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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11088 matches for " Innocent Pierre Guissou "
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Biological and Toxicological Study of Aqueous Root Extract from Mitragyna inermis (Willd oktze) Rubiaceae
Yamba Ouedraogo,Innocent Pierre Guissou,Odile Germaine Nacoulma
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2007,
Abstract: We reported the results of biological and toxicological study, realized on Mitragyna inermis Willd Oktze, one specie of family of Rubiaceae, well known in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso for his intensification potentialities of resistance against multiple pathologies like infectious and parasitic diseases, adynamia, rheumatic and osteoarthritis diseases. So we have formulated hypothesis of stimulation of organism’s defenses for a scientist research. The steeping freeze-dried of the plant’s product has been used for different assays: General acute toxicity estimation on Ico mouse (NMRI Han) by intraperitoneal route and orally administration on rabbit from the value of LD50 obtained with the mouse. Biological study: The kinetic interaction between the plant’s product chemical group and the evolution of biological elements medium of immunity on the rabbit, has been appreciated. The biological elements include white blood cells, red blood cells, lymphocytes, platelets, total proteins, albumin and globulins. The following results have been obtained about the study: A Lethal Dose (LD50) resulted from maceration (acute general toxicity) at the rate of 800 mg kg-1 of corporal weight showing a bit toxic product. An interaction between vegetable’s extract chemical group and biological elements of rabbit which is expressed by: An increasing (13 to 18%) of total proteins from serum; this increasing was notably after 24 h of administration. Albumin decreasing of 10% in comparison with initial rate, indicated haptens action of plant’s extract chemical products. α1, α2, β and γ globulins increasing, respectively 46.8, 14.31 and 26% during the first day of administration of the extract. A lymphocyte increasing of 35% 24 h after administration of the product. This rate is more increased after the second administration; White blood cells are also increasing. These results show an obvious capacity of the plant’s macered extract to stimulate organism natural defenses in relation with antigenous-antibody reaction. This will be an interesting perspective for complementary treatment of pathology like HIV diseases.
Effect of Antihypertensive Drug Therapy on the Blood Pressure Control among Hypertensive Patients Attending Campus’ Teaching Hospital of Lome, Togo, West Africa  [PDF]
Yao Potchoo, Edem Goe-Akue, Findibe Damorou, Barima Massoka, Datouda Redah, Innocent P. Guissou
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2012.32029
Abstract: High blood pressure (HBP) is a health problem world—wide. In Togo, that affection constitutes a more and more pre-occupying cause of morbidity and mortality. This study is a prospective one which intended to identify the antihypertensive regimens prescribed and evaluate their effect on patients’ blood pressure (BP) control. Out of the 204 patients enrolled (mean: 55.01 ± 12.55 years; sex ratio: 1.3), 112/176 placed on antihypertensive therapy have controlled their BP (38.39% outpatients vs 61.61% inpatients). Related to the sex factor, we didn’t observe any significant difference in the BP control. Whereas, the mean median value of BP reduction of outpatients (30.00/15.00 mmHg) (p = 0.001) was half lower than that of inpatients (60.00/30.00 mmHg (p = 0.004)). Thirty five outpatients (81.40%) vs 64 inpatients (92.75%) were placed on combination therapy. The bitherapy was prescribed to 23 outpatients (53.49%) against 27 inpatients (39.13%) while the quadritherapy and more than 4 drugs combination were prescribed exclusively to inpatients (20.29%, n = 14). That quadritherapy induced a significant mean reduction of inpatients’ SBP compared to monotherapy (p = 0.043) and to bitherapy (p = 0.004). The favorite combinations were D + CCA, D + ACEI, D + CCA + ACEI and D + CCA + ACEI + CAAD of which the quadruple therapy showed a significant inpatients’ DBP control (p = 0.015) compared to D + CCA combination. The combinations including at least one diuretic induced a significant difference between outpatients (median value: 30.000/10.000 mmHg) (p < 0.001) and inpatients (median value: 60.000 mmHg/30 mmHg) (p < 0.001). The first-line molecules and fixe combinations prescribed in decreasing frequency were among others: hydrochlorothiazide + captopril, nicardipine, α methyldopa for outpatients; furosemide, nicardipine, captopril, α methyldopa, hydrochlorothiazide + captopril for inpatients. Diuretics, CCAs and ACEIs were the 3 favorite pharmacological groups for essential hypertension management in our African resource limited context. Combined to CAAD, they represented the best quadruple combination among inpatients having showed a significant difference in DBP control compared to D + CCA combination.
