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Survival of Civilian and Prisoner Drug-Sensitive, Multi- and Extensive Drug- Resistant Tuberculosis Cohorts Prospectively Followed in Russia
Yanina Balabanova,Vladyslav Nikolayevskyy,Olga Ignatyeva,Irina Kontsevaya,Clare M. Rutterford,Anastasiya Shakhmistova,Nadezhda Malomanova,Yulia Chinkova,Svetlana Mironova,Ivan Fedorin,Francis A. Drobniewski
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020531
Abstract: A long-term observational study was conducted in Samara, Russia to assess the survival and risk factors for death of a cohort of non-multidrug resistant tuberculosis (non-MDRTB) and multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) civilian and prison patients and a civilian extensive drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDRTB) cohort.
Application of prodigiosin as a colorant for polyolefines  [PDF]
Irina Ryazantseva, Irina Andreyeva
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2014.41004
Abstract: Serratia marcescens strain 9986 is a producer of prodigiosin used as a dye of polyolefines (polyethylene, ultratene). The biosynthesis of pigment was closely connected with controlled growth parameters. A prodigiosin yield 0.2 - 0.4 mg per l of culture medium in the batch culture under aerobic conditions was obtained. Prodigiosin was extracted from crude biomass treated by 0.1% of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). This novel elaborated stage is necessary for thermostability a dye in polymer. The consumption of prodigiosin preparation is more economical in the technology of the coloration of polyolefines. The elaborated method has been manufactured for dyeing polyethylene by biological pigment-articles of the common use corresponding to the technological standard.
The Main Difficulties When Studying Russian Verbs of Motion in a Figurative Meaning  [PDF]
Irina Skripnikova
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2012.24019
Abstract: Russian language acquisition requires deep and intensive studying of the concept of verbs of motion. There is a strong opinion that verbs of motion are one of the hardest concepts in the Russian language. However, it is an important issue, as motion verbs are among the most used in any language and nowadays there are hundreds of expressions with these verbs which can be heard quite frequently in the Russian language. Needless to say that mastering these verbs is even harder when they have figurative meaning. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of studying the figurative meanings of Russian verbs of motion and to prove that the process of teaching students these verbs is more efficient when they are compared with their English equivalents.
Preventative Strategies in the Management of ROP: A Review of Literature  [PDF]
Irina Livshitz
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2015.52018

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a potentially blinding eye disorder that primarily affects premature infants weighing 1250 grams or less that are born before 31 weeks of gestation. It is one of the most common causes of visual loss in childhood and can lead to lifelong vision impairment and blindness. Certain strategies for prevention have been confirmed by numerous trials, namely the role of oxygen therapy as an independent risk factor for the development of ROP and the benefits of strict control of premature infant oxygen saturations in the NICU. There is valuable data that supports use of other approaches, such as beta adrenergic blockade and IGF-1 supplementation, for which clinical trials are still in the works to establish clear protocols for their clinical use. Supplementation with vitamin A, omega-3 fatty acids, and inositol are all exciting arenas for further trials as preliminary data shows promising results in ROP prevention. It has also been shown that the benefit of vitamin E is not worth the increased incidence of NEC and sepsis as potential side effects. Furthermore, while it was an interesting idea to use the chelator D-penicillamine as a preventative strategy for ROP, the results of multiple trials seemed to be equivocal. This brief review is not all-inclusive, as there are many more modes of prevention currently being studied.

Obesity trends in Russia. The impact on health and healthcare costs  [PDF]
Ketevan Rtveladze, Tim Marsh, Laura Webber, Fanny Kilpi, Yevgeniy Goryakin, Anna Kontsevaya, Antonina Starodubova, Klim McPherson, Martin Brown
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.412A212

Similar to most developed countries, obesity rates inRussiahave been steadily increasing. This has led to a high burden of obesity related diseases and associated healthcare costs. The micro-simulation model has been utilized to project body mass index (BMI) and BMI related disease burden and healthcare costs. Incidence, mortality, survival and healthcare costs were collected for thirteen diseases. The results have been simulated for 3 hypothetical scenarios to project a potential impact of policy interventions: 1) assuming no reduction in BMI; 2) 1% reduction in mean BMI across the population; 3) 5% reduction in mean BMI across the population. Nearly 58% of the female population was obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) or overweight (BMI 25 -29.9 kg/m2) in 2010, and the prevalence is projected to decrease to 54% in 2050. The rates are predicted to increase for men from 51% in 2010 to 76% in 2050. The prevalence rates will triple for some obesity-related diseases. A one percent decrease in BMI across the population will save more than two billion US Dollars in 2030 and 2050. Despite female obesity prevalence starting at a higher point than the men, obesity is predicted to increase in males but not females. Disease and economic burden attributed to these obesity rates are still severe and the country should implement strong policies to tackle the obesity epidemic.

