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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 471506 matches for " István Dudás "
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Birth Outcomes of Newborns after Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women with Early and Late Pre-Eclampsia: A Population-Based Study
Ferenc Bánhidy,Abdallah Dakhlaoui,István Dudás,Andrew E. Czeizel
Advances in Preventive Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/127369
Abstract: Objective. To evaluate the rate of preterm birth and low birth weight in the newborns of pregnant women with early and late onset pre-eclampsia according to folic acid supplementation. Study design. Birth outcomes of newborns were evaluated in 1,017 (2.7%) pregnant women with medically recorded pre-eclampsia and 37,134 pregnant women without pre-eclampsia as reference in the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980–1996, in addition these study groups were differentiated according to the supplementation of high dose of folic acid alone from early pregnancy. Results. Pregnant women with pre-eclampsia associated with a higher rate of preterm birth (10.2% versus 9.1%) and low birthweight (7.9% versus 5.6%). There was a lower risk of preterm birth (6.8%) of newborn infants born to pregnant women with early onset pre-eclampsia after folic acid supplementation from early pregnancy though the rate of low birthweight was not reduced significantly. There was no significant reduction in the rate of preterm birth and low birthweight in pregnant women with late onset pre-eclampsia after folic acid supplementation. Conclusion. The rate of preterm birth in pregnant women with early onset pre-eclampsia was reduced moderately by high doses of folic acid supplementation from early pregnancy. 1. Introduction Pre-eclampsia (PE) is frequent (2–8%) and severe complications of pregnancy, and this multisystem disorder of pregnancy is characterized by pregnancy-induced hypertension and new-onset proteinuria during the second half of pregnancy [1–3]. PE is a major contributor to maternal mortality if associates with eclampsia and HELLP syndrome [4, 5]. Furthermore, since delivery is the only cure of PE, there is a higher risk of preterm birth up to 15% [6] and intrauterine growth retardation [7] with an increase in infant mortality and morbidity. Two important hypotheses have been generated for the pathogenesis of PE during the last decades. The first hypothesis was based on the differentiation of early and late onset PE [3] or on the two-stage model of PE [8]. The second hypothesis was based on PE associated with placental insufficiency due to hyperhomocysteinemia-related vasculopathy because 3.2–7.7-fold higher risk of PE was found in pregnant women with elevated homocysteine levels [9–16]. Folic acid supplementation lowers plasma homocysteine in general [17] and in patients with PE [18], thus folic acid containing multivitamins was tested in pregnant women with gestational hypertension [19] and in pregnant women with PE [20, 21] with
“Bright Future?” The Knowledge, Practices and Strategies of the Young People in a South Siberian Evenki Village
István Sántha
Folklore : Electronic Journal of Folklore , 2009,
Abstract: The article deals with young people’s ideas, activities and lifestylesin an Evenki village in Southern Siberia, interprets the differences of the value orders of generations in the narratives and practices in the context of the local, surrounding the society and Russia in general. Through research into youth we can get a more wholesome picture of the community. Furthermore, after the collapse of the Soviet Union the future of a society depends more and more on the new intelligentsia, the members of which have not grown up in the Soviet period. The young people living in the taiga, the edge of the civilized world, share the activities of their parents: that is, they hold on to their roots while the authorities persuade them to leave their village. The responses of the youth in relation to the desires and the possibilities are more openminded, and in these opinions the social expectations of these young people are less conformist. Different generations have different value orders. The events which have not happened in the life of young individuals do not serve as a standing-ground in life, and the activities of everyday life and the ideas are intertwined, and become the lifestyles of different generations.
Deuterium Depletion May Delay the Progression of Prostate Cancer  [PDF]
András Kovács, Imre Guller, Krisztina Krempels, Ildikó Somlyai, István Jánosi, Zoltán Gy?ngyi, István Szabó, István Ember, Gábor Somlyai
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2011.24075
Abstract: Deuterium-depleted water (DDW) is a new promising agent in cancer therapy. The efficiency of the method is based on the discovery, that cancer cells are extremely sensitive to depletion of deuterium (D) and might cause necrosis of the tumour. The purpose of this study was to show the efficacy of D-depletion in prostate cancer (PC) patients. In the double blind, four-month-long, randomized Phase II clinical trial the daily water intake was replaced with DDW in 22 PC patients. Other 22 PC patients took normal water while both groups received the same forms of conventional treatment. In the retrospective study, 91 DDW-treated PC patients were evaluated and median survival time (MST) in the subgroups was calculated. The time course of changes in DDW dose and PSA is presented in two cases. In the prospective trial seven patients in the treated group and one patient in the placebo group achieved partial response (p = 0.046). In the treated group, the net decrease in the prostate volume was three times higher (160.3 cm3 vs. 54.0 cm3; p = 0.0019), urination complaints ceased at a higher rate (8 vs. 0 patients, p = 0.0041), and the one-year survival rate was also higher (2 vs. 9 deaths; p = 0.034). The 91 retrospectively evaluated patients achieved an MST of 11.02 years, despite the fact that 46 of them suffered from distant metastasis. In the two monitored patients, drop of PSA level correlated with the DDW intake. In summary, D-depletion prolonged MST in patients with PC. The method proved to be safe thus its integration in the PC cure as an adjuvant or complementary therapy would be considered.
