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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2282 matches for " Isabelle Schuffenecker "
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Prospective Study of Chikungunya Virus Acute Infection in the Island of La Réunion during the 2005–2006 Outbreak
Frederik Staikowsky,Fran?ois Talarmin,Philippe Grivard,Abdel Souab,Isabelle Schuffenecker,Karin Le Roux,Marc Lecuit,Alain Michault
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007603
Abstract: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a recently re-emerged arthropod borne virus responsible for a massive outbreak in the Indian Ocean and India, and extended to Southeast Asia as well as Italy. CHIKV has adapted to Aedes albopictus, an anthropophilic mosquito species widely distributed in Asia, Europe, Africa and America. Our objective was to determine the clinical and biological features of patients at the acute phase of CHIKV infection.
Two Chikungunya Isolates from the Outbreak of La Reunion (Indian Ocean) Exhibit Different Patterns of Infection in the Mosquito, Aedes albopictus
Marie Vazeille, Sara Moutailler, Daniel Coudrier, Claudine Rousseaux, Huot Khun, Michel Huerre, Julien Thiria, Jean-Sébastien Dehecq, Didier Fontenille, Isabelle Schuffenecker, Philippe Despres, Anna-Bella Failloux
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001168
Abstract: Background A Chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak hit La Réunion Island in 2005–2006. The implicated vector was Aedes albopictus. Here, we present the first study on the susceptibility of Ae. albopictus populations to sympatric CHIKV isolates from La Réunion Island and compare it to other virus/vector combinations. Methodology and Findings We orally infected 8 Ae. albopictus collections from La Réunion and 3 from Mayotte collected in March 2006 with two Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) from La Réunion: (i) strain 05.115 collected in June 2005 with an Alanine at the position 226 of the glycoprotein E1 and (ii) strain 06.21 collected in November 2005 with a substitution A226V. Two other CHIKV isolates and four additional mosquito strains/species were also tested. The viral titer of the infectious blood-meal was 107 plaque forming units (pfu)/mL. Dissemination rates were assessed by immunofluorescent staining on head squashes of surviving females 14 days after infection. Rates were at least two times higher with CHIKV 06.21 compared to CHIKV 05.115. In addition, 10 individuals were analyzed every day by quantitative RT-PCR. Viral RNA was quantified on (i) whole females and (ii) midguts and salivary glands of infected females. When comparing profiles, CHIKV 06.21 produced nearly 2 log more viral RNA copies than CHIKV 05.115. Furthermore, females infected with CHIKV 05.115 could be divided in two categories: weakly susceptible or strongly susceptible, comparable to those infected by CHIKV 06.21. Histological analysis detected the presence of CHIKV in salivary glands two days after infection. In addition, Ae. albopictus from La Réunion was as efficient vector as Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from Vietnam when infected with the CHIKV 06.21. Conclusions Our findings support the hypothesis that the CHIK outbreak in La Réunion Island was due to a highly competent vector Ae. albopictus which allowed an efficient replication and dissemination of CHIKV 06.21.
