Publish in OALib Journal
APC: Only $99
Chronic exposure to hypobaric hypoxia (HH) causes memory impairment and prolonged state of mental confusion. However, effect of high altitude exposure on mood state and its underlying mechanisms have been poorly studied. Present study was undertaken to investigate the mood state alteration following chronic exposure to HH. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups and exposed to hypoxia for 3, 7, 14 and 21 days in an animal decompression chamber at an altitude of 25,000ft. Anxiety-and depression-like behaviors were assessed by using various mazes along with changes in serotonin and glutamate level. Our study revealed a decrease in exploratory, grooming and rearing behavior in open field test following initial exposure to HH for 7 days without affecting the locomotory behavior. Initial exposure to HH-decreased time spent in open arm of elevated plus maze indicating induction of anxiety-like behavior which normalized on prolonged hypoxic exposure for 21 days. Hypoxic exposure for 7 days induced anhedonia and increased despair behavior in rat while there was steady improvement in these behaviors when exposed for 21 days. Decrease in serotonin level was noted in hippocampus along with elevated corticosterone and glutamate level which gradually decreased on prolonged exposure to HH. These findings suggest that initial exposure to HH increases transient anxiety-like behavior in rats followed by gradual improvement in mood state on prolonged exposure. Further, the study also indicates the involvement of serotonergic system in mood state alteration at high altitude following chronic exposure and reoxygenation.
Documenting the recovery of hydrologic functions following perturbations of a landscape/watershed is important to address issues associated with land use change and ecosystem restoration. High resolution LiDAR data for the USDAForestServiceSanteeExperimentalForestin coastalSouth Carolina,USAwas used to delineate the remnant historical water management structures within the watersheds supporting bottomland hardwood forests that are typical of the re- gion. Hydrologic functions were altered during the early1700’s agricultural use period for rice cultivation, with changes to detention storage, impoundments, and runoff routing. Since late1800’s, the land was left to revert to forests, without direct intervention. The resultant bottomlands, while typical in terms of vegetative structure and composition, still have altered hydrologic pathways and functions due to the historical land use. Furthermore, an accurate estimate of the watershed drainage area (DA) contributing to stream flow is critical for reliable estimates of peak flow rate, runoff depth and coefficient, as well as water and chemical balance. Peak flow rate, a parameter widely used in design of channels and cross drainage structures, is calculated as a function of the DA and other parameters. However, in contrast with the upland watersheds, currently available topographic maps and digital elevation models (DEMs) used to estimate the DA are not adequate for flat, low-gradient Coastal Plain (LCP) landscape. In this paper we explore a case study of a 3rd order watershed (equivalent to 14-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC)) at headwaters of east branch of Cooper River draining to Charleston Harbor, SC to assess the drainage area and corresponding mean annual runoff coefficient based on various DEMs including LiDAR data. These analyses demonstrate a need for application of LiDAR-based DEMs together with field verification to improve the basis for assessments of hydrology, watershed drainage characteristics, and modeling in the LCP.