Costs of the health care in Russia associated with smoking
A.V. Kontsevaya,A.M. Kalinina
Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology , 2011,
Abstract: Aim. To analyze costs of health care in Russia associated with smoking in 2009.Material and methods. Cardiovascular diseases, cancers and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) were included in the analysis. Calculation was performed on the basis of the relative risks of diseases associated with smoking, and obtained from foreign surveys, official statistics on morbidity and health system resources expenditure, and costs of health-seeking in line with state program of guaranteed free medical care.Results. In 2009 total costs of the health care system associated with smoking exceeded RUR 35.8 bln. It corresponded to 0.1% of gross domestic product in Russia in 2009. The costs structure was the following: hospitalization – RUR 26.2 bln, emergency calls – RUR 1.4 bln, and outpatient health-seeking – RUR 8.2 bln. Costs of outpatient pharmacotherapy were not included into analysis because of lack of baseline data needed for calculations. Cardiovascular diseases caused 62% of the health care costs associated with smoking, cancers – 20.2%, and COPD – 17.8%.Conclusion. The smoking in Russia is associated with significant health care costs. It makes needed resources investment in preventive programs to reduce smoking prevalence.
Principles of the analysis of structure of chaffinch song (Fringilla coelebs L.). Individual variability of song  [PDF]
Olesya Astakhova, Irina Byome
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2012.23026
Abstract: Song of birds is subtle and flexible species specific feature, like as the morphology signs. Species specific song of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) can be judged as precise character in the image on sonograms. The song has the certain structure and shares (divides) on the parts, elements, which consists of them. Individual variability of songs of one type will consist in unique singing each of chaffinch males, who form a local population.
Induction Heating in the Processing of Ti & Zr  [PDF]
Victor Demidovich, Irina Rastvorova
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2014.613042
Abstract: Induction heating has important applications in science and industry. The method of induction heating can be successfully used for melting and heat treatment of titanium and zirconium alloys. Different applications using induction precise heating before plastic deformation are discussed in this paper. For alloys of many metals such as titanium, zirconium, niobium, tantalum, etc., it is important to provide precision heating with a high degree of homogeneity of the temperature field and strict adherence to the condition of heating. This is explained by polymorphism of the alloys based on these metals, their chemical activity at high temperatures and the specific thermal and electrical properties. It is very important for induction heating to define the extreme achievable unevenness of the temperature field. For special alloys it is necessary to use resistance furnaces for homogenization of billets’ temperature after heating in the inductors. Optimal control can be used for massive billets to reduce significantly the heating time, energy expenses and to improve the quality of the temperature field distribution. Optimization of induction heating process can be achieved by synchronous solution of the problem of optimal control and design with specially developed models.
Risk Modelling of Organic Pollution in Lake Sediments  [PDF]
Irina Schneider, Yana Topalova
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.75053

A risk situation of organic pollutants accumulation in the sediments of the dams from Cascade “Middle Iskar” (NW Bulgaria) is simulated in the present study. The aim is risk modelling of organic pollution in lake sediments and on base of the investigated key chemical and enzymological parameters to risk assessment. A model process in lab scale with addition of whey as a source of organic pollutants was simulated. Two situations near to real conditions were studied: 1) at a decreased concentration of organic pollutants (chemical oxygen demand was 0.265 gO2.kg-1) in the case of discharge of sediments downstream of the river (control situation); 2) at an accumulation of organic pollutants (chemical oxygen demand was 1.463 gO2.kg-1) in the sediments (risk event). The dynamics of chemical oxygen demand (COD), concentration of proteins and lactose as well as of the key enzymological indicators (phosphatase activity index—PAI, anaerobic dehydrogenase activity, protease and ?-galactosidase activities) were investigated. The data from Risk Assessment showed that there is a hazard from higher protein concentration at the end of the process in comparison with the control situation. The risk about COD and lactose concentration during the risk modelling was acceptable. The obtained results showed that the PAI can be used as an indicator for early warning of the organic pollution with protein nature.

The Exact and Approximate Solutions of Some Boundary Value Problems in Domains with Angular Points of the Boundary  [PDF]
Irina Menshova, Mikhail Kovalenko
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2017.51006
On the basis of the exact solution of biharmonic problems of elasticity theory in a half-strip one possible reason is shown of those problems that arise when an approximate or numerical approaches leading the solution of boundary value problems to infinite systems of linear algebraic equations. Construction of exact solutions of some boundary value problems for differential equations in partial derivatives is not possible without their extensions to Riemann surfaces. Moreover, each of the boundary value problem corresponds to its Riemann surface. This fact is important to consider when developing an effective approximate and numerical methods of solving boundary value problems.
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