In vitro Preliminary Study of Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Extracts from Khaya senegalensis A. Juss. (Meliaceae)
Marius Lompo,Jacques Dubois,I. Pierre Guissou
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Aqueous and ethanolic crude extracts and fractions of Khaya senegalensis stem barks were investigated for their antioxidant activities. Their ability to act as radical scavengers have not been previously reported and was investigated using 1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), a stable free radical in comparison with Rutin and Quecetin as antioxidant standards. The study shows that all extracts and fractions are able to scavenge significantly free radicals of DPPH. The IC50 are, respectively 9.82 μg mL 1 for defatted extract; 7.42 μg mL 1 for Rutin (Standard); 7.33 μg mL 1 for lyophilised aqueous extract; 6.01 μg mL 1 for the fraction F1 of lyophilised aqueous extract; 4.70 μg mL 1 for ethanolic extract; 4.37 μg mL 1 for the fraction F2 from methanolic crude extract of stem barks and 2.58 μg mL 1 for Quercetin (Standard). Lyophilised aqueous extract activity is closely related to that of Rutin but less than Quercetin. Fractions can play a pivotal role in the antioxidant activity of crude lyophilised aqueous and alcoholic extract of stem barks of Khaya senegalensis.
Evaluation of Bitterness Intensity of Citrus Products by an Untrained Panel Using Relative-to-Reference Rating  [PDF]
Sophie Deterre, Julien Delarue, Cécile Innocent, Pierre Giampaoli
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.31013
Abstract: In order to estimate the bitterness intensity of citrus products we applied an adaptative sensory evaluation method, using naringin as the reference for bitterness. Twenty-five untrained subjects participated in this study. Firstly they tasted and positioned 2 naringin references on an unstructured relative-to-reference scaling to define their own bitterness scales. They then evaluated the bitterness intensity of 2 types of bitter orange products (3 distillates and 2 cold-pressed essential oils of bitter orange peels) according to their own perceptions on their own scales. We observed that 2 types of scale use could be distinguished that might be related to subjects’ sensitivity or/and consumption habits to bitterness. As a result, we observed a significant difference in bitterness intensity between the crude cold-pressed essential oil and the debittered one of bitter orange, whereas there was no significant difference between the 3 distillates. This approach makes it possible to take inter-individual differences in subjects’ sensitivity into account. It also provides a way to very simply rate bitterness intensity with subjects who have received no prior training in sensory evaluation.
Knowledge and adherence to antiretroviral therapy among adult people living with HIV/AIDS treated in the health care centers of the association "Espoir Vie Togo" in Togo, West Africa
Yao Potchoo, Kpatcha Tchamdja, Agnon Balogou, Vincent P Pitche, Innocent P Guissou, Etienne K Kassang
BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6904-10-11
Abstract: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among adult people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) through a structured questionnaire.A total of 99 patients were enrolled. Among them, 55.6% knew the name of antiretroviral agents of regimens prescribed. All patients had a good knowledge of treatment schedule. The treatment regimens based on 2 NRTIs + 1 NNRTI were used in 90% of patients. The average adherence rate was 89.8% of the total doses prescribed while 62.62% of patients showed an adherence rate of 95% or above. The treated groups were similar in term of median % of medication doses taken according to PLWHA epidemiological characteristics. However, patients reported forgetting (34.9%), travel (25.6%), cost of treatment (13.9%) and side effects (11.6%) as the main factors of missing at least once a dose intake.These results should encourage the association and all the involved actors in the HIV/AIDS's program to strengthen counseling, education and information interventions for HIV-infected patients in order to overcome the potential barriers of poor adherence.Since 1996, progress in the field of antiretroviral therapy has led to the reduction of about 80% of deaths, the number of cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the incidence of opportunistic infections [1]. About twenty drugs belonging to 4 classes defined according to their pharmacological modes of action constitute the current arsenal of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). The combinations of these drugs have dramatically changed the prognosis of an infection which natural consequence is death for over 90% of the patients into chronic infection [2,3]. The long-term nature of the disease has further complicated its management. In this context, sustained adherence is an essential tool of the long-term efficiency of ARVs therapy [4] (e.g. significant reduction in viral load, drug resistance, deterioration of health status and treatment failure) [5-8]. In addition, the role of the knowledge of treatment regim
Biological alterations and self-reported symptoms among insecticides-exposed workers in Burkina Faso
Adama M. Toe, Sylvain Ilboudo, , Moustapha Ouedraogo, , Pierre I. Guissou,
Interdisciplinary Toxicology , 2012, DOI: 10.2478/v10102-012-0008-3
Abstract: Occupationally exposed workers, farm workers and plant protection agents in the Sahel region of Burkina Faso were interviewed to assess adverse health effects of insecticides. The subjects were also examined for changes in both hematological and biochemical parameters. The prevalence of liver and kidney dysfunction was found to be quite high among insecticide applicators, especially among plant protection agents. The prevalence of biochemical alterations seems to be correlated to the frequency of insecticide use. However, no significant differences were found between the hematological parameters among farm workers and plant protection agents. The hematological parameters of all the insecticide applicators were normal. The great majority of insecticide applicators (85%) reported symptoms related to insecticide exposure. The use of insecticides in the agriculture of Burkina Faso is threatening to human health.
