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Atomic Hole Doping of Graphene
Isabella Gierz,Christian Riedl,Ulrich Starke,Christian R. Ast,Klaus Kern
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1021/nl802996s
Abstract: Graphene is an excellent candidate for the next generation of electronic materials due to the strict two-dimensionality of its electronic structure as well as the extremely high carrier mobility. A prerequisite for the development of graphene based electronics is the reliable control of the type and density of the charge carriers by external (gate) and internal (doping) means. While gating has been successfully demonstrated for graphene flakes and epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide, the development of reliable chemical doping methods turns out to be a real challenge. In particular hole doping is an unsolved issue. So far it has only been achieved with reactive molecular adsorbates, which are largely incompatible with any device technology. Here we show by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy that atomic doping of an epitaxial graphene layer on a silicon carbide substrate with bismuth, antimony or gold presents effective means of p-type doping. Not only is the atomic doping the method of choice for the internal control of the carrier density. In combination with the intrinsic n-type character of epitaxial graphene on SiC, the charge carriers can be tuned from electrons to holes, without affecting the conical band structure.
Illuminating the dark corridor in graphene: polarization dependence of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on graphene
Isabella Gierz,Juergen Henk,Hartmut Hoechst,Christian R. Ast,Klaus Kern
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.83.121408
Abstract: We have used s- and p-polarized synchrotron radiation to image the electronic structure of epitaxial graphene near the K-point by angular resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Part of the experimental Fermi surface is suppressed due to the interference of photoelectrons emitted from the two equivalent carbon atoms per unit cell of graphene's honeycomb lattice. Here we show that by rotating the polarization vector, we are able to illuminate this 'dark corridor' indicating that the present theoretical understanding is oversimplified. Our measurements are supported by first-principles photoemission calculations, which reveal that the observed effect persists in the low photon energy regime.
Tuning the spin texture in binary and ternary surface alloys on Ag(111)
Isabella Gierz,Fabian Meier,J. Hugo Dil,Klaus Kern,Christian R. Ast
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.83.195122
Abstract: Recently, a giant spin splitting has been observed in surface alloys on noble metal (111) surfaces as a result of a strong structural modification at the surface as well as the large atomic spin-orbit interaction (SOI) of the alloy atoms. These surface alloys are an ideal playground to manipulate both the size of the spin splitting as well as the position of the Fermi level as it is possible to change the atomic SOI as well as the relaxation by varying alloy atoms and substrates. Using spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy in combination with quantitative low energy electron diffraction we have studied the mixed binary Bi(x)Sb(1-x)/Ag(111) and the mixed ternary Bi(x)Pb(y)Sb(1-x-y)/Ag(111) surface alloys where we observed a continuous evolution of the band structure with x and y.
Spin and angular resolved photoemission experiments on epitaxial graphene
Isabella Gierz,Jan Hugo Dil,Fabian Meier,Bartosz Slomski,Juerg Osterwalder,Juergen Henk,Roland Winkler,Christian R. Ast,Klaus Kern
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: Our recently reported spin and angular resolved photoemission (SARPES) results on an epitaxial graphene monolayer on SiC(0001) suggested the presence of a large Rashba-type spin splitting of \Delta k=(0.030+-0.005)1/A [1]. Although this value was orders of magnitude larger than predicted theoretically, it could be reconciled with the line width found in conventional spin-integrated high resolution angular resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data. Here we present novel measurements for a hydrogen intercalated quasi free-standing graphene monolayer on SiC(0001) that reveal a spin polarization signal that - when interpreted in terms of the Rashba-Bychkov effect [2,3] - corresponds to a spin splitting of \Delta k=(0.024+-0.005)1/A. This splitting is significantly larger than the half width at half maximum of spin-integrated high resolution ARPES measurements which is a strong indication that the measured polarization signal does not originate from a Rashba-type spin splitting of the graphene pi-bands as we suggested in our previous report [1].
The Structural Influence on the Rashba-type Spin-Splitting in Surface Alloys
Isabella Gierz,Benjamin Stadtmüller,Johannes Vuorinen,Matti Lindroos,Fabian Meier,J. Hugo Dil,Klaus Kern,Christian R. Ast
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.245430
Abstract: The Bi/Ag(111), Pb/Ag(111), and Sb/Ag(111) surface alloys exhibit a two-dimensional band structure with a strongly enhanced Rashba-type spin-splitting, which is in part attributed to the structural asymmetry resulting from an outward relaxation of the alloy atoms. In order to gain further insight into the spin-splitting mechanism, we have experimentally determined the outward relaxation of the alloy atoms in these surface alloys using quantitative low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). The structure plays an important role in the size of the spinsplitting as it dictates the potential landscape, the symmetry as well as the orbital character. Furthermore, we discuss the band ordering of the Pb/Ag(111) surface alloy as well as the reproducible formation of Sb/Ag(111) surface alloys with unfaulted (face-centered cubic) and faulted (hexagonally close-packed) toplayer stacking.
