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Inventory control techniques in medical stores of a tertiary care neuropsychiatry hospital in Delhi  [PDF]
Sarbjeet Khurana, Neelam Chhillar, Vinod Kumar Singh Gautam
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.51002
Abstract: Approximately 35.0% of annual hospitals budget is spent on buying materials and supplies, including medicines. We can bring about substantial improvement in the hospital inventory and expenditures by the inventory control techniques. Objective: To identify the categories of drugs which need stringent management control. Material and Method: The ABC and VED analysis of the medical store of a Neuropsychiatry hospital at Delhi, India was conducted for the year 2008-2009 to identify the categories of items needing stringent management control. Results: The total number of the drugs at the medical store was 145 drugs. The total annual drug expenditure (ADE) on these drug items was Rs. 19219594.79. ABC analysis revealed 3.45%, 6.9% and 89.65% items as A, B and C category items, respectively, accounting for 70.5%, 19.68% and 9.83% of ADE of the medical store. VED analysis showed 32.41%, 61.38% and 6.2% items as V, E, and D category items, respectively, accounting for 70.9%, 28.72% and 0.38% of ADE of the medical store. On ABC-VED matrix analysis, 33.8%, 60% and 6.2% items were found to be category I, II and III items, respectively, accounting for 92.33%, 7.29% and 0.38% of ADE of the medical store. Conclusion: It is suggested by the study that the management of Category I drugs should be done by the top management resulting in stringent control on the annual expenses. The Category II should be managed by the middle management level and Category III at lower managerial level.
Perishable Inventory Management in Healthcare  [PDF]
Yael Perlman, Ilya Levner
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2014.71002
Abstract:

This study addresses a problem encountered in a nation-wide, large-scale healthcare supply chain that comprises several hundred medical organizations (hospitals, clinics, pharmacies, etc.) and provides highly advanced medical care to several million people. The medical products in the system are perishable, meaning that they become unusable beyond a certain expiry date. It is necessary to track the ages of units in stock and to plan and control the inventory accordingly. The models developed herein represent a multi-echelon, multi-supplier inventory system and unite together aspects of perishability and outsourcing under deterministic demand for medical products, which include both perishable and deteriorating goods. The objective of the study is to determine the optimal number of products to be purchased from regular and outsource suppliers so as to meet the required demand at the minimum operating cost. The solution is a network-flow model that can be used to determine the trade-off between the quantities of items to be ordered from the two types of suppliers in each time period. In addition, the study analyzes different distribution policies to account for the perishable nature of the products. Further insights are obtained by applying the model to a case study of a real-life healthcare supply chain from which interesting results are drawn.

Repealing the LIFO Inventory Accounting Choice? A Review of LIFO and Inventory Management  [PDF]
Yibin Zhang, Chunming Shi, Patrick Gao, Feng Wang
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2014.46034
Abstract: Researchers in the disciplines of both Operations and Accounting have studied Inventory Management, though in relative isolation. In this paper, one of our goals is to help inform researchers in Operations Management about an extensively debated question in inventory accounting: whether to repeal the LIFO (Last-In-First-Out) inventory accounting choice? This question has received extensive scrutiny from various stakeholders including academics, businesses, and different levels of governmental agencies such as US Congress. Specifically, we provide a literature review on how LIFO affects and is affected by inventory management. This is done by first reviewing the potential determinants of LIFO inventory accounting choice and then reviewing potential interactions between LIFO and inventory management. It is our hope that this review will help stakeholders have a more comprehensive understanding of LIFO before making their decisions.
Optimal Inventory Policy of Production Management: A Present Value Framework  [PDF]
Li-Fen Chang, Shou-Mei Su, Shy-Der Lin
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.56067
Abstract: The classical economic production quantity (EPQ) assumes that the replenishments are instantaneous. As a manager of a factory, there is a problem must be taken into consideration. If the establishment buys all of the raw materials at the beginning, the stock-holding cost for the raw materials should be counted into the relevant costs. So the main purpose of this paper will add the raw materials stock-holding cost to the EPQ model and take the time value of money into consideration. Therefore, we will calculate the present value and compare the difference between take and does not take the time value of money into consideration. From these procedures of calculating, we found some interesting results: 1) the present value of total stock-holding cost of raw materials plus products from the beginning to time t is the same as the stock-holding cost of classical economic order quantity (EOQ) model; 2) the present value of total relevant cost is independent of the production rate (if the production rate is greater than the demand rate); 3) the optimal cycle time of total relevant cost not taking the time value into consideration is the same the optimal cycle time of classical EOQ model; 4) the purchasing cost per unit time is irrelevant to time.
An Inventory of the Above Ground Biomass in the Mau Forest Ecosystem, Kenya  [PDF]
Mwangi James Kinyanjui, Petri Latva-K?yr?, Prasad Sah Bhuwneshwar, Patrick Kariuki, Alfred Gichu, Kepha Wamichwe
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2014.410052
Abstract:

