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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2107 matches for " Ingrid Nylander "
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Qualitative Differences in Pup-Retrieval Strategies in a Maternal Separation Paradigm  [PDF]
Loudin Daoura, Ingrid Nylander, Erika Roman
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2013.38064
Abstract:

The rodent maternal separation (MS) paradigm is frequently used to investigate the impact of early-life conditions in the offspring. One critical issue is whether the effects seen in the offspring are a result of maternal contact deprivation and/or altered pup-directed maternal behavior. To address this question we used an innovative approach with a qualitative analysis of pup-retrieval strategies in a test situation related to risk for the pups. The dams were separated from their litters for 0 (MS0) or 360 (MS360) min, respectively. The pups were placed in a risk area in the multivariate concentric square field? test at two test occasions and the pup-retrieval strategies were recorded. No significant evident differences between MS0 and MS360 dams were found. However, there were clearly two different strategies, either removing the pups out of potential danger or into safety, and these strategies were represented in both MS groups. As compared to the MS0 dams, the MS360 dams did not change their strategies and left more pups in the risk area in both pup-retrieval tests. This implies different pup-retrieval strategies depending on early-life conditions.

 

Dopamine Release Dynamics Change during Adolescence and after Voluntary Alcohol Intake
Sara Palm, Ingrid Nylander
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096337
Abstract: Adolescence is associated with high impulsivity and risk taking, making adolescent individuals more inclined to use drugs. Early drug use is correlated to increased risk for substance use disorders later in life but the neurobiological basis is unclear. The brain undergoes extensive development during adolescence and disturbances at this time are hypothesized to contribute to increased vulnerability. The transition from controlled to compulsive drug use and addiction involve long-lasting changes in neural networks including a shift from the nucleus accumbens, mediating acute reinforcing effects, to recruitment of the dorsal striatum and habit formation. This study aimed to test the hypothesis of increased dopamine release after a pharmacological challenge in adolescent rats. Potassium-evoked dopamine release and uptake was investigated using chronoamperometric dopamine recordings in combination with a challenge by amphetamine in early and late adolescent rats and in adult rats. In addition, the consequences of voluntary alcohol intake during adolescence on these effects were investigated. The data show a gradual increase of evoked dopamine release with age, supporting previous studies suggesting that the pool of releasable dopamine increases with age. In contrast, a gradual decrease in evoked release with age was seen in response to amphetamine, supporting a proportionally larger storage pool of dopamine in younger animals. Dopamine measures after voluntary alcohol intake resulted in lower release amplitudes in response to potassium-chloride, indicating that alcohol affects the releasable pool of dopamine and this may have implications for vulnerability to addiction and other psychiatric diagnoses involving dopamine in the dorsal striatum.
Neuropeptides as mediators of the early-life impact on the brain; implications for alcohol use disorders
Ingrid Nylander,Erika Roman
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fnmol.2012.00077
Abstract: The brain is constantly exposed to external and internal input and to function in an ever-changing environment we are dependent on processes that enable the brain to adapt to new stimuli. Exposure to postnatal environmental stimuli can interfere with vital adaption processes and cause long-term changes in physiological function and behavior. Early-life alterations in brain function may result in impaired ability to adapt to new situations, in altered sensitivity to challenges later in life and thereby mediate risk or protection for psychopathology such as alcohol use disorders (AUD). In clinical research the studies of mechanisms, mediators, and causal relation between early environmental factors and vulnerability to AUD are restricted and attempts are made to find valid animal models for studies of the early-life influence on the brain. This review focuses on rodent models and the effects of adverse and naturalistic conditions on peptide networks within the brain and pituitary gland. Importantly, the consequences of alcohol addiction are not discussed but rather neurobiological alterations that can cause risk consumption and vulnerability to addiction. The article reviews earlier results and includes new data and multivariate data analysis with emphasis on endogenous opioid peptides but also oxytocin and vasopressin. These peptides are vital for developmental processes and it is hypothesized that early-life changes in peptide networks may interfere with neuronal processes and thereby contribute the individual vulnerability for AUD. The summarized results indicate a link between early-life rearing conditions, opioids, and ethanol consumption and that the ethanol-induced effects and the treatment with opioid antagonists later in life are dependent on early-life experiences. Endogenous opioids are therefore of interest to further study in the early-life impact on individual differences in vulnerability to AUD and treatment outcome.
Effects of Rearing Conditions on Behaviour and Endogenous Opioids in Rats with Alcohol Access during Adolescence
Sara Palm, Loudin Daoura, Erika Roman, Ingrid Nylander
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076591
Abstract: Causal links between early-life stress, genes and later psychiatric diagnoses are not possible to fully address in human studies. Animal models therefore provide an important complement in which conditions can be well controlled and are here used to study and distinguish effects of early-life stress and alcohol exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of rearing conditions on behaviour in young rats and if these changes could be followed over time and to examine interaction effects between early-life environment and adolescent alcohol drinking on behaviour and immunoreactive levels of the opioid peptides dynorphin B, met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 and beta-endorphin. We employed a rodent model, maternal separation, to study the impact of rearing conditions on behaviour, voluntary alcohol consumption and alcohol-induced effects. The consequences of short, 15 min (MS 15), and long, 360 min (MS 360), maternal separation in combination with adolescent voluntary alcohol consumption on behaviour and peptides were examined. A difference in the development of risk taking behaviour was found between the MS15 and MS360 while the development of general activity was found to differ between intake groups. Beta-endorphin levels in the pituitary and the periaqueductal gray area was found to be higher in the MS15 than the MS360. Adolescent drinking resulted in higher dynorphin B levels in the hippocampus and higher met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 levels in the amygdala. Amygdala and hippocampus are involved in addiction processes and changes in these brain areas after adolescent alcohol drinking may have consequences for cognitive function and drug consumption behaviour in adulthood. The study shows that individual behavioural profiling over time in combination with neurobiological investigations provides means for studies of causality between early-life stress, behaviour and vulnerability to psychiatric disorders.