Genome Microevolution of Chikungunya Viruses Causing the Indian Ocean Outbreak
Isabelle Schuffenecker ,Isabelle Iteman,Alain Michault,Séverine Murri,Lionel Frangeul,Marie-Christine Vaney,Rachel Lavenir,Nathalie Pardigon,Jean-Marc Reynes,Fran?ois Pettinelli,Leon Biscornet,Laure Diancourt,Stéphanie Michel,Stéphane Duquerroy,Ghislaine Guigon,Marie-Pascale Frenkiel,Anne-Claire Bréhin,Nadège Cubito,Philippe Desprès,Frank Kunst,Félix A Rey,Hervé Zeller,Sylvain Brisse
PLOS Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030263
Abstract: Background A chikungunya virus outbreak of unprecedented magnitude is currently ongoing in Indian Ocean territories. In Réunion Island, this alphavirus has already infected about one-third of the human population. The main clinical symptom of the disease is a painful and invalidating poly-arthralgia. Besides the arthralgic form, 123 patients with a confirmed chikungunya infection have developed severe clinical signs, i.e., neurological signs or fulminant hepatitis. Methods and Findings We report the nearly complete genome sequence of six selected viral isolates (isolated from five sera and one cerebrospinal fluid), along with partial sequences of glycoprotein E1 from a total of 127 patients from Réunion, Seychelles, Mauritius, Madagascar, and Mayotte islands. Our results indicate that the outbreak was initiated by a strain related to East-African isolates, from which viral variants have evolved following a traceable microevolution history. Unique molecular features of the outbreak isolates were identified. Notably, in the region coding for the non-structural proteins, ten amino acid changes were found, four of which were located in alphavirus-conserved positions of nsP2 (which contains helicase, protease, and RNA triphosphatase activities) and of the polymerase nsP4. The sole isolate obtained from the cerebrospinal fluid showed unique changes in nsP1 (T301I), nsP2 (Y642N), and nsP3 (E460 deletion), not obtained from isolates from sera. In the structural proteins region, two noteworthy changes (A226V and D284E) were observed in the membrane fusion glycoprotein E1. Homology 3D modelling allowed mapping of these two changes to regions that are important for membrane fusion and virion assembly. Change E1-A226V was absent in the initial strains but was observed in >90% of subsequent viral sequences from Réunion, denoting evolutionary success possibly due to adaptation to the mosquito vector. Conclusions The unique molecular features of the analyzed Indian Ocean isolates of chikungunya virus demonstrate their high evolutionary potential and suggest possible clues for understanding the atypical magnitude and virulence of this outbreak.
Multidisciplinary Prospective Study of Mother-to-Child Chikungunya Virus Infections on the Island of La Réunion
Patrick Gérardin,Georges Barau,Alain Michault,Marc Bintner,Hanitra Randrianaivo,Ghassan Choker,Yann Lenglet,Yasmina Touret,Anne Bouveret,Philippe Grivard,Karin Le Roux,Séverine Blanc,Isabelle Schuffenecker,Thérèse Couderc,Fernando Arenzana-Seisdedos,Marc Lecuit ? ,Pierre-Yves Robillard ?
PLOS Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0050060
Abstract: Background An outbreak of chikungunya virus affected over one-third of the population of La Réunion Island between March 2005 and December 2006. In June 2005, we identified the first case of mother-to-child chikungunya virus transmission at the Groupe Hospitalier Sud-Réunion level-3 maternity department. The goal of this prospective study was to characterize the epidemiological, clinical, biological, and radiological features and outcomes of all the cases of vertically transmitted chikungunya infections recorded at our institution during this outbreak. Methods and Findings Over 22 mo, 7,504 women delivered 7,629 viable neonates; 678 (9.0%) of these parturient women were infected (positive RT-PCR or IgM serology) during antepartum, and 61 (0.8%) in pre- or intrapartum. With the exception of three early fetal deaths, vertical transmission was exclusively observed in near-term deliveries (median duration of gestation: 38 wk, range 35–40 wk) in the context of intrapartum viremia (19 cases of vertical transmission out of 39 women with intrapartum viremia, prevalence rate 0.25%, vertical transmission rate 48.7%). Cesarean section had no protective effect on transmission. All infected neonates were asymptomatic at birth, and median onset of neonatal disease was 4 d (range 3–7 d). Pain, prostration, and fever were present in 100% of cases and thrombocytopenia in 89%. Severe illness was observed in ten cases (52.6%) and mainly consisted of encephalopathy (n = 9; 90%). These nine children had pathologic MRI findings (brain swelling, n = 9; cerebral hemorrhages, n = 2), and four evolved towards persistent disabilities. Conclusions Mother-to-child chikungunya virus transmission is frequent in the context of intrapartum maternal viremia, and often leads to severe neonatal infection. Chikungunya represents a substantial risk for neonates born to viremic parturients that should be taken into account by clinicians and public health authorities in the event of a chikungunya outbreak.
A Mouse Model for Chikungunya: Young Age and Inefficient Type-I Interferon Signaling Are Risk Factors for Severe Disease
Thérèse Couderc equal contributor,Fabrice Chrétien equal contributor,Clémentine Schilte equal contributor,Olivier Disson,Madly Brigitte,Florence Guivel-Benhassine,Yasmina Touret,Georges Barau,Nadège Cayet,Isabelle Schuffenecker,Philippe Desprès,Fernando Arenzana-Seisdedos,Alain Michault,Matthew L Albert equal contributor,Marc Lecuit equal contributor
PLOS Pathogens , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0040029
Abstract: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging arbovirus responsible for a massive outbreak currently afflicting the Indian Ocean region and India. Infection from CHIKV typically induces a mild disease in humans, characterized by fever, myalgia, arthralgia, and rash. Cases of severe CHIKV infection involving the central nervous system (CNS) have recently been described in neonates as well as in adults with underlying conditions. The pathophysiology of CHIKV infection and the basis for disease severity are unknown. To address these critical issues, we have developed an animal model of CHIKV infection. We show here that whereas wild type (WT) adult mice are resistant to CHIKV infection, WT mouse neonates are susceptible and neonatal disease severity is age-dependent. Adult mice with a partially (IFN-α/βR+/?) or totally (IFN-α/βR?/?) abrogated type-I IFN pathway develop a mild or severe infection, respectively. In mice with a mild infection, after a burst of viral replication in the liver, CHIKV primarily targets muscle, joint, and skin fibroblasts, a cell and tissue tropism similar to that observed in biopsy samples of CHIKV-infected humans. In case of severe infections, CHIKV also disseminates to other tissues including the CNS, where it specifically targets the choroid plexuses and the leptomeninges. Together, these data indicate that CHIKV-associated symptoms match viral tissue and cell tropisms, and demonstrate that the fibroblast is a predominant target cell of CHIKV. These data also identify the neonatal phase and inefficient type-I IFN signaling as risk factors for severe CHIKV-associated disease. The development of a permissive small animal model will expedite the testing of future vaccines and therapeutic candidates.
Asymptotic Expansion of Temperature Close to a Singularity of a Plate  [PDF]
Isabelle Titeux
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2011.13015
Abstract: The thermal conduction in a thin laminated plate is considered here. The lateral surface of the plate is not regular. Consequently, the boundary of the middle plane admits a geometrical singularity. Close to the origin, the lateral edge forms an angle. We shall prove that the classical bidimensional problem associated with the thin plate problem is not valid. In this paper, using the boundary layer theory, we describe the local behavior of the plate, close to the perturbation.
Peri-Orbital Non-Invasive and Painless Skin Tightening-Safe and Highly Effective Use of Multisource Radio-Frequency Treatment Platform  [PDF]
Isabelle Rousseaux
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2015.53025
Abstract: The periorbital area is the third highest-ranking area for cosmetic surgery. However, surgery in this area presents a number of difficulties and safety concerns. First generation Monopolar RF treatments in this area were usually associated with considerable pain and long downtime. In the present clinical study, we used the iFine handpiece of the EndyMed PRO, multi-source phase-controlled radiofrequency (RF) for Non-invasive, pain free, skin rejuvenation of the periorbital area. The study included eleven (11) subjects, treated for periorbital signs of aging (iFine handpiece, EndyMed PRO platform, EndyMed Medical, Caesarea, Israel). The degree of clinical improvement was assessed by the global aesthetic improvement scale (GAIS) and subjects satisfaction by post treatment questionnaires. 91% of patients showed good to excellent improvement as a result of the treatment. Subjects satisfaction showed that 55% of patients reported that they were very satisfied, 45% were satisfied while none were dissatisfied. There were no incidences of infections, scarring, hypopigmentation, or any other serious complications.
Characterization of Reemerging Chikungunya Virus
Marion Sourisseau,Clémentine Schilte,Nicoletta Casartelli,Céline Trouillet,Florence Guivel-Benhassine,Dominika Rudnicka,Nathalie Sol-Foulon,Karin Le Roux,Marie-Christine Prevost,Hafida Fsihi,Marie-Pascale Frenkiel,Fabien Blanchet,Philippe V Afonso,Pierre-Emmanuel Ceccaldi,Simona Ozden,Antoine Gessain,Isabelle Schuffenecker,Bruno Verhasselt,Alessia Zamborlini,Ali Sa?b,Felix A Rey,Fernando Arenzana-Seisdedos,Philippe Desprès,Alain Michault,Matthew L Albert,Olivier Schwartz
PLOS Pathogens , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0030089
Abstract: An unprecedented epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection recently started in countries of the Indian Ocean area, causing an acute and painful syndrome with strong fever, asthenia, skin rash, polyarthritis, and lethal cases of encephalitis. The basis for chikungunya disease and the tropism of CHIKV remain unknown. Here, we describe the replication characteristics of recent clinical CHIKV strains. Human epithelial and endothelial cells, primary fibroblasts and, to a lesser extent, monocyte-derived macrophages, were susceptible to infection and allowed viral production. In contrast, CHIKV did not replicate in lymphoid and monocytoid cell lines, primary lymphocytes and monocytes, or monocyte-derived dendritic cells. CHIKV replication was cytopathic and associated with an induction of apoptosis in infected cells. Chloroquine, bafilomycin-A1, and short hairpin RNAs against dynamin-2 inhibited viral production, indicating that viral entry occurs through pH-dependent endocytosis. CHIKV was highly sensitive to the antiviral activity of type I and II interferons. These results provide a general insight into the interaction between CHIKV and its mammalian host.
Carotid Endothelial VCAM-1 Is an Early Marker of Carotid Atherosclerosis and Predicts Coronary Artery Disease in Swine  [PDF]
Isabelle Masseau, Douglas K. Bowles
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2015.811073
Abstract: Objective: The aim was to determine if endothelial VCAM-1 (eVCAM-1) expression in the common carotid artery (CCA) would correlate with predictive markers of atherosclerotic disease, would precede reduction of markers of endothelial cell function and would predict coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods and results: Carotid arterial segments (bifurcation, proximal and distal CCA) were harvested from 14 and 24 month-old male castrated familial hypercholesterolemic (FH) swine, a model of spontaneous atherosclerosis. Quantification of local expression of eVCAM-1, intimal macrophage accumulation, oxidative stress, intima-media (I/M) ratio, intima-media thickness (IMT), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and phosphorylated eNOS (p-eNOS) in selected regions of the carotids revealed a relationship between local inflammation and atherosclerotic plaque progression. Importantly, inflammation was not uniform throughout the CCA. Endothelial VCAM-1 expression was the greatest at the bifurcation and increased with age. Finally, eVCAM-1 best estimated the severity of CAD compared to blood levels of glucose, hypercholesterolemia, carotid IMT, and p-eNOS. Conclusion: Our data suggested that eVCAM-1 was closely associated with atherosclerotic plaque progression and preceded impairment of EDD. Thus, this study supported the use of carotid VCAM-1 targeting agents to estimate the severity of CAD.
Mycobacterium avium Paratuberculosis (MAP) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Are Frequently Detected in the Saliva of Patients Recently Diagnosed with Crohn Disease (CD) Whereas Oral Propionibacterium Acnes (PA) or Methylacetate (MA) in Their Breath Is Rare  [PDF]
Donatini Bruno, Le Blaye Isabelle
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2015.312003

We investigated the presence of MAP, CMV, or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the saliva of patients presenting with periodontal disease, gingivitis or oral aphthosis. We also measured methylacetate in their breath and looked for the presence of PA on their tongue. All patients were prospectively enrolled into a two-year cohort study. We compared the group presenting with CD versus the group without CD. 167 patients were enrolled. 24 patients presented with CD. CMV and MAP were found concomitantly in 67% of CD patients (17 patients) whereas only 1 patient (<0.1%; p < 0.001) has these infectious agents in the comparative group. PA was rare in CD (25% versus 70.6%; p < 0.001). MA was low, especially with an empty stomach (0.59 ppm +/? 1.45 versus 5.14 ppm +/? 8.97; p < 0.001). It was concluded that the association MAP + CMV was frequently found in oral lesions of CD at an early stage. Detection of PA, MAP and CMV, as well as breath test could be easily performed and may participate to the early diagnosis of CD.

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