Abstract:
Trata-se de uma investiga o descritiva transversal para caracterizar as causas de morbidade e mortalidade entre adolescentes atendidos no servi o de urgência e emergência de um hospital público. A coleta de dados foi realizada através das fichas de atendimento, nos meses de janeiro, fevereiro e mar o de 2003, totalizando 2722. A popula o constituiu-se por adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos de idade, residentes no município. As causas de morbi-mortalidade foram classificadas de acordo com a Classifica o Internacional de Doen as (CID-10). Mais da metade dos atendimentos é para a popula o feminina (54,1%). As causas de morbidade predominantes foram as doen as infecciosas e parasitárias no sexo feminino (26,5%) e les es e envenenamento e algumas outras conseqüências de causas externas no sexo masculino (30,5%). O mês de maior atendimento foi mar o (38,4%). O período da noite foi de maior prevalência (37,6%). A clínica médica atendeu 63,9% dos adolescentes. Receberam alta, 84,6% dos casos e n o foram detectados óbitos. Os resultados contribuem para o direcionamento de políticas públicas e efetiva o de medidas preventivas, de controle e redu o das principais causas de morbidade, que levam a popula o adolescente a procurar o servi o de pronto socorro.

Abstract:
Sexes of adult Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) are usually discriminated by the greater length of male antennae. However, in Spondylidinae, adult antennae are short and the difference between sexes is negligible and difficult to appraise. Only two species belong to this subfamily in North America, one of these being Neospondylis upiformis (Mannerheim), a species rarely caught in eastern North America. Unexpectedly, we collected numerous specimens of Neospondylis upiformis on Anticosti Island, Quebec, which appears as a hotspot for this species in eastern Canada. We show that sexual dimorphism in the mandible shape of N. upiformis (Mannerheim) can be used to discriminate sexes. Females have robust mandibles with a sharp cutting inner edge while males have thin mandibles and a well-rounded inner edge. There was no overlap between sexes in all measures done on mandibles, showing that mandible shape was a reliable criterion for sexing N. upiformis. We also tested previously reported criteria using antennae, as well as other characteristics such as body size, and show that they can hardly discriminate between sexes in N. upiformis. We also present illustrations of male and female genitalia, which is rarely available for Cerambycidae.

Abstract:
the plant architecture hypothesis predicts that variation in host plant architecture influences insect herbivore community structure, dynamics and performance. in this study we evaluated the effects of macairea radula (melastomataceae) architecture on the abundance of galls induced by a moth (lepidoptera: gelechiidae). plant architecture and gall abundance were directly recorded on 58 arbitrarily chosen m. radula host plants in the rainy season of 2006 in an area of cerrado vegetation, southeastern brazil. plant height, dry biomass, number of branches, number of shoots and leaf abundance were used as predicting variables of gall abundance and larval survival. gall abundance correlated positively with host plant biomass and branch number. otherwise, no correlation (p > 0.05) was found between gall abundance with shoot number or with the number of leaves/plant. from a total of 124 galls analyzed, 67.7% survived, 14.5% were attacked by parasitoids, while 17.7% died due to unknown causes. larvae that survived or were parasitized were not influenced by architectural complexity of the host plant. our results partially corroborate the plant architecture hypothesis, but since parasitism was not related to plant architecture it is argued that bottom-up effects may be more important than top-down effects in controlling the population dynamics of the galling lepidopteran. because galling insects often decrease plant fitness, the potential of galling insects in selecting for less architectural complex plants is discussed.

Abstract:
It is well known that the category of covering projections (that is, locally constant objects) of a locally connected topos is equivalent to the classifying topos of a strict progroupoid (or, equivalently, a localic prodiscrete groupoid), the \emph{fundamental progroupoid}, and that this progroupoid represents first degree cohomology. In this paper we generalize these results to an arbitrary topos. The fundamental progroupoid is now a localic progroupoid, and can not be replaced by a localic groupoid. The classifying topos in not any more a Galois topos. Not all locally constant objects can be considered as covering projections. The key contribution of this paper is a novel definition of covering projection for a general topos, which coincides with the usual definition when the topos is locally connected. The results in this paper were presented in a talk at the Category Theory Conference, Vancouver July 2004.

Abstract:
A locally connected topos is a Galois topos if the Galois objects generate the topos. We show that the full subcategory of Galois objects in any connected locally connected topos is an inversely 2-filtered 2-category, and as an application of the construction of 2-filtered bi-limits of topoi, we show that every Galois topos has a point.