Postpartum behavioral profiles in Wistar rats following maternal separation - altered exploration and risk-assessment behavior in MS15 dams
Loudin Daoura,My Hjalmarsson,Sadia Oreland,Ingrid Nylander,Erika Roman
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience , 2010, DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2010.00037
Abstract: The rodent maternal separation (MS) model is frequently used to investigate the impact of early environmental factors on adult neurobiology and behavior. The majority of MS studies assess effects in the offspring and few address the consequences of repeated pup removal in the dam. Such studies are of interest since alterations detected in offspring subjected to MS may, at least in part, be mediated by variations in maternal behavior and the amount of maternal care provided by the dam. The aim of this study was to investigate how daily short (15 min; MS15) and prolonged (360 min; MS360) periods of MS affects the dam by examining postpartum behavioral profiles using the multivariate concentric square field? (MCSF) test. The dams were tested on postpartum days 24–25, i.e., just after the end of the separation period and weaning. The results reveal a lower exploratory drive and lower risk-assessment behavior in MS15 dams relative to MS360 or animal facility reared dams. The present results contrast some of the previously reported findings and provide new information about early post-weaning behavioral characteristics in a multivariate setting. Plausible explanations for the results are provided including a discussion how the present results fit into the maternal mediation hypothesis.
Book review : The State, civil society and the citizen: Exploring relationships in the field of adult education in Europe By Michal Bron Jr., Paula Guimar es and Rui Viera de Castro (Eds.) (Frankfurt am Main, Peter Lang, 2009) 229 pp., 42.50 €, ISBN 978-3-631-58593-1
Erik Nylander
European Journal for Research on the Education and Learning of Adults , 2010,
Abstract:
Dynamical Phase Transitions in Quantum Systems  [PDF]
Ingrid Rotter
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2010.15043
Abstract: Many years ago Bohr characterized the fundamental differences between the two extreme cases of quantum mechanical many-body problems known at that time: between the compound states in nuclei at extremely high level density and the shell-model states in atoms at low level density. It is shown in the present paper that the compound nucleus states at high level density are the result of a dynamical phase transition due to which they have lost any spectroscopic relation to the individual states of the nucleus. The last ones are shell-model states which are of the same type as the shell-model states in atoms. Mathematically, dynamical phase transitions are caused by singular (exceptional) points at which the trajectories of the eigenvalues of the non-Hermitian Hamilton operator cross. In the neighborhood of these singular points, the phases of the eigenfunctions are not rigid. It is possible therefore that some eigenfunctions of the system align to the scattering wavefunctions of the environment by decoupling (trapping) the remaining ones from the environment. In the Schrödinger equation, nonlinear terms appear in the neighborhood of the singular points.
Creativity in Teams: The Impact of Team Members’ Affective Well-Being and Diversity  [PDF]
Ingrid Dackert
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.49003
Abstract:
The purpose of the research reported in this article was to examine how team mem-bers’ affective well-being influences creativity in teams. Furthermore, the impact of diversity in gender, age and education on affective well-being and team creativity was investigated. Twenty-nine project teams with 173 team members, involved in projects for 20 weeks as a part of a project management course, participated in the study. In terms of diversity dimensions, age and education were found to have no significant in-fluence either on affective well-being or team creativity. Diversity in gender had a sig-nificant positive impact on contentment. Team member enthusiasm was found to have a strong direct impact on team creativity, while contentment had an indirect effect. The results support the integration of affects into creativity theory. In addition, the result suggests managers to focus more on the feelings of the team members and the interaction in the team in order to facilitate well-being and creativity.
Genome fluctuations in cyanobacteria reflect evolutionary, developmental and adaptive traits
John Larsson, Johan AA Nylander, Birgitta Bergman
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-11-187
Abstract: A total of 404 protein families, present in all cyanobacterial genomes, were identified. Two of these are unique to the phylum, corresponding to an AbrB family transcriptional regulator and a gene that escapes functional annotation although its genomic neighbourhood is conserved among the organisms examined. The evolution of cyanobacterial genome sizes involves a mix of gains and losses in the clade encompassing complex cyanobacteria, while a single event of reduction is evident in a clade dominated by unicellular cyanobacteria. Genome sizes and gene family copy numbers evolve at a higher rate in the former clade, and multi-copy genes were predominant in large genomes. Orthologs unique to cyanobacteria exhibiting specific characteristics, such as filament formation, heterocyst differentiation, diazotrophy and symbiotic competence, were also identified. An ancestral character reconstruction suggests that the most recent common ancestor of cyanobacteria had a genome size of approx. 4.5 Mbp and 1678 to 3291 protein-coding genes, 4%-6% of which are unique to cyanobacteria today.The different rates of genome-size evolution and multi-copy gene abundance suggest two routes of genome development in the history of cyanobacteria. The expansion strategy is driven by gene-family enlargment and generates a broad adaptive potential; while the genome streamlining strategy imposes adaptations to highly specific niches, also reflected in their different functional capacities. A few genomes display extreme proliferation of non-coding nucleotides which is likely to be the result of initial expansion of genomes/gene copy number to gain adaptive potential, followed by a shift to a life-style in a highly specific niche (e.g. symbiosis). This transition results in redundancy of genes and gene families, leading to an increase in junk DNA and eventually to gene loss. A few orthologs can be correlated with specific phenotypes in cyanobacteria, such as filament formation and symbiotic compete
The Ubiquitous Interactor