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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 406430 matches for " Isyaka M. Tom "
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Infection of Wounds by Potential Bacterial Pathogens and Their Resistogram  [PDF]
Isyaka M. Tom, Muhammad M. Ibrahim, Askira M. Umoru, Jidda B. Umar, Musa A. Bukar, Ali B. Haruna, Abdullahi Aliyu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105528
Abstract:
The major innate barrier to the establishment of infections in internal tissues is the skin, the disruption of which leads to wound formation. Such wounds can be contaminated by bacterial pathogens thereby hampering the healing process and its management becomes resource demanding. Here, we assess the diversity of potential bacterial pathogens in the infection of different types of wounds among hospitalized patients. Three hundred and twenty wound swab samples were collected and processed via microscopy, and cultured on Blood, MacConkey and Chocolate Agar. Isolates were further confirmed using biochemical tests and Kirby Bauer disc diffusion test was used to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. 87.5% of samples collected yielded bacterial growth comprising of single bacterial isolates (52.17%) and polymicrobial/mixed growth (47.82%). Staphylococcus aureus (32.61%) was the most prevalent bacterial specie identified. Gram-negative bacteria (62.33%) were the most pervasive group, chief among which were E. coli (23.64%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17.13%). Rate of infection was highest among Wound sepsis and Burns wound where Enterobacter spp. and Streptococcus spp. were the most prevalent respectively. Differences in wound type in relation to rate of infection with Gram-negative bacteria was statistically significant (f = 5.9592; df = 29; p-value = 0.001645; p < 0.01; Mean ± SD = 7.633 ± 6.3706). Resistivity profile of isolates has shown that the most significant resistance rate was against Amoxicillin and Ampicillin, among Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria identified respectively. This suggests that wounds can be infected by potential bacterial pathogens which can exacerbate the progression of the wound and complicate the healing process.
A Genetic Algorithm for the Split Delivery Vehicle Routing Problem  [PDF]
Joseph Hubert Wilck IV, Tom M. Cavalier
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2012.22024
Abstract: The Split Delivery Vehicle Routing Problem (SDVRP) allows customers to be assigned to multiple routes. Two hybrid genetic algorithms are developed for the SDVRP and computational results are given for thirty-two data sets from previous literature. With respect to the total travel distance and computer time, the genetic algorithm compares favorably versus a column generation method and a two-phase method.
A Construction Heuristic for the Split Delivery Vehicle Routing Problem  [PDF]
Joseph Hubert Wilck IV, Tom M. Cavalier
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2012.22018
Abstract: The Split Delivery Vehicle Routing Problem (SDVRP) is a relaxation of the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP) where customers may be assigned to multiple routes. A new construction heuristic is developed for the SDVRP and computational results are given for thirty-two data sets from previous literature. With respect to the total travel distance, the construction heuristic compares favorably versus a column generation method and a two-phase method. In addition, the construction heuristic is computationally faster than both previous methods. This construction heuristic could be useful in developing initial solutions, very quickly, for a heuristic, algorithm, or exact procedure.
Proof Supplement - Learning Sparse Causal Models is not NP-hard (UAI2013)
Tom Claassen,Joris M. Mooij,Tom Heskes
Statistics , 2014,
Abstract: This article contains detailed proofs and additional examples related to the UAI-2013 submission `Learning Sparse Causal Models is not NP-hard'. It describes the FCI+ algorithm: a method for sound and complete causal model discovery in the presence of latent confounders and/or selection bias, that has worst case polynomial complexity of order $N^{2(k+1)}$ in the number of independence tests, for sparse graphs over $N$ nodes, bounded by node degree $k$. The algorithm is an adaptation of the well-known FCI algorithm by (Spirtes et al., 2000) that is also sound and complete, but has worst case complexity exponential in $N$.
Hrot kopí a eské soukromé vojenské a bezpe nostní spole nosti
Tomá? ?míd
St?edoevropské Politické Studie , 2012,
Abstract: The Tip of Spear and Czech Private Military and Security Companies.This article focuses on the phenomenon of privatization of security in the Czech Republic. The main goal is to sort selected private military and security companies from the Czech Republic along the categories provided by Peter W. Singer’s "tip of spear" concept, as well as by Carlos Ortiz’s classification of private military and security companies. The basic sources are self-presentations of selected companies, the Czech commercial register as well as other databases, and the author’s participant observation.
Roger Bacon in der Sicht Alexander von Humboldts
Tom Müller
HiN. Alexander von Humboldt im Netz , 2008,
Abstract: Articel in german, abstracts in englisch, german and espa ol In his model of the six epochs of the history of science, Alexander von Humboldt sees scarcely any lights able to break through the occidental darkness in the time between the scientific prime of the arabic world and the expeditions of Columbus. The most prominent of these few pioneers to Humboldt is the fransciscan monc Roger Bacon who excelled in almost all disciplines and emphasized on the unity of the sciences. Humboldt honors the Englishman with detailed examinations of his Opus maius in Kosmos and also in his popular speeches in the Berlin Singakademie as well as in the examen critique on the history of geography of the New World.
