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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 20608 matches for " Irrigation Water "
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A Study on Planned and Applied Irrigation Modules in Irrigation Networks: A Case Study at Büyük Menderes Basin, Turkey  [PDF]
Cengiz Ko?
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering (CWEEE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cweee.2016.54011
Abstract: In this study, irrigation modules calculated in planning and actualized operational stage of the irrigation networks are examined. Irrigation module used irrigation networks is a constant discharge parameter, meeting the needs of irrigation water requirement smonthly of crops in one hectare of irrigation area and it is a constant discharge flowing continuously for a month. Extent of the overlapping between the irrigation planning module and the operation module actualized during the operational stage of the irrigation network depends on changes in the cropping patterns, differences in the effects of field irrigation methods used by farmers on the capacity of the constructed system, the increases or decreases in the water demands depending on the irrigation period, as well as the extent of sustainability according to the selected operation method. A2 irrigation area of Aydin plain irrigation network, locating in the Büyük Menderes basin, Turkey is selected as study area, with an area of 2500 ha. Irrigation planning module calculated for this network is q = 1.16 l/s/ha and it has been designed as per the supply demand operation method. For the study; actualized irrigation module in the operation stage has been compared with the planning irrigation module by using Excel software and taking parameters such as actual crop pattern and percentage distributions, actualized irrigated areas, irrigation networks and water distribution, water intake of irrigation networks which have been calculated without operation losses, as well as with 5%, 10%, and 15% operation losses. The July operation module calculated for the examined irrigation network generally conforms to the planning module, as it has received the values close to or below the value of irrigation planning modules.
Mutated Barley: A Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for Food Security and Biodiversity Management  [PDF]
Habibah S. Al-Menaie, Ouhoud Al-Ragam
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2015.33B010

Increased agricultural production under the harsh environmental conditions with limited water resources and scarce natural resources is a major challenge in arid regions like Kuwait. The implementation of sustainable agricultural practices holds paramount importance in delivering better agricultural environment for increased production. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is one among the most dependable cereal crops under saline and drought conditions. Mutant barley genotypes that have evolved under stress conditions using the improved genetic resources have the desired morphological, physiological and agronomic traits. As Kuwait lack local barley genotypes, it is important to find suitable barley genotypes adaptable to drought and salinity, with high crop water productivity. In this study, several mutant barley varieties were screened for better performance under drought and salinity, with high feed quality. The growth performance and the nutritive value of twelve different barley cultivars were evaluated under both fresh and brackish water irrigation in Kuwait. The seeds of the superior lines were multiplied for fodder production trials and their nutritive value was evaluated in animal production systems. It was found that two parental lines Gustoe and California Marriot and two mutant barley genotypes ari-e.228 and Golden Promise produced high grain yield of 3 - 4 ton/ha. The mutant genotype Golden Promise was the most tolerant, while ari-e.156 was the most susceptible genotype to saline stress. Both proximate analysis and animal feeding trial showed that the dry matter content of the air dry straws varied from 91.26% to 93.35%. The crude fat contents were within the acceptable range (1.13% to 1.93%), and high concentrations of ash and crude protein were found in straw in all genotypes. Thus, the evolution of farming systems that are economically viable, competitive, sustainable and environmental friendly improves the production efficiency, productivity and product quality of various crops.

