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Application of resistant starch prepared from parkia flour was produced by
replacement of wheat flour with 0, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30% and 40% Parkia flour.
Processing, proximate composition, digestibility of resistant starch in bread
and sensory quality were evaluated. Resistant starch was significantly (p <
0.05) increased as Parkia flour level increase in all breads. The resistant
starch prepared from Parkia flour was 47.21%. However, wheat bread was 1.47%
and Parkia bread 18.52% to 22.28% baked of (200℃ at 45 min) with 2.16% wheat bread and 31.74% to 35.05% Parkia bread baked
of (130℃ at 90 min). Supplementation of wheat flour with Parkia flour 0 - 40%
increased the crude protein content significantly (p < 0.05) from (7.89% - 15.68%),
ash from (0.91% - 2.54%) and crude fiber (1.41% - 4.97%). Color of the bread
treatments was remarkably affected by addition of different levels of Parkia
flour. Therefore, Parkia flour could be added to wheat flour up to 15% without
any observed detrimental effect on bread sensory properties. Sensory evaluation
results indicated that bread with 5% to15% Parkia flour were rated the most acceptable and there was no significant difference in terms of acceptability compared to the control. This could be used to
improve the nutritional quality of bread
especially in developing countries were malnutrition is prevalent.
The development of a computer program for evaluation of lightning safety distance between the tower and satellite dish is written in M-File MATLAB. The 3-dimensional illustrative graphics model is used to capture better understanding on how lightning protection system (LPS) works. The study of physical length of grounding electrode used on the tower is found to be significantly affecting the grounding system performances where they depend on magnitude of dispersed lightning strikes current and the settling time for the current to completely disperse. The grounding system performance is studied by using lightning impulse current (LIC) generator, simulated in OrCad PSpice software. It is found that the optimum length of vertical lightning rod in LPS is the same with the striking distance. There is no significant improvement is observed in lightning safety distance if the length of vertical lightning rod is higher than striking distance. The lightning strike peak current that has larger magnitude than the withstanding insulation level of specified object causes no physical damage. It is because the lightning safety distance increases when the lightning strike peak current becomes higher. It is also found that the lower grounding impedance generates higher magnitude of dispersed peak current and faster settling time.