The Main Aeromonas Pathogenic Factors
J. M. Tomás
ISRN Microbiology , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/256261
Abstract: The members of the Aeromonas genus are ubiquitous, water-borne bacteria. They have been isolated from marine waters, rivers, lakes, swamps, sediments, chlorine water, water distribution systems, drinking water and residual waters; different types of food, such as meat, fish, seafood, vegetables, and processed foods. Aeromonas strains are predominantly pathogenic to poikilothermic animals, and the mesophilic strains are emerging as important pathogens in humans, causing a variety of extraintestinal and systemic infections as well as gastrointestinal infections. The most commonly described disease caused by Aeromonas is the gastroenteritis; however, no adequate animal model is available to reproduce this illness caused by Aeromonas. The main pathogenic factors associated with Aeromonas are: surface polysaccharides (capsule, lipopolysaccharide, and glucan), S-layers, iron-binding systems, exotoxins and extracellular enzymes, secretion systems, fimbriae and other nonfilamentous adhesins, motility and flagella. 1. Introduction Ever since the first reference of an organism that could be considered a motile aeromonad in 1891 the taxonomy of the genus Aeromonas, initiated in 1943, is complex and continuously changing. Although historically the genus Aeromonas was included in the family Vibrionaceae, together with the genera Vibrio, Photobacterium, and Plesiomonas, phylogenetic investigations indicated that they should form their own family: Aeromonadaceae [1]. The family Aeromonadaceae consists of Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, chemoorganotroph bacteria with an optimal growing temperature of about 22°C to 28°C. Generally they are motile by polar flagellation, able to reduce nitrates to nitrites and able to catabolize glucose and several carbohydrates while producing acids and often gases as well. Initially, in Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology this family only included the genus Aeromonas and was divided into two principal subgroups: the nonmotile and psycnrophilic species (A. salmonicida) and the motile and mesophilic species (A. hydrophila, A. caviae, and A. sobria) [2]. The current edition, list three genera in this family: Aeromonas, Oceanimonas, and Tolumonas [3]. The first classifications within the Aeromonas genus have been determined phenotypically (phenospecies), based on growth characteristics and biochemical tests. Nevertheless, there is a great difficulty in identifying the different Aeromonas strains on a species level by these characteristics, due to the phenotypical heterogeneity and growing number of known species [4]. One of the
Exact Solutions of General Relativity and Quadratic Gravity in Arbitrary Dimension
Tomá? Málek
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: In the first part of this thesis, Kerr-Schild metrics and extended Kerr-Schild metrics are analyzed in the context of higher dimensional general relativity. Employing the higher dimensional generalizations of the Newman-Penrose formalism and the algebraic classification of spacetimes based on the existence and multiplicity of Weyl aligned null directions, we establish various geometrical properties of the Kerr-Schild congruences, determine compatible Weyl types and in the expanding case discuss the presence of curvature singularities. We also present known exact solutions admitting these Kerr-Schild forms and construct some new ones using the Brinkmann warp product. In the second part, the influence of quantum corrections consisting of quadratic curvature invariants on the Einstein-Hilbert action is considered and exact vacuum solutions of these quadratic gravities are studied in arbitrary dimension. We investigate classes of Einstein spacetimes and spacetimes with a null radiation term in the Ricci tensor satisfying the vacuum field equations of quadratic gravity and provide examples of these metrics.
A random walk approximation to fractional Brownian motion
Tom Lindstr?m
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: We present a random walk approximation to fractional Brownian motion where the increments of the fractional random walk are defined as a weighted sum of the past increments of a Bernoulli random walk.
Principal components analysis in the space of phylogenetic trees
Tom M. W. Nye
Quantitative Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1214/11-AOS915
Abstract: Phylogenetic analysis of DNA or other data commonly gives rise to a collection or sample of inferred evolutionary trees. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) cannot be applied directly to collections of trees since the space of evolutionary trees on a fixed set of taxa is not a vector space. This paper describes a novel geometrical approach to PCA in tree-space that constructs the first principal path in an analogous way to standard linear Euclidean PCA. Given a data set of phylogenetic trees, a geodesic principal path is sought that maximizes the variance of the data under a form of projection onto the path. Due to the high dimensionality of tree-space and the nonlinear nature of this problem, the computational complexity is potentially very high, so approximate optimization algorithms are used to search for the optimal path. Principal paths identified in this way reveal and quantify the main sources of variation in the original collection of trees in terms of both topology and branch lengths. The approach is illustrated by application to simulated sets of trees and to a set of gene trees from metazoan (animal) species.
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