Root-Zone Soil Water Balance and Sunflower Yield under Deficit Irrigated in Zambia  [PDF]
Elijah Phiri, Simon Zimba
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2018.81005
Abstract: The study was conducted at the University of Zambia, Research Field Station, Lusaka, Zambia to evaluate the root zone soil water balance under full, and deficit irrigated sunflower. The specific objectives were: 1) to assess the sunflower growth and yield under varying irrigation water regimes; 2) to evaluate the root-zone water balance; and 3) to evaluate the water use efficiency of sunflower. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus, var Milika) was planted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four irrigated water regimes in four replications. The treatments comprised: treatment (T1) = 30% ETc; treatment (T2) = 54% ETc; treatment (T3) = 65% ETc; and treatment (T4) = 100% ETc. The sunflower crop was irrigated on a weekly irrigation schedule using sprinklers. The measured parameters included: weather data, soil moisture profiles, growth stages (emergence, flowering, maturity), above-ground biomass, and grain yield. The results of the study showed that growth parameter (biomass and seed yield) decreased with a decrease in applied irrigation water. The sunflower seed yield varied from 0.22 to 1.40-ton·ha-1 with an average yield of 0.81-ton·ha-1. The highest grain yield was obtained under treatment (T4), and the least grain in yield harvest was at treatment (T1). The statistical analysis showed significant differences in seed yield among the treatments. The treatments (T1 and T2) were not significantly different (p > 0.05). These results showed that when water deficit was set at 65% and 100% ETc and uniformly distributed throughout the sunflower growth, there were no significant differences in biomass, stover and seed yield. In literature, the allowable soil moisture depletion factor for irrigation scheduling of sunflower is set at 45%. The yield components decreased as irrigation levels decreased for each irrigation interval. The 65% ETc treatment could be recommended for sunflower irrigated in semi-arid regions and be used as a good basis for improved irrigation strategy development under water stressed environment.
A Review of Water Storage for Socio-Economic Development in South Africa  [PDF]
Emmanuel Mwendera, Yonwaba Atyosi
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2018.103016
Abstract: South Africa’s water resources are limited and unevenly distributed. To overcome the uneven spread of water resources and to manage floods and drought, more than two thirds of the country’s mean annual rainfall is currently stored in dams. The paper reviews the current water storage capacity of the country at national and provincial levels. Data from a list of registered dams in the country were used to analyse the water storage capacity of the country. Water storage capacity is highest in Free State Province and lowest in Gauteng Province. The results also show that, while it is clear that the country has invested a lot in developing water storage infrastructure, there is potential for the development of additional infrastructure. However, since most of the major rivers are transboundary, the country needs to develop additional storage with full consideration of its ecological requirements and international obligations.
Analysis of cotton water productivity in Fergana Valley of Central Asia  [PDF]
J. Mohan Reddy, Shukhrat Muhammedjanov, Kahramon Jumaboev, Davron Eshmuratov
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.36100
Abstract: Cotton water productivity was studied in Fergana Valley of Central Asia during the years of 2009, 2010 and 2011. Data was collected from 18 demonstration fields (13 in Uzbekistan, 5 in Tajikistan). The demonstration field farmers implemented several improved agronomic and irrigation water management practices. The average values of crop yield, estimated crop consumptive use (ETa) and total water applied (TWA) for the demonstration sites were, respectively, 3700 kg/ha, 6360 m3/ha, and 8120 m3/ha. The range of values for TWA and ETa were, respectively, 5000 m3/ha to 12,000 m3/ha and 4500 m3/ha to 8000 m3/ha. A quadratic relationship was found between TWA and ETa. The average yield of the adjacent fields was 3300 kg/ha, whereas the average yield of cotton in Fergana Valley as a whole was 2900 kg/ha, indicating 28% and 14% increase in crop yield, respectively, from, demonstration fields and adjacent fields. There was no significant difference in crop yields between the wet years (2009 and 2010) and the dry year (2011), which is explained by the quadratic relationship between TWA and ETa. The water productivity values ranged from 0.35 kg/m3 to 0.89 kg/m3, indicating a significant potential for improving water productivity through agronomic and irrigation management interventions. The ratio of average ETa divided by average TWA gave an average application efficiency of 78% (some fields under-irrigated and some fields over-irrigated), the remaining 22% of water applied leaving the field. Since more than 60% of the water used for irrigation in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan is pumped from, even if all this 22% of water returns to the stream, substantial energy savings would accrue from improving the average application efficiency at field level. The range of values for TWA indicates the inequity in water distribution/accessibility. Addressing this inequity would also increase water productivity at field and project level.
An Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality and Selected Soil Parameters at Mutema Irrigation Scheme, Zimbabwe  [PDF]
Abel Chemura, Dumisani Kutywayo, Tapiwanashe M. Chagwesha, Pardon Chidoko
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.62018

Soil salinity and sodicity are major factors limiting agricultural productivity in irrigation schemes located in semi-arid areas. A study was conducted to assess the quality of irrigation water used in Mutema Irrigation Scheme located in south-east Zimbabwe to understand how irrigation water quality is related to the chemical quality of soils in the scheme. Irrigation water samples were collected from groundwater and surface sources in 2012 and their hydrochemistry determined while soil samples were collected from irrigated and non-irrigated parts of the scheme in 2006 and 2012 and analysed for selected chemical properties. The results indicated that the groundwater had high concentrations of Na+ (4.35 mg/l), Mg2+ (4.75 mg/l), Cl- (3.6 mg/l) and Electrical Conductivity (EC) (1729 Msm/cm) compared to the surface irrigation water source which had 0.72 mg/l Na+, 2.25 mg/l Mg2+, 0.78 mg/l Cl- and 594 Msm/cm EC. The soils in the scheme had higher levels of pH, Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Exchangeable Sodium Percentage (ESP) and EC which in some blocks exceeded the threshold requirements for cropping. It was found

