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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 193004 matches for " Ishmael D. Norman "
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Separation of Church and State: A Study of Accra City’s Use of Public Buildings and Schools for Religious Services in Ghana  [PDF]
Ishmael D. Norman
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.37036
Abstract: This is a review of the Constitutional provisions on freedom of religion in Ghana and to determine whether the Constitution offers to religious bodies the use of public buildings and schools as places of worship. This study consisted of literature and documentary review of cases, the 1992 Constitution and legal writings from Ghana and other jurisdictions on the issue of separation of Church and State. The legal framework for freedom of religion does not include the commingling of public asset with private religious expressions, which goes against the zoning regulations and public policy on noise pollution and nuisance.
Access, Knowledge and Application of Public Health Law: A Case Study of Awareness of Lawyers, Medical Doctors and Nurses of Ghana’s Legal Framework on Public Health  [PDF]
Ishmael D. Norman
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2014.46018

We investigated access of professionals in public health to national healthcare laws. We undertook a survey among doctors, lawyers and nurses as stand-ins for the professional class. We found that the professionals’ access to public health laws was a challenge. Understanding of the legal framework on public health is needed.

The Jihadist Complex  [PDF]
Ishmael D. Norman
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2016.62004
Abstract: Objective: This is an exploratory review of the literature to map out the characteristics of the jihadist complex as a tool for understanding the conduct better than we do now. I assessed the factors leading to youth disenfranchisement to determine whether they were contributory push factors among the youth that are attracted to jihadist causes. What are the modalities for reducing some of the underlying causes of radicalism in the Sub-region and elsewhere? Method: For the theoretical analyses, I relied on five thematic areas theorized by various security researchers that jihadist radicalism is youthful, that it is built on Islamic religious “narrative”, that they are a disenfranchised rebels without a cause, that they are not empathetic towards the suffering of vulnerable Muslims, that due to these antecedents, radicals are “instrumentalized” by groups such as Al Qaeda or ISIS. Result: The result shows the literature on radicalism, jihadist terrorism is still emerging and suffers from the lack of systematic epidemiologic formulation for the analyses of this social conduct. It appears there is confusion among researchers about whether the terrorist suffers from what can be described as “Jihadist Complex”. Discussion: Jihadism is not an esoteric subject that should elude classification with regards to the behaviors of those engaged in this cause, since there is inherent stratification in the social backgrounds that the jihadists come from Africa, Asia, UK or Germany. Conclusion: To address a social challenge, one has to have the capacity to appraise the cause/effect aspect of the challenge on a given person or a group thereof. Jihadist push and pull factors can be understood and classified just as many human conducts are classifiable.
Is the Economic and Organized Crime Office Now the Umpire for Corruption in Ghana?  [PDF]
Ishmael D. Norman
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2016.63012
Abstract: The Economic and Organized Crime Office, (EOCO) is an agency designed to address critical national security and public health challenges. These include organized crime activities, official and institutional bribery and corruption among others. Despite this mandate, EOCO appears to have lost the ability to police the economy of Ghana in the face of rampant reported and actual cases of massive corruption in government institutions and agencies. This paper poses the perplexing question as to whether EOCO has already agreed to play the umpire role as official and institutional corruption insidiously becomes the new national sport, pervasive and ubiquitous. Under EOCO law, it is designed to operate on hunches and suspicions; it is to develop its eavesdropping and spying skills so as to be able to apprehend the wrong doer before he/she completes the commission of the malfeasance. It appears the mere suspicion, the mere hunch that a crime is about to be committed or is being committed seems to be enough probable cause to deplore the police and subpoena powers on the suspect and correlative persons as provided for in the Second Schedule to L.I. 2183 of the EOCO Operations. The Act and the LI are more concerned with sophisticated crimes, and aim to engage in pre-crime interventions, espionage of certain classes of people in civil society and continuous monitoring. To realize these ends, they are given extra-judicial powers such as search and seizure of personal communications and effects without the production of a warrant guaranteed by the 1992 Constitution of Ghana. It is therefore vexatious that corruption has taken over the image of Ghana in quick step against unprecedented swooping powers given to EOCO to breach; for the public good, the civil and constitutional rights of companies and citizens bent on committing serious crime.
Desperately Seeking the Tools of Ethics for Traditional Medicine  [PDF]
Ishmael D. Norman
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2016.67021
Abstract: Objective: To determine the perceived adequacy of the Code of Ethics of the Traditional Medicine Practice as contained in Act 575 of 2000, with respect to patient and manufacturer protection. Method: The author reviewed the legal framework for the regulation of Traditional medicine in Ghana. Investigation was conducted on the worldwide web to identify literature that addressed the research question and reviewed for best practice. Result: The Code of Ethics of the Traditional Medicine Council of Ghana is inadequate for client and manufacturer protections. It is a professional code of ethics, which is skewed to industry players. This vacuum provides opportunity for mistakes, patient endangerment and even fatality. Discussion: There is an established national legal framework for the regulation of the industry with the secondary function of the taxonomy under the framework towards enhanced taxcollection by government. Patient protection code of ethics needs to be developed. Conclusion: The Council needs to develop the ethical framework that would protect both the ultimate beneficiaries of their products and services as well as the workers and operators in the industry.
Juxtaposition of Hohfeldian Rights, Principle-Based Ethics, Functionings, and the Health-Seeking Behavior of Sub-Saharan Africa  [PDF]
Ishmael D. Norman, Blandina M. Awiah Norman
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2016.610026
Abstract: Principle-based ethics appears to be recent addition to Sub-Saharan Africa’s rights profile, although universal principles of morality have been part of the region from time immemorial. In this regard, periodic review of how principle-based ethics is being integrated into the health-seeking behavior of Sub-Saharan Africa is essential to the capabilities and functionings of the people. Whether the Hohfeldian incidents should be applied to Sub-Saharan Africa in measuring the degree of autonomy, capacity and informed consent, given the limited actual and medical education. Whether ethical concepts of “responsibility” and “paternalism” should be more promoted and if so, what happens to their “functionings” and “being”? The author examined the literature on ethics, searched databases for reports and published papers in the English language. Hand searching of selected printed journals and grey literature such as technical reports and conference proceedings were also accessed and briefed for further analyses. This shows that Hohfeldian rights are a natural part of African ethics. Principle-based ethics does not incorporate African ethics per se, although physicians’, and decision experts’ paternalism enhances the health-seeking behavior of Africa’s people, it interferes with their “rights”, “claims”, “power” and “privilege”, as well as their capabilities and functionings. Hohfeldian rights relate to Sub-Sahara Africa as universal man and amalgamate with African ethics and morality through the paternalism of doctors, community leaders and other “decision experts” in society in general. The application of the principle-based ethics in the healthcare delivery system and in other endeavors of Sub-Saharan Africa is achieved through the paternalism of superior powers. This compromises the functionings and being of the people.
Blind Trust in the Care-Giver: Is Paternalism Essential to the Health-Seeking Behavior of Patients in Sub-Saharan Africa?  [PDF]
Ishmael Norman
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2015.52008
Abstract: In the past, patients put their lives in the care of doctors in blind trust that the doctors would care for them. This kind of trust is no longer common particularly in the western industrialized nations but the same cannot be said about patients in Ghana and Sub-Sahara Africa. The first concern was whether paternalism was essential in medical practice in Ghana. The second was whether paternalism as an ethical standard should be considered from the ethical lens of the western industrialized nations, rather than from the African cultural context. This entailed a review and examination of the literature on paternalism. We searched databases such as PubMed, Medline and others for reports, editorials and published papers in the English Language. A search on Goggle Scholar on “paternalism in medical practice in Africa” yielded over 380,000 entries and “paternalism in medical practice in Ghana” yielded 2.1 million but more than 99% were not relevant in each instant. Hand searching of selected printed journals and grey literature such as technical reports, conference proceedings and workshops were also assessed. The studies that met the inclusion criteria were given additional review but those with poor methodology were excluded but discussed in this review. I assigned an overall score and identified the position taken in the publication or report in relation to the objectives and rated them objectively. The papers that received scores above 2.5 out of 4 in the evaluation were further analyzed. I summarized the findings into their respective units, and interpreted them based upon my skills, knowledge and specialization in medico-legal ethics, public health and law. The result shows that not enough research has been done on whether or not paternalism should be encouraged as a regular feature of medical practice in Ghana due to the lack of education. It also shows that paternalism enhances the health seeking behavior of patients despite developments on patient autonomy and capacity. Where the average patient is illiterate in general and in medical matters, the paternalism of the physician may be inevitable. Ethical standards such as Informed Consent, Autonomy, Due Process, Benevolence and No malfeasance should be defined and operationalized in clinical practice within the cultural context of Sub-Sahara Africa. A systematic indigenization of medico-legal ethical concerns in medical practice is needed in Ghana.
Define “Social Exclusion”, Articulate Realistic Benchmarks and Evaluation Modalities for the Livelihood Empowerment against Poverty Program, Ghana  [PDF]
Ishmael Norman
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2017.71002
Abstract: The Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty, a “flagship” program of Ghana, has been praised as a Sub-Saharan Africa’s “miracle cure” for poverty alleviation because it gives US$4.00 - 6.00 a month to a single beneficiary household. In any other regions of the world, the paltry sum would not be praiseworthy. This paper reviewed the literature on the Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty program to identify the reported gains by beneficiaries. Using government’s own publication on LEAP, the author sought to determine evidence of exclusion of the extreme poor, and to find if the alleged gains under LEAP have improved the social inclusion and functionings of the beneficiary households by reducing the alleged social exclusion, chronic poverty and deprivation or by improving social solidarity and equal opportunities for the beneficiaries. Internet search of pertinent literature was conducted, with hand searching of grey literature produced by the Ghana Ministry of Women and Children Affairs and others on the matter. The pertinent papers that addressed the research questions were read and briefed for analyses. The published literature reveals that the program has not significantly improved the capabilities, functionings and being of beneficiaries, though there is a plethora of anecdotal reportage about improvements in their lives. In rural Ghana poverty is not the basis for social exclusion, though disability is. The loose eligibility criteria reward undeserving recipients of LEAP. The government of Ghana and its development partners need to conduct monitoring and evaluation exercise of the program to assess the contributions, if any. They also need to have a working definition of social exclusion, social isolation and solidarity in order to identify the types of exclusions that should inform policy and intervention. There is an urgent need to redesign the program, rearticulate the eligibility criteria and to set clear pathways for capacity building of the beneficiary household leaders towards productive activities.
The Right to Keep and Bear Arms, Ghana  [PDF]
Ishmael Norman
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2018.810040
Abstract: The 1992 Constitution provides explicit instructions to the citizens of Ghana to defend it. That is to say, the citizens are inured with the correlative constitutional right to acquire arms, to keep and to bear them in anticipation of national defense. Despite this charge, the legislative framework has, for a considerable length of time, placed administrative restrictions on gun ownership that undermine the constitutional grant to citizens to even acquire arms. The National Commission on Small Arms and regional conventions such as Ecowas Convention on Small Arms and Light Weapons, have confusing nomenclature and idiosyncratic definition for legal and illicit gun ownership that complicate the right to bear arms. This investigation attempts to show to what extent the constitutional mandate had been overlooked and encroached upon, and how the encroachment can be clawed back to enhance Article 3 rights of the citizens under the 1992 Constitution of Ghana.
Earthquake hoax in Ghana: exploration of the Cry Wolf hypothesis
Ishmael D. Norman,Moses Aikins,Fred Binka
Journal of Public Health in Africa , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/jphia.2012.e14
Abstract: This paper investigated the belief of the news of impending earthquake from any source in the context of the Cry Wolf hypothesis as well as the belief of the news of any other imminent disaster from any source. We were also interested in the correlation between preparedness, risk perception and antecedents. This explorative study consisted of interviews, literature and Internet reviews. Sampling was of a simple random nature. Stratification was carried out by sex and residence type. The sample size of (N=400), consisted of 195 males and 205 Females. Further stratification was based on residential classification used by the municipalities. The study revealed that a person would believe news of an impending earthquake from any source, (64.4%) and a model significance of (P=0.000). It also showed that a person would believe news of any other impending disaster from any source, (73.1%) and a significance of (P=0.003). There is association between background, risk perception and preparedness. Emergency preparedness is weak. Earthquake awareness needs to be re-enforced. There is a critical need for public education of earthquake preparedness. The authors recommend developing emergency response program for earthquakes, standard operating procedures for a national risk communication through all media including instant bulk messaging.
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