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The wider consideration of environmental effects and alternatives in early stages of decision-making has been pointed as one of the major benefits of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). Adopted by virtually all of developed countries and sprawling around emergent and developing ones, it is recognized that SEA effectiveness is attached to its systematic application in development plans and programmes. Brazil and many developing countries have different experiences with this instrument and lacks of definition of a procedural framework to promote the use of SEA in strategic levels of decision. As a consequence development projects are frequently “threatened” by impact assessment outcomes, especially when a mandatory project-EIA has to inform decisions. In order to contribute to the implementation of SEA in developing countries, the present paper discusses the potential benefits of using SEA in transport infrastructure plans and programmes, through a case study applied to transport plans in the state of Sao Paulo (south-eastern Brazil). The outcomes indicate that SEA could contribute to improve infrastructure impact assessments, minimizing social and environmental conflicts, augmenting the acceptability of projects and decisions, reinforcing the need for SEA to be systematically implemented in Brazil.
The aim of this study
was to gather information on the use of stable isotopes to measure total body
water and body composition scan in children. We selected studies in the last
13 years, in addition to classical studies on the subject, indexed in the database
PubMed, LILACS, BVS and SciELO. The body composition was characterized by the
amount of bone tissue, muscle and adipose tissue, also including the organs as
well as levels of body water. Your knowledge becomes increasingly important in
light of the changes that occur in the nutritional status of various types of
diseases in frameworks, such as diabetes mellitus, protein energy malnutrition,
in cases of obesity and metabolic syndrome. The ability to accurately assess
body fat mass especially in children is associated with the importance of
effective strategies for prevention and treatment of childhood obesity.
Historically, in addition to clinical applications, measurements of total
body water were used to determine body composition in nutritional studies. To
the knowledge of the body composition, the body water can be measured and used
by the ingestion of a dose of labeled water. The measured isotope enrichment
is a function of the amount of body water. The method of deuterium is
particularly interesting for the assessment of body composition in children,
due to its characteristics of collection and analysis.