Abstract:
In "The fundamental progroupoid of a general topos" (Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra 212) we have introduced the notion of covering projection on a general topos. These are locally constant objects with an additional property. We show there that the category of covering projections trivialized by a fix cover is an atomic topos with points. This determines a progroupoid of localic groupoids suitable indexed by a filtered poset of covers, which generalize the known results on the fundamental progroupoid of a locally connected topos to general topoi. In this paper we consider simplicial families, that is, simplicial objects in indexed by a simplicial set. We show that covering projections can be defined as objects constructed from a descent datum of a simplicial set on a family of sets. The simplicial set is the index of a hypercover refinement of the cover. In particular, we show that any locally constant object in a locally connected topos is constructed by descent from a descent datum on a family of sets. We construct a groupoid such that the category of covering projections trivialized by a fix hypercover is its classifying topos. This determines a progroupoid of ordinary groupoids, this time suitable indexed by a filtered poset of hypercovers. Thus, by switching from covers to hypercovers we construct the fundamental progroupoid of a general topos as a progroupoid of ordinary groupoids. This construction is novel also in the case of locally connected topoi. The salient feature that distinguishes these topoi is that the progroupoid is strict, which is not the case in general.

Abstract:
This Note describe my own recollection of the first 30 years of Category Theory, it is not the result of any historical investigation. The choice of concepts and its evaluation is my own, necessarily subjective. It follows a chronological line along the 21 references in the bibliography. It is a faithful version, based on 10 manuscript transparencies utilized at a conference given in October 2013 at the fourth ENHEM (Escuela Nacional de Historia y Educac\`ion Matem\`atica) congress in Cali, Colombia. As such, its content is bounded by time, and it does not include anything that was not said there. Text is in spanish.

Abstract:
We elaborate on the representation theorems of topoi as topoi of discrete actions of various kinds of localic groups and groupoids. We introduce the concept of "proessential point" and use it to give a new characterization of pointed Galois topoi. We establish a hierarchy of connected topoi: [1. essentially pointed Atomic = locally simply connected], [2. proessentially pointed Atomic = pointed Galois], [3. pointed Atomic]. These topoi are the classifying topos of, respectively: 1. discrete groups, 2. prodiscrete localic groups, and 3. general localic groups. We analyze also the unpoited version, and show that for a Galois topos, may be pointless, the corresponding groupoid can also be considered, in a sense, the groupoid of "points". In the unpointed theories, these topoi classify, respectively: 1. connected discrete groupoids, 2. connected (may be pointless) prodiscrete localic groupoids, and 3. connected groupoids with discrete space of objects and general localic spaces of hom-sets, when the topos has points (we do not know the class of localic groupoids that correspond to pointless connected atomic topoi). We comment and develop on Grothendieck's galois theory and its generalization by Joyal-Tierney, and work by other authors on these theories.

Abstract:
In Proposition I of "Memoire sur les conditions de resolubilite des equations par radicaux", Galois established that any intermediate extension of the splitting field of a polynomial with rational coefficients is the fixed field of its galois group. We first state and prove the (dual) categorical interpretation of of this statement, which is a theorem about atomic sites with a representable point. In the general case, the point determines a proobject and it becomes (tautologically) prorepresentable. We state and prove the, mutatus mutatis, prorepresentable version of Galois theorem. In this case the classical group of automorphisms has to be replaced by the localic group of automorphisms. These developments form the content of a theory that we call "Localic Galois Theory". An straightforward corollary of this theory is the theorem: "A topos with a point is connected atomic if and only if it is the classifying topos of a localic group, and this group can be taken to be the locale of automorphisms of the point". This theorem was first proved in print in Joyal A, Tierney M. "An extension of the Galois Theory of Grothendieck", Mem. AMS 151, Theorem 1, Section 3, Chapter VIII. Our proof is completely independent of descent theory and of any other result in that paper.

Abstract:
We define the notion of 2-filtered 2-category}and give an explicit construction of the bicolimit of a category valued 2-functor. A category considered as a trivial 2-category is 2-filtered if and only if it is a filtered category, and our construction yields a category equivalent to the category resulting from the usual construction of filtered colimits of categories. Weaker axioms suffice for this construction, and we call the corresponding notion pre 2-filtered 2-category. The full set of axioms is necessary to prove that 2-filtered bicolimits have the properties corresponding to the essential properties of filtered bicolimits. Kennison already considers filterness conditions on a2-category under the name of bifiltered 2-category (see reference in paper). It is easy to check that a bifiltered 2-category is 2-filtered, so ourresults apply to bifiltered 2-categories. Actually Kennison's notion is equivalent to our's, but the other direction of this equivalence is not entirely trivial.