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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 194711 matches for " Inmaculada; Díaz Grávalos "
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La alimentación de los escolares de trece a?os del municipio de Zaragoza
Casado Górriz,Ma Rosario; Casado Górriz,Inmaculada; Díaz Grávalos,Gabriel J;
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S1135-57271999000400007
Abstract: background: the importance of diet as a cause of different diseases and the possibility of educational involvement during the school-age years leads to it being advisable to ascertain the attitudes of young people with regard to nutrition and their eating habits. methods: cross-section study. a self-test survey was conducted regarding the nutrition-related habits and knowledge on a sample randomly taken from among 543 students from the 1st level school-leaving certificate studies (age 13) in the city of saragossa, including an assessment of the foods eaten by means of 24-hour recall and a questionnaire regarding how often different foods are eaten weekly. a pilot study was conducted on 50 individuals, with validation by means of personal interviews in 15 cases. results: a total of 516 questionnaires were analyzed. the subjects were found to possess an average degree of knowledge regarding nutrition-related matters. a total 41.5% of the sample acknowledged advertising having an impact on their diet. a greater diet-related impact was found to exist among the females analyzed. the eating survey revealed a diet consisting of normal calorie intakes, but excessive protein and low carbohydrate intakes, excess fat intake being noted among males. an excessive amount of meat and meat products and sweets and candies was noted, contrasting with the low grain, fish and potato intake. conclusions: educational measures must be taken among school-age children with regard to informing them concerning the composition of foods and a correct diet, teaching them to take a critical stance with regard to food advertising. they must be counseled to lessen their intakes of meats and sweets and to increase the amount of complex carbohydrates and fish.
La alimentación de los escolares de trece a os del municipio de Zaragoza
Casado Górriz Ma Rosario,Casado Górriz Inmaculada,Díaz Grávalos Gabriel J
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 1999,
Abstract: FUNDAMENTO: La importancia de la dieta como causa de diversas enfermedades y la posibilidad de intervención educativa en el periodo escolar, hacen recomendable conocer las actitudes de los jóvenes respecto a la nutrición y sus hábitos alimentarios. MéTODOS: Estudio transversal. Se realizó una encuesta autoadministrada sobre hábitos y conocimientos respecto a la nutrición, en una muestra aleatoriamente extraída de 543 escolares de 1o de Ense anza Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO) (13 a os) de la ciudad de Zaragoza, incluyendo una valoración del consumo de alimentos mediante recuerdo de 24 horas y cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo semanal. Se realizó una prueba piloto en 50 individuos, con validación mediante entrevista personal en 15 casos. RESULTADOS: Se analizaron 516 cuestionarios. Un 41,5% de la muestra reconoció que la publicidad influía en su alimentación. Se encontró una mayor implicación femenina en los temas relacionados con la alimentación. La encuesta de consumo reflejaba una dieta normocalórica, muy hiperproteica y baja en carbohidratos, con exceso de lípidos en varones. Se consumía en exceso carne y derivados y dulces y golosinas, mientras se apreció un consumo bajo de cereales, pescado y patatas. CONCLUSIONES: Es necesario realizar actividades educativas en la edad escolar respecto a la composición de los alimentos y dieta adecuada, ense ando a mantener una actitud crítica frente a la publicidad de alimentos. Debe recomendarse una disminución de la ingesta de carnes y dulces, y un incremento del consumo de hidratos de carbono complejos y pescado.