Biomass assessment of the Mau Forest Ecosystem (MFE) was done as part of Kenya’s greenhouse gas inventory. Trans Mara and Mount Londiani forest blocks representing extremes of vegetation types in the MFE were selected for ground data. Based on canopy closure, four forest strata were identified as very dense, moderately dense, open and bamboo. In each stratum, 5 clusters each with 4 plots measuring 30 m × 30 m were located. Big trees (D1.3 ≥ 10 cm) were measured per species for diameter at breast height (D1.3) in the whole plot while height was measured for every 5th tree. Poles (10 cm > D1.3 ≤ 5) were measured for D1.3 in a 10 × 10 m concentric sub plot. Saplings (5 cm > D1.3; ht ≥ 1.5 m) and seedlings (ht < 1.5 m) were enumerated per species within 5 × 5 m and 2 × 2 m concentric sub plots, respectively. Data were recorded in a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) and quality checked with Open Foris Collect software. Allometric equations that have been used for similar vegetation in Kenya were used to relate D1.3 and height with biomass. The tree data were uploaded to

Reliability and Validity of a French Version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory  [PDF]
Susan Cadell, Eliana Suarez, David Hemsworth
Open Journal of Medical Psychology (OJMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2015.42006
Abstract: In the context of traumatic stress, the dominant discourse has mainly focused on distress, thus undermining the role that eustress has in traumatic experiences. One of the few exceptions to this has been the research on posttraumatic growth, which has generated much interest since its beginning. There is an increasing interest in posttraumatic growth in various cultures and hence an expansion of the measure, the Post Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI), into various languages. This article is the first to perform a rigorous investigation of the psychometric properties of the PTGI, including the scale and subscale reliability, inter-item and subscale correlations, and using a CFA approach. The properties are established with a French translation using two populations of caregivers: those bereaved by HIV/AIDS and parents who are caring for a child with a life-limiting illness. These properties were determined for both the original 21 item scale as well as the shortened version.
Development and Evaluation of the Posttraumatic Growth Status Inventory  [PDF]
Tatjana Alexander, Rainer Oesterreich
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.411120
Abstract:


Posttraumatic growth reflects beneficial psychological processes in persons with traumatic experiences. Existing measures of growth were criticized due to their retrospective self-report format that may cause biases in capturing the growth processes in individuals with several specific kinds of trauma, such as physical or psychological disabilities of close family members, bereavement and some others kinds of traumatic experience. In this case, the feelings of guilt may prevent the persons from being aware of the favorable personal changes. The objective of this study was to develop and to evaluate an alternative measuring instrument that uses a status quo response format instead of retrospective items and covers additional areas of growth-related changes. The samples comprised 440 adult persons with traumatic experience, including 181 parents of children with mental and/or physical disabilities. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a 7-factors solution, corresponding to the following subscales: Relationships to Others, New Possibilities, Personal Strength, Appreciation of Life, Spiritual Changes, Generativity, and Openness. Results showed good reliability and concurrent validity. The PGSI is recommended particularly for use in longitudinal studies as well as in samples of persons whose trauma relates to a severe psychological or physical disability in their families.


Predicting Managerial Coaching Behaviors by the Big-Five Personality Traits  [PDF]
Guohai Chen, Wen Huang, Yuwen Tang
Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies (JHRSS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jhrss.2013.14011
Abstract: The research of this paper aims to construct a Chinese Managerial Coaching Behavior Inventory and examine the correlations of managerial coaching behaviors and the Big-Five personality traits. In Study One, 196 managers from several companies filled out a self-complied Managerial Coaching Behavior Inventory based on Noer’s Triangle Coaching Model and Social Desirability Scale. A Chinese Managerial Coaching Behavior Inventory with 46 items was developed, including three subscales (namely, Accessing, Challenging, and Supporting) with high Cronbach alphas (all > 0.85). In Study Two, this inventory and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory were administered to 175 managers. Analysis showed that scores on the three managerial coaching behaviors Accessing, Challenging, and Supporting were positively related to those on Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, while they were negatively related to Neuroticism. Big-Five personality traits (particularly Extraversion, Openness to Experience, and Conscientiousness) were good predictors of managerial coaching behaviors. Implications for human resource management and enterprise coaching are discussed.
Geodiversity Examples of Morocco: From Inventory to Regional Geotourism Development  [PDF]
Hassan El Hadi, Abdelfatah Tahiri, José Brilha, Ayoub El Maidani, Bouamar Baghdad, Abdelkrim Zaidi
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2015.59034
Abstract: The soil and subsoil of Morocco are rich in geological phenomena that bear the imprint of a history which goes back in time more than 2000 million years. Very many geologically remarkable sites exposed in accessible outcrops, with good quality remained unknown to the general public and therefore deserved to be vulgarized. It is a memory to acquaint the present generations but also to preserve for future generations. In total, a rich geological heritage in many ways: Varied landscapes, international stratotypes, various geological structures, varied rocks, mineral associations, a huge procession offossiles, remnants of oceanic crust (ophiolites) among oldests ones in the world (800 my), etc. For this geological heritage, an approach of an overall inventory is needed, both regionally and nationally, taking into account all the skills of the earth sciences. This will put the item on the natural (geological) potentialities as a lever for sustainable regional development. For this, it is necessary to implement a strategy of “geoconservation” for the preservation and assessment of the geological heritage. A website “lithothèque du Maroc” is under construction.
Optimal Policy and Simple Algorithm for a Deteriorated Multi-Item EOQ Problem  [PDF]
Bin Zhang, Xiayang Wang
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2011.12007
Abstract: This paper considers a deteriorated multi-item economic order quantity (EOQ) problem, which has been studied in literature, but the algorithms used in the literature are limited. In this paper, we explore the optimal policy of this inventory problem by analyzing the structural properties of the model, and introduce a simple algorithm for generating the optimal solution to this problem. Numerical results are reported to show effi-cacy of the proposed method.
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