Electronic decoupling of an epitaxial graphene monolayer by gold intercalation
Isabella Gierz,Takayuki Suzuki,Dong Su Lee,Benjamin Krauss,Christian Riedl,Ulrich Starke,Hartmut H?chst,Jurgen H. Smet,Christian R. Ast,Klaus Kern
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.235408
Abstract: The application of graphene in electronic devices requires large scale epitaxial growth. The presence of the substrate, however, usually reduces the charge carrier mobility considerably. We show that it is possible to decouple the partially sp3-hybridized first graphitic layer formed on the Si-terminated face of silicon carbide from the substrate by gold intercalation, leading to a completely sp2-hybridized graphene layer with improved electronic properties.
Population Inversion in Monolayer and Bilayer Graphene
Isabella Gierz,Matteo Mitrano,Jesse C. Petersen,Cephise Cacho,I. C. Edmond Turcu,Emma Springate,Alexander St?hr,Axel K?hler,Ulrich Starke,Andrea Cavalleri
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0953-8984/27/16/164204
Abstract: The recent demonstration of saturable absorption and negative optical conductivity in the Terahertz range in graphene has opened up new opportunities for optoelectronic applications based on this and other low dimensional materials. Recently, population inversion across the Dirac point has been observed directly by time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (tr-ARPES), revealing a relaxation time of only ~ 130 femtoseconds. This severely limits the applicability of single layer graphene to, for example, Terahertz light amplification. Here we use tr-ARPES to demonstrate long-lived population inversion in bilayer graphene. The effect is attributed to the small band gap found in this compound. We propose a microscopic model for these observations and speculate that an enhancement of both the pump photon energy and the pump fluence may further increase this lifetime.
Snapshots of non-equilibrium Dirac carrier distributions in graphene
Isabella Gierz,Jesse C. Petersen,Matteo Mitrano,Cephise Cacho,Edmond Turcu,Emma Springate,Alexander St?hr,Axel K?hler,Ulrich Starke,Andrea Cavalleri
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1038/nmat3757
Abstract: The optical properties of graphene are made unique by the linear band structure and the vanishing density of states at the Dirac point. It has been proposed that even in the absence of a semiconducting bandgap, a relaxation bottleneck at the Dirac point may allow for population inversion and lasing at arbitrarily long wavelengths. Furthermore, efficient carrier multiplication by impact ionization has been discussed in the context of light harvesting applications. However, all these effects are difficult to test quantitatively by measuring the transient optical properties alone, as these only indirectly reflect the energy and momentum dependent carrier distributions. Here, we use time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with femtosecond extreme ultra-violet (EUV) pulses at 31.5 eV photon energy to directly probe the non-equilibrium response of Dirac electrons near the K-point of the Brillouin zone. In lightly hole-doped epitaxial graphene samples, we explore excitation in the mid- and near-infrared, both below and above the minimum photon energy for direct interband transitions. While excitation in the mid-infrared results only in heating of the equilibrium carrier distribution, interband excitations give rise to population inversion, suggesting that terahertz lasing may be possible. However, in neither excitation regime do we find indication for carrier multiplication, questioning the applicability of graphene for light harvesting. Time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy in the EUV emerges as the technique of choice to assess the suitability of new materials for optoelectronics, providing quantitatively accurate measurements of non-equilibrium carriers at all energies and wavevectors.
Phonon-pump XUV-photoemission-probe in graphene: evidence for non-adiabatic heating of Dirac carriers by lattice deformation
Isabella Gierz,Matteo Mitrano,Hubertus Bromberger,Cephise Cacho,Richard Chapman,Emma Springate,Stefan Link,Ulrich Starke,Burkhard Sachs,Martin Eckstein,Tim O. Wehling,Mikhail I. Katsnelson,Alexander Lichtenstein,Andrea Cavalleri
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.125503
Abstract: We modulate the atomic structure of bilayer graphene by driving its lattice at resonance with the in-plane E1u lattice vibration at 6.3um. Using time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (tr-ARPES) with extreme ultra-violet (XUV) pulses, we measure the response of the Dirac electrons near the K-point. We observe that lattice modulation causes anomalous carrier dynamics, with the Dirac electrons reaching lower peak temperatures and relaxing at faster rate compared to when the excitation is applied away from the phonon resonance or in monolayer samples. Frozen phonon calculations predict dramatic band structure changes when the E1u vibration is driven, which we use to explain the anomalous dynamics observed in the experiment.
Trust between Boundary-Spanning Agents: The Role of Relational Competencies  [PDF]
Isabella Hatak, Dietmar Roessl
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.33001

Against the background of principal-agent and transaction-cost theoretical considerations, this study addresses the question whether relational competencies relate to trust within cooperative relationships, taking into account also situational and personal factors. In its conclusion, the study presents an experimentally confirmed model (n = 282) that shows the strong causal relationship between relational competencies and trust allowing boundary-spanning agents to exert influence on the development and maintenance of complex cooperative relationships characterized by long-term objectives.

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