Opinión de los médicos de atención primaria de Ourense sobre algunos aspectos de su prescripción farmacéutica
Díaz Grávalos,Gabriel J; Palmeiro Fernández,Gerardo; Nú?ez Masid,Eloína; Casado Górriz,Inmaculada;
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1135-57272001000400010
Abstract: background: to learn the opinion of the primary care physicians of ourense (spain) with respect to certain aspects of their prescription of medicines, such as their awareness of the price of drugs, the induced prescribing perceived, their relationship with the pharmaceutical industry and their opinions concerning possible measures for reducing the expenditure on medicines. methods: in this transversal descriptive study, all of the primary care physicians in the province of ourense (243) were surveyed by means of a previously-approved questionnaire sent to them by post. the questionnaire included demographic characteristics of the physicians, the influence of cost when prescribing medicines, their estimate of the price of 15 drugs routinely prescribed and their opinion on different aspects relating to induced prescription, the pharmaceutical industry and different strategies in order to curtail the expenditure on medicines. in order to analyze the results, the c2 and student?s t tests and an analysis of the variance were used, together with the spearman correlation coefficient with a = 0.05. results. the level of participation of the physicians surveyed was 42.8 % (104). the average daily duration of visits by pharmaceutical company representatives was 13.6 minutes, with new specialities being the topic of greatest interest. close to 27 % admitted to having participated in clinical testing sponsored by the industry. 23 % considered the price to be a priority when prescribing. induced prescription accounted for 39.7 % of the total. the majority of physicians chose co-payment as the means for reducing expenditure on medicines. in the estimate of prices, the overall percentage of error was 45.7 %, underestimating the more expensive medicines and overestimating the less expensive. conclusions. there is a significant lack of awareness of the price of drugs among the primary care physicians. most of the physicians do not feel that the price of a drug should be a priority w
Efecto de la forma de presentación de los resultados en los ensayos clínicos en la intención de prescripción en atención primaria: Un ensayo clínico cruzado en Ourense
Palmeiro Fernández,Gerardo; Casado Górriz,Inmaculada; Vázquez Fernández,Luis A; Díaz Grávalos,Gabriel J.;
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1135-57272004000100004
Abstract: background: given that there are different ways of setting out clinical test results, this study is aimed at ascertaining whether the way in which these results are set out has any bearing on the intention to prescribed on the part of primary care physicians. methods: randomized, multi-center cross-study. following a random sampling of eight primary care teams in the province of ourense (spain), two groups of family physicians (na=45 and nb=51) were surveyed by means of a questionnaire on which the data from five published clinical tests (three on heart disease prevention, one on cognitive benefit in a dementia syndrome and another on preventing fractures among the elderly) was shown. one of the groups was shown the data as a relative lowering of the risk, and the other as the necessary number of individuals to be treated. age, gender and years of practice were also asked. following a three-week blanking period, the intervention was reversed. the intention of prescribing was gathered on a 0-10 likert scale. the c2, simple student t were used, or the pearson test for paired data and correlation, according to whether an error a de 0.05 were to be achieved. results: test a: ci95% (-1.55~0.17); b: ci95% (-2.75~-1.20); c: ci95% (-0.16~1.65); d: ci95% (-0.30~1.44); e: ci95% (-1.22~0.35). no difference with regard to gender, age or professional experience were found. regarding the overall effect, with the exception of one of the tests presented, no significant differences were found concerning the intention of prescribing the drugs involved in terms of the way in which the data was set out. conclusions: the way in which clinical test data is set out has no bearing in itself on the ntention to prescribe medications.
Opinión de los médicos de atención primaria de Ourense sobre algunos aspectos de su prescripción farmacéutica
Díaz Grávalos Gabriel J,Palmeiro Fernández Gerardo,Nú?ez Masid Eloína,Casado Górriz Inmaculada
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 2001,
Abstract: Fundamento: Conocer la opinión de los médicos de atención primaria de Ourense (Espa a) con respecto a algunos aspectos de su prescripción como el conocimiento del precio de los fármacos, la prescripción inducida percibida, la relación con la industria farmacéutica y la opinión del médico sobre posibles medidas reductoras del gasto farmacéutico. Métodos: En este estudio transversal descriptivo, se entrevistó mediante un cuestionario postal, previamente probado, a todos los médicos de atención primaria (MAP) de la provincia de Ourense (243). En él se recogían características demográficas de los facultativos, influencia del coste en la prescripción, estimación del precio de 15 fármacos de uso habitual y la opinión sobre diversos aspectos relacionados con la prescripción inducida, la industria farmacéutica y diversas estrategias para contener el gasto en farmacia. Para el análisis de los resultados se utilizaron pruebas de ji2, t de Student y análisis de la varianza, así como el coeficiente de correlación de Spearman según cumpliera con un error alfa de 0,05. Resultados. El nivel de participación de los encuestados fue del 42,8 % (104). La duración media diaria de la visita de los delegados farmacéuticos fue de 13,6 minutos, siendo las novedades el punto de mayor interés. Casi un 27 % admitía participar en ensayos clínicos patrocinados por la industria. El 23 % consideraba el precio una prioridad al prescribir. La prescripción inducida suponía el 39,7 % del total. Los facultativos eligieron mayoritariamente el copago para reducir el gasto farmacéutico. En la estimación del precio el porcentaje de error global fue del 45,7 %, subestimando los más caros y sobrestimando los más baratos. Conclusiones. Existe un desconocimiento importante del precio de los fármacos entre los MAP. La mayor parte de los médicos no consideran que el precio del fármaco deba ser una prioridad al prescribir. Hay un porcentaje elevado de prescripción inducida percibida. Respecto al gasto farmacéutico, la mayor parte de los MAP considera las medidas económicas, en concreto el copago, como las más efectivas para su contención.