The Quality and Health Implications of Urban Irrigation Water Used for Vegetable Production in the Accra Metropolis  [PDF]
Mark O. Akrong, Joseph A. Ampofo, Seth K. A. Danso
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.311167
Abstract: The quality of irrigation water from different sources used by urban farmers in the Accra Metropolis was investigated. These were, tap water stored in dugout, surface water (from stream) and wastewater in drains. The samples were analysed for their bacteriological, physical and chemical qualities using standard methods. Analytical Profile Index (API) identification system was used to characterize and identify the bacterial species isolated in the samples. The results showed that heavy metal concentrations in the samples were within the FAO/WHO recommended limits for irrigation. The concentrations of highly toxic Lead and Cadmium were even below detection limit. Total and faecal coliform bacteria loads in all three potential irrigation water sources were above the WHO recommended limit for irrigation. Different bacteria species belonging to seven genera were identified in the three irrigation water sources. These included Citrobacter, Chryseomonas, Enterobacter, Klebseila, Proteus, Providencia, Pseudomonas. Generally, the most dominant bacterial species were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chryseomonas luteola. Some of these bacteria spp. can pose a health threat to farmers especially those who have challenges with their health and immune system. For example, infection with some of the bacteria species such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with cystic fibrosis is known to be deadly over periods of time.
Agricultural Water Conservation in the High Plains Aquifer and Arikaree River Basin  [PDF]
Adam Prior, Ramchand Oad, Kristoph-Dietrich Kinzli
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.57076

Yuma County is the top crop producing County in Colorado that is dependent on groundwater supplies from the High Plains aquifer for irrigation. The Arikaree River, a tributary of the Republican River in eastern Colorado, is supplied with water from the High Plains aquifer. The Arikaree River alluvium is also a habitat for many terrestrial invertebrates and the threatened Hybognathus hankinsoni (Brassy Minnow). The constant demand on the High Plains aquifer has created declining water levels at the linear rate of 0.183 m/year with the deepest pool in the Arikaree River drying up in 8 to 12 years. In addition to the demands for habitats, the surrounding irrigated agricultural lands require water for crop production. These challenges are currently confronting farmers in eastern Colorado and this research presents possible alternatives to meet these demands. This research presents a combination water balance model, water conservation model, and water conservation survey results from farmers in eastern Colorado to identify alternatives to extend the life of the Arikaree River. The first alternative was to examine the reduction in irrigation water from removing the 18 alluvial irrigation wells that could extend the Arikaree River pools from drying up for 30 years. The other scenario found that water conservation practices with participation of 43%, 57%, and 62% of farmers would extend the drying time to 20, 30, and 40 years, respectively. The final alternative studied was the required participation in conservation practices to stop the decline of the High Plains Aquifer. The analysis found that 77% participation of farmers in all conservation alternatives or reducing pumping by 62.9% would be necessary to stabilize the High Plains Aquifer.

A Spatial Analysis of Irrigation Technology  [PDF]
Andrew Wright, Darren Hudson, Maria Mutuc
Natural Resources (NR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2013.44037

The nature of spatial spillovers in the adoption of irrigation technology is examined in this paper. Adopting a new technology is a decision that is based on economic and individual-specific factors. One of these individual factors might be communication with other users. It makes sense to expect that contact between users and non-users would follow a spatial pattern, and if knowledge spillovers are important to the adoption decision then resource managers need to be aware of their existence. Using counties in the Texas High Plains as the study area, the adoption of center pivot technology is examined using both Ordinary Least Squares and spatial regression models to determine if knowledge spillovers exist. Ultimately, no evidence was found that adoption practices in a county affects its neighbors; however, geographic location does matter to who adopts and when.

Use of Kostiakov’s Infiltration Model on Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike Soils, Southeastern, Nigeria  [PDF]
Magnus U. Igboekwe, Ruth U. Adindu
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.610083

The main purpose of this study is to obtain the water infiltration parameters of the soils of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike. This could be used in simulating infiltration for these soils when designing irrigation projects, thereby saving time and cost of field measurement. Field measurements of infiltration were first made using a double ring infiltrometer. The test lasted for 180 mins in each location. Infiltration values ranged from 0.03 cm/min to 0.1 cm/min. The highest value was obtained in the Forest Block. Kostiakov’s infiltration model was then applied on the field data in order to determine the soils’ infiltration parameters and equations. The model empirical constants or parameters obtained were “m” and “n”. For “m” the values were: 0.53 for the soil of Forest Block, 0.42 for Poultry block, 0.50 for P.G. block, 0.41 for the soils of Staff School and Guest House. The corresponding “n” values were: 1.37, 1.12, 0.37, 1.79, and 1.38. Infiltration equations: 0.4It1.38, 0.4lt1.79, 0.42t1.12, and 0.53t1.37 were determined for the locations. These were used to simulate data which were evaluated by comparing them with the field data. The two data sets showed closed relationships. This implied that the model could be used to simulate water infiltration during irrigation projects in the farms of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike.

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