The Development of the Senses: Metaphorical Extension or Conceptual Integration?
Pálinkás, István
Argumentum , 2006,
Abstract: Cognitive semantics offers two basic algorithms that attempt to characterize how humans are able to obtain understanding and meaning from language: metaphorical extension (Grady 1997, Lakoff 1987, Lakoff & Johnson 1980, Lakoff & Turner 1989) and conceptual integration (Fauconnier & Turner 1998, 2000, 2002). Since both seem to run into trouble with certain instantiations of language, I argue that in particular cases sense development is best described in terms of metaphorical extension (e.g. English modals), while the comprehension process of other linguistic phenomena (e.g. verbal irony) seems to be more sensitive to an analysis within a conceptual integration framework. Thus, in sharp contrast with the basic tenets of metaphor proponents, I question the ubiquitous nature of metaphors in sense development, all the more so because I consider conceptual integration as an interim stage in metaphor comprehension, giving blending processes a perhaps more universal role in sense development. My main objective in the present paper, thus, is to make a brief synopsis of the two sense-developing mechanisms mentioned, revealing uncertainties as for their applicability to processes of speech comprehension. Also, I make suggestions concerning a mechanism in metaphorical extension to set up correspondences between isomorphic conceptual structures of ontologically distant or unrelated concepts. This mechanism is probed through blending operations, revealing an alignment-projection type of relationship between conceptual integration and metaphorical extension.
The 'Pragmatic' Blend
Pálinkás, István
Argumentum , 2008,
Abstract: Psychological evidence suggests that human meaning construction tends to favour analogs that have several kinds of correspondences at different levels of linguistic organization: semantic similarity, pragmatic relevance and isomorphism (for a detailed study of these constraints, see Thagard et al. 1990). Although most theorists of analogy acknowledge that processing goals and context might exert some influence on analogical inference, they differ as to whether such pragmatic constraints directly enter into the mapping process.My main objective in the present paper, thus, is to show that an adequate model of analogical thinking in general and metaphor processing in particular should take into account the context of reasoning not only prior to and after the analogical mapping but also during its operation. I will explicate my views on pragmatic influence in speech representation within the theoretical framework of conceptual integration (or blending), an essential though interim phase of metaphorical extension.
STRUCTURE OF A HOLONIC MANUFACTURING SYSTEM
BáNYAI Károly,MáNDY Zoltán,DUDáS Illés
Debreceni M?szaki K?zlemények , 2010,
Abstract: The holonics (with divided intelligence) the concept of production from the system of most intelligent, autonomous, elastic, units collaborating with each other shared out there is a word. The idea takes as a starting point the fact that the today's environmental circumstances are exceptionally unsettled because of this new, its novelty, at the ones until now much more elastic, there is need for companies at which fast response abilities are to the maintenance of the competitiveness.
Effect of the Shear Reinforcement Type on the Punching Resistance of Concrete Slabs  [PDF]
Kálmán Koris, András Kozma, István Bódi
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2018.81001
Abstract: Punching shear failure of flat concrete slabs is a complex phenomenon with brittle failure mode, meaning sudden structural failure and rapid decrease of load carrying capacity. Due to these reasons, the application of appropriate punching shear reinforcement in the slabs could be essential. To obtain the required structural strength and performance in slab-column junctions, the effect of the shear reinforcement type on the punching resistance must be known. For this purpose, numerous nonlinear finite element simulations were carried out to determine the behavior and punching shear strength of flat concrete slabs with different punching shear reinforcement types. The efficiency of different reinforcement types was also determined and compared. Accuracy of the numerical simulations was verified by experimental results. Based on the comparison of numerical results,?the partial factor for the design formula used in Eurocode 2 was calculated and was found to be higher than the actual one.
SimulFold: Simultaneously Inferring RNA Structures Including Pseudoknots, Alignments, and Trees Using a Bayesian MCMC Framework
Irmtraud M Meyer ,István Miklós
PLOS Computational Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.0030149
Abstract: Computational methods for predicting evolutionarily conserved rather than thermodynamic RNA structures have recently attracted increased interest. These methods are indispensable not only for elucidating the regulatory roles of known RNA transcripts, but also for predicting RNA genes. It has been notoriously difficult to devise them to make the best use of the available data and to predict high-quality RNA structures that may also contain pseudoknots. We introduce a novel theoretical framework for co-estimating an RNA secondary structure including pseudoknots, a multiple sequence alignment, and an evolutionary tree, given several RNA input sequences. We also present an implementation of the framework in a new computer program, called SimulFold, which employs a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method to sample from the joint posterior distribution of RNA structures, alignments, and trees. We use the new framework to predict RNA structures, and comprehensively evaluate the quality of our predictions by comparing our results to those of several other programs. We also present preliminary data that show SimulFold's potential as an alignment and phylogeny prediction method. SimulFold overcomes many conceptual limitations that current RNA structure prediction methods face, introduces several new theoretical techniques, and generates high-quality predictions of conserved RNA structures that may include pseudoknots. It is thus likely to have a strong impact, both on the field of RNA structure prediction and on a wide range of data analyses.
A linear memory algorithm for Baum-Welch training
István Miklós, Irmtraud M Meyer
BMC Bioinformatics , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-6-231
Abstract: We introduce the first linear space algorithm for Baum-Welch training. For a hidden Markov model with M states, T free transition and E free emission parameters, and an input sequence of length L, our new algorithm requires O(M) memory and O(LMTmax (T + E)) time for one Baum-Welch iteration, where Tmax is the maximum number of states that any state is connected to. The most memory efficient algorithm until now was the checkpointing algorithm with O(log(L)M) memory and O(log(L)LMTmax) time requirement. Our novel algorithm thus renders the memory requirement completely independent of the length of the training sequences. More generally, for an n-hidden Markov model and n input sequences of length L, the memory requirement of O(log(L)Ln-1 M) is reduced to O(Ln-1 M) memory while the running time is changed from O(log(L)Ln MTmax + Ln(T + E)) to O(Ln MTmax (T + E)).An added advantage of our new algorithm is that a reduced time requirement can be traded for an increased memory requirement and vice versa, such that for any c ∈ {1, ..., (T + E)}, a time requirement of Ln MTmax c incurs a memory requirement of Ln-1 M(T + E - c).For the large class of hidden Markov models used for example in gene prediction, whose number of states does not scale with the length of the input sequence, our novel algorithm can thus be both faster and more memory-efficient than any of the existing algorithms.Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are widely used in Bioinformatics [1], for example, in protein sequence alignment, protein family annotation [2,3] and gene-finding [4,5].When an HMM consisting of M states is used to annotate an input sequence, its predictions crucially depend on its set of emission probabilities ε and transition probabilities . This is for example the case for the state path with the highest overall probability, the so-called optimal state path or Viterbi path [6], which is often reported as the predicted annotation of the input sequence.When a new HMM is designed, it is usually q
Co-transcriptional folding is encoded within RNA genes
Irmtraud M Meyer, István Miklós
BMC Molecular Biology , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2199-5-10
Abstract: The main aim of this work is to study if and how co-transcriptional folding is encoded within the primary and secondary structure of RNA genes. In order to achieve this, we study the known primary and secondary structures of a comprehensive data set of 361 RNA genes as well as a set of 48 RNA sequences that are known to differ from the originally transcribed sequence units. We detect co-transcriptional folding by defining two measures of directedness which quantify the extend of asymmetry between alternative helices that lie 5' and those that lie 3' of the known helices with which they compete.We show with statistical significance that co-transcriptional folding strongly influences RNA sequences in two ways: (1) alternative helices that would compete with the formation of the functional structure during co-transcriptional folding are suppressed and (2) the formation of transient structures which may serve as guidelines for the co-transcriptional folding pathway is encouraged.These findings have a number of implications for RNA secondary structure prediction methods and the detection of RNA genes.Most of the existing computational methods for RNA secondary structure prediction fold an already completely synthesized RNA molecule. This is done either by minimizing its free energy (e.g. done by MFOLD [1-3] and by the programs of the VIENNA package [4-8]) or by maximizing the probability under a model whose parameters can incorporate a variety of different sources of information, e.g. comparative information, free energy and evolutionary information (e.g. [9], TRNASCAN-SE [10], PFOLD [11,12] and QRNA [13]). All of these programs, including those that predict folding pathways by folding an already synthesized RNA sequence [14,15], therefore disregard the effects that co-transcriptional folding may have on the RNA's functional secondary structure. They essentially aim to predict the thermodynamic RNA structure, i.e. the secondary structure that minimizes the free energy of
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