-ChP correspondence holds for regularized systems studied. Moreover, our results suggest that vSChSB occurs in two qualitatively different circumstances: there is a quark mass $m_c$ such that for $m > m_c$ the mode condensing Dirac spectrum exhibits standard monotonically increasing density, while for $m_{ch} < m < m_c$ the peak around zero separates from the bulk of the spectrum, with density showing a pronounced depletion at intermediate scales. Valence chiral symmetry restoration may occur at yet smaller masses $m < m_{ch}$, but this has not yet been seen by overlap valence probe, leaving the $m_{ch}=0$ possibility open. The latter option could place massless N$_f$=12 theory outside of conformal window. Anomalous behavior of overlap Dirac spectrum for $m_{ch} < m < m_c$ is qualitatively similar to one observed previously in zero and few-flavor theories as an effect of thermal agitation.

Abstract:
It was recently conjectured that, in SU(3) gauge theories with fundamental quarks, valence spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking is equivalent to condensation of local dynamical chirality and appearance of chiral polarization scale $\Lambda_{ch}$. Here we consider more general association involving the low-energy layer of chirally polarized modes which, in addition to its width ($\Lambda_{ch}$), is also characterized by volume density of participating modes ($\Omega$) and the volume density of total chirality ($\Omega_{ch}$). Few possible forms of the correspondence are discussed, paying particular attention to singular cases where $\Omega$ emerges as the most versatile characteristic. The notion of finite-volume "order parameter", capturing the nature of these connections, is proposed. We study the effects of temperature (in N$_f$=0 QCD) and light quarks (in N$_f$=12), both in the regime of possible symmetry restoration, and find agreement with these ideas. In N$_f$=0 QCD, results from several volumes indicate that, at the lattice cutoff studied, the deconfinement temperature $T_c$ is strictly smaller than the overlap-valence chiral transition temperature $T_{ch}$ in real Polyakov line vacuum. Somewhat similar intermediate phase (in quark mass) is also seen in N$_f$=12. It is suggested that deconfinement in N$_f$=0 is related to indefinite convexity of absolute X-distributions.

Abstract:
We propose that, in SU(3) gauge theories with fundamental quarks, confinement can be inferred from spectral density of the Dirac operator. This stems from the proposition that its possible behaviors are exhausted by three distinct types (Fig.1). The monotonic cases are standard and entail confinement with valence chiral symmetry breaking (A) or the lack of both (C,C'). The bimodal (anomalous) option (B) was frequently regarded as an artifact (lattice or other) in previous studies, but we show for the first time that it persists in the continuum limit, and conclude that it informs of a non-confining phase with broken valence chiral symmetry. This generalization rests on the following. $(\alpha)$ We show that bimodality in $N_f$=0 theory past deconfinement temperature $T_c$ is stable with respect to removal of both infrared and ultraviolet cutoffs, indicating that anomalous phase is not an artifact. $(\beta)$ We demonstrate that transition to bimodality in $N_f$=0 is simultaneous with the loss of confinement: anomalous phase occurs for $T_c < T < T_{ch}$, where $T_{ch}$ is the valence chiral restoration temperature. $(\gamma)$ Evidence is presented for thermal anomalous phase in $N_f$=2+1 QCD at physical quark masses, whose onset too coincides with the conventional "crossover $T_c$''. We conclude that the anomalous regime $T_c < T < T_{ch}$ is very likely a feature of nature's strong interactions. $(\delta)$ Our past studies of zero-temperature $N_f$=12 theories revealed that bimodality also arises via purely light-quark effects. As a result, we expect to encounter anomalous phase on generic paths to valence chiral restoration. We predict its existence also for $N_f$ massless flavors ($T=0$) in the range $N_f^c < N_f < N_f^{ch}$, where $N_f^c$ could be quite low. Conventional arguments would associate $N_f^{ch}$ with the onset of conformal window.

Abstract:
We examine the feasibility of the proposition that there is a temperature range T$_c$ < T < T$_{ch}$ in N$_f$=0 QCD, where real Polyakov line (deconfined) vacuum exhibits valence spontaneous chiral symetry breaking and dynamical chiral polarization of Dirac eigenmodes. Detailed finite-volume analysis convincingly demonstrates the existence of such phase at fixed cutoff (a=0.085 fm). Moreover, it is found that this behavior also takes place closer to the continuum limit (a=0.060 fm) without qualitative change in its properties.

Abstract:
We study the chiral polarization properties of low-lying Dirac eigenmodes at finite temperature using the overlap operator. Results for pure gauge theory on both sides of deconfinement phase transition are presented. We find that the polarization scale decreases as we increase the temperature, but it remains non-zero as we cross in the deconfined phase and vanishes only when $T\approx 1.4 T_c$. This is caused by the presence of near-zero modes which, we find, are chirally polarized.

Abstract:
We describe our recent proposal that distinct phases of gauge theories with fundamental quarks translate into specific types of low-energy behavior in Dirac spectral density. The resulting scenario is built around new evidence substantiating the existence of a phase characterized by bimodal (anomalous) density, and corresponding to deconfined dynamics with broken valence chiral symmetry. We argue that such anomalous phase occurs quite generically in these theories, including in "real world" QCD above the crossover temperature, and in zero-temperature systems with many light flavors.

Abstract:
We formulate Hamiltonian vector-like lattice gauge theory using the overlap formula for the spatial fermionic part, $H_f$. We define a chiral charge, $Q_5$ which commutes with $H_f$, but not with the electric field term. There is an interesting relation between the chiral charge and the fermion energy with consequences for chiral anomalies.

Abstract:
The theoretical justification of the Hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm depends upon the molecular dynamics trajectories within it being exactly reversible. If computations were carried out with exact arithmetic then it would be easy to ensure such reversibility, but the use of approximate floating point arithmetic inevitably introduces violations of reversibility. In the absence of evidence to the contrary, we are usually prepared to accept that such rounding errors can be made small enough to be innocuous, but in certain circumstances they are exponentially amplified and lead to blatantly erroneous results. We show that there are two types of instability of the molecular dynamics trajectories which lead to this behavior, instabilities due to insufficiently accurate numerical integration of Hamilton's equations, and intrinsic chaos in the underlying continuous fictitious time equations of motion themselves. We analyze the former for free field theory, and show that it is essentially a finite volume effect. For the latter we propose a hypothesis as to how the Liapunov exponent describing the chaotic behavior of the fictitious time equations of motion for an asymptotically free quantum field theory behaves as the system is taken to its continuum limit, and explain why this means that instabilities in molecular dynamics trajectories are not a significant problem for Hybrid Monte Carlo computations. We present data for pure $SU(3)$ gauge theory and for QCD with dynamical fermions on small lattices to illustrate and confirm some of our results.