Cumplimiento de los objetivos de control metabólico en diabetes mellitus en el medio rural de Ourense
Díaz Grávalos,Gabriel J; Palmeiro Fernández,Gerardo; Casado Górriz,Inmaculada; Arandia García,Margarita; Portuburu Izaguirre,M Maite; Vázquez Fernández,Luis A;
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1135-57272006000100007
Abstract: background: to evaluate the degree to which the metabolic check-up objectives among type ii diabetes patients were met in rural primary care by comparing them to the values recommended by the american diabetes association (ada) and the diabetes in primary care study group (gedaps). methods: descriptive cross-sectional study. a sample size was calculated based on the glycosolated hemoglobin (hba1c) test in 119 individuals. a total of 253 patients with type ii diabetes followed up for at least two years at their healthcare facility took part. the patients in question were selected at random from among 17 medical lists at 11 rural healthcare facilities in the province of ourense (spain). demographic variables, cardiovascular risk factors, pharmacological treatment, self-analyses, eye fundus, tactile sensitivity, hba1c, lipid profile, blood pressure and body mass index data were taken from the patients′ clinical records. results: a total of 44.3% of those in the sample had undergone an hba1c test within the immediately prior six-month period, showing a value of under seven percent (7%). a total of 21.2% had a blood pressure of under 130/80, and 19.8% a ldl cholesterol level of under 100 mg/dl. a total of 40.7% of those patients with a ldl cholesterol level over 100 were not undergoing any hypolipemiant treatment. a total of 20.4% of the patients showing high blood pressure readings were not undergoing any blood pressure lowering treatment. on the basis of these three factors, a total of 2.5% met the check-up objectives. thirty-six percent (36%) were antiaggregated with aas. conclusions: a major deficit is revealed both in the frequency of the check-ups conducted by the healthcare professionals as well as the number of interventions performed for achieving the proposed objectives, showing results far below what is recommended in the clinical practice guidelines.
Factores relacionados con la práctica de educación sanitaria por los médicos de atención primaria de Galicia
Díaz Grávalos,Gabriel J;
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1135-57272001000600005
Abstract: background: health education on the part of primary care physicians has been shown to improve the health of the population, but, generally speaking, physicians are not pursuing this to the recommended degree. the end purpose of this study is that of ascertaining what factors have an influence on health education being carried out by primary care physicians in galicia (spain), how they perceive their training in this regard, what obstacles they encounter as regards to providing this education and how the existence of unhealthy habits on the part of the physician has a bearing on carrying out this activity. methods: a cross-sectional study has been conducted. a previously-tested, self-answer mail-out questionnaire was sent to a random sample stratified by provinces of 420 primary care physicians from the ?servicio galego de saúde? (galician health care service). a comparative analysis was made with those who failed to reply. the main analysis of the data was conducted by means of a multivariate (logic regression) analysis. results: seventy-three percent (73%) of the replies were valid, without any differences among strata. sixty-four percent (64%) of the physicians surveyed considered their training in health education to be insufficient, being better among family doctors and among those who had taken courses specifically devoted to this subject. the main obstacle reported was the lack of time. 38.4% of the physicians reported that they carry out health education, an activity related to the female gender (odds ratio 1.70), better training concerning this subject (odds ratio 2.20) and a better personally perceived ability to carry out the same (odds ratio 1.32). no relationship was found to exist between the carrying out of health education and the existence of unhealthy habits. conclusions: being female, feeling efficient at providing health education and considering oneself to be well-trained regarding this subject being related positively to this activity being carr
Factores relacionados con la práctica de educación sanitaria por los médicos de atención primaria de Galicia
Díaz Grávalos Gabriel J
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 2001,
Abstract: Fundamento: Se ha demostrado que la educación sanitaria por parte de los médicos de atención primaria puede mejorar la salud de la población pero, en general, los facultativos no la utilizan con la intensidad recomendada. La finalidad de este estudio es determinar qué factores influyen en la realización de educación sanitaria por parte de los médicos de atención primaria de Galicia (Espa a), cómo consideran su formación en esta materia, qué obstáculos encuentran para llevarla a cabo y cómo influye la presencia de hábitos no saludables en el médico en la realización de esta actividad. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal. Un cuestionario postal autoadministrado, previamente probado, se envió a una muestra aleatoria, estratificada por provincias, de 420 médicos de atención primaria del Servicio Galego de Saúde. Se realizó un análisis comparativo con los que no respondieron. El análisis principal de los datos se realizó mediante regresión logística. Resultados: Se obtuvo un 73% (307) de contestaciones válidas, sin diferencias entre estratos. El 64% de los médicos consideraba deficiente su formación en educación sanitaria, siendo mejor entre médicos de familia y entre los que habían recibido cursos específicos en esta materia. El principal obstáculo referido fue la falta de tiempo. El 38,4% de los médicos declaraba realizar educación sanitaria, actividad asociada a sexo femenino (Odds Ratio 1,70), mejor formación en esa materia (Odds Ratio 2,20) y mayor capacidad autopercibida para realizarla (Odds Ratio 1,32). No se encontró asociación entre realización de educación sanitaria y presencia de hábitos no saludables. Conclusiones: Ser mujer, sentirse eficaz al realizar educación sanitaria y considerarse bien formado en esta materia se asocian positivamente con la realización de esta actividad por parte de los médicos de atención primaria, de los que sólo una tercera parte afirma realizarla.