Factors Associated with Mortality among Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis MDR/RR-TB Patients in Democratic Republic of Congo  [PDF]
Murhula Innocent Kashongwe, Leopoldine Mbulula, Pierre Umba, Francois Bompeka Lepira, Michel Kaswa, Zacharie Munogolo Kashongwe
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2017.54029
Abstract: Background: Tuberculosis remains a very common infectious disease in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The resistance to drugs worsens the prognosis and the outcome of patients affected tuberculosis and increase their mortality. Objective: To identify factors associated with death among Multidrugs resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR TB) patients referred to the referential hospital, Centre d’Excellence Damien (CEDA). Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients attending health care to the Center CEDA, a referral center for management of MDR/RR-TB in DR Congo. This study included all MDR/RR-TB patients referred from February 1st, 2015 to February 29th, 2017. A multivariate COX regression was performed to identify factors associated with mortality in the target population. Kaplan Meier method described the survival of patients and the comparison of curves was performed by the test of log Rank. Results: 199 patients were included in our study. Male gender was predominant with a sex ratio of 1.3. The mean age of patients was 35.8 ± 13.9 years. Among them, 18 (15.1%) were died. The major complications were Chronicles pulmonary Heart failure (p = 0.035), Chronic respiratory insufficiency (p = 0.004), depression (p = 0.044), undernutrition (p = 0.033), alcohol addiction (p = 0.006) and high smoking (p = 0.019). In multivariated analysis, factors associated to the death were alcohol addiction (HRa = 12.64, 95% CI 2.36 - 14.55, p = 0.003), asthenia (HRa = 4.75, 95% CI 1.56 - 14.50, p < 0.001), pulmonary consolidation (HRa = 10.01 95% CI 2.34 - 12.86, p = 0.02), some chest X-ray abnormalities such as signs of pulmonary fibrosis (HR = 4.7, 95% CI 2.78 - 28.94, p = 0.002) and the Chronic respiratory insufficiency (HRa = 3.77, 95% CI 1.37 - 10.43, p = 0.010). Conclusion: The present retrospective cohort study revealed that structural and functional pulmonary alteration emerged as the main factors associated with mortality among MDR/RR TB patients in Kinshasa. National Tuberculosis Programs should take into account those parameters while defining mortality reduction strategy.
The Epistemology of Symbols in African Medicine  [PDF]
Innocent Ngangah
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.31A019

This article will discuss the epistemology of symbols employed by African traditional medical practitioners in treating their patients and the essence of such symbols among traditional communities across the continent. Relying on diverse studies by other researchers and my own investigation conducted among the Igbo of south-eastern Nigeria, this paper will explore relevant aspects of African traditional medicine as they relate to symbols employed by the practitioners in their effort to offer health care and general wellbeing to their clients.

AM1 and electron impact mass spectrometry study of the fragmentation of 4-acyl isochroman-1,3-diones
Abdoulaye Djandé, Bintou Sessouma, Félix B. Kini, Leopold Kaboré, Bayo Karifa, Pierre I. Guissou, Adama Saba
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 2012,
Abstract: Recently, in electron impact mass spectrometry (EIMS), it has been found a good correlation between the fragmentation processes of coumarins and the electronic charges of the atoms of their skeleton. In this paper, the same analytical method has been applied to 4-acyl isochroman-1,3-diones, whose mass spectra had been studied earlier and described for the very first time from our laboratory. Results obtained are in good agreement with the last study. KEY WORDS: 4-Acyl isochroman-1,3-dione, Electron impact mass spectrumetry, AM1, Electronic charges, Fragmentation Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2012, 26(2), 311-318. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v26i2.15
Arsenic levels in tube-wells water, food, residents' urine and the prevalence of skin lesions in Yatenga province, Burkina Faso
Issa T. Somé, Abdoul K. Sakira, Moustapha Ouédraogo, Theodore Z. Ouédraogo, Adama Traoré, Blaise Sondo, Pierre I. Guissou
Interdisciplinary Toxicology , 2012, DOI: 10.2478/v10102-012-0007-4
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of arsenic in tube-well water, food and residents' urines samples in Yatenga province, Burkina Faso. The prevalence of skin lesions was evaluated as well. The study was cross-sectional in design. It was conducted during April 2009. Permanent residents of 20 villages were included in the study. Water samples were collected from 31 tube-wells located in the selected villages. Tomatoes, cabbages, and potatoes produced in the selected village were randomly sampled. Arsenic content in water, food, and residents' urine was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using hydride generation method. Finally, 240 people were examined by a medical doctor for skin lesions. Arsenic concentrations from the tube-well water ranged from 1 to 124 μg/l. Arsenic concentrations of more than one-half (52%) of the water samples exceeded the WHO guideline value (10 μg/l). No trace of arsenic was found in the samples of tomatoes, cabbages, and potatoes. Variation in arsenic concentrations in the urines was correlated to arsenic concentrations in tube-well water. Clinical examinations revealed that melanosis and keratosis were respectively identified in 29.26% and 46.34% of the population. Both conditions were observed in 24.39% of the population. The frequency of skin lesions was positively associated with the arsenic concentration in tube-well water. A great majority (89.53%) of those who had skin lesions were at least 18 years old. In conclusion, chronic arsenic poisoning remains a major public health problem in the province of Yatenga (Burkina Faso).
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