Las medidas no farmacológicas en el manejo de la Hipertensión Arterial
Reinoso Hermida,Santiago; Díaz Grávalos,Gabriel J.;
Revista Clínica de Medicina de Familia , 2009, DOI: 10.4321/S1699-695X2009000200006
Abstract: objective. to determine family physicians' (fp) use of the recommended non-pharmacological treament (npt) for hypertension. design. cross-sectional survey. setting. primary care practices in rural and urban areas. participants. patients with hypertension from 30 urban and rural practices. measurements. we recorded the prescription of npt (weight loss, alcohol and salt intake reduction, diet, physical activity, and smoking cessation). if the measure was not applicable, it was recorded as such. data were analyzed with spss.15.0. results. we included 150 patients, 70(46.7%) males. mean (sd) age was 65.5 (10.2) years, and 50% resided in urban areas. 77.5% of the above measures were recommended, 98% of the patients were receiving some counselling and 42% receiven counselling on all the indicated measures. there were no significant differences between urban and rural doctors, or according to the sex or age of the physicians. counselling was more common in younger patients (spearman_ -0.28, p< 0.001). a regresion analysis considering the degree of counselling as the dependent variable showed a significant association of counselling with patient age (t=-2.9, p=0.04). conclusions. non-pharmacological treatment for hypertension could be increased in the primary care setting. older people were less likely to be given relevant counselling. there were no differences as regards fp rural/urban practice, sex or age.
Forma de acceso a los Servicios de Urgencia hospitalarios y pertinencia de la consulta
Reinoso Hermida,Santiago; Díaz Grávalos,Gabriel J.; Robles Casti?eiras,Aida; Pereiro Sánchez,Elena; Fernández Cardama,Eduardo; López González,Ana;
Revista Clínica de Medicina de Familia , 2011, DOI: 10.4321/S1699-695X2011000300004
Abstract: objective. to determine the different means of access to hospital emergency departments (ed), assess the appropriateness of consultations given there and analyze the possible association between access and appropriateness as well as other related factors. design. observational cross-sectional study. setting. hospital emergency departments. participants. patients who go to the ed on their own accord or are referred by prehospital emergency care (pec) services or a general practitioner (gp). no-one refused to answer the questionnaire. measurements. ad hoc questionnaire with 14 variables: socio-demographic and others related with the means of access and type of consultation in the ed. the survey was conducted in the ed by the researchers who provided care to all patients seen by them on each shift. results. a total of 264 surveys were analyzed. 77.6% (205) of cases were due to acute episodes of disease onset and trauma related events. at total of 74 (28.0%) patients had previously consulted their gp for the same reason. for 68.4% of the patients referred by their gp and 25% of the patients who came on their own accord the consultation in the ed was appropriate. there were no differences in the percentage of patients whose emergency consultation was not appropriate. patients who came to ed on their own accord were younger (mean difference 9.2 years, 95% ci: 3.4-14.9, p = 0.001) and mostly came from urban areas (x2 = 9.8, p = 0.002). conclusions. most patients requiring emergency care access the ed through the pec service, this is influenced by the urban origin, younger age and the existence of previous admissions. referrals by pec or gp improves the appropriateness of the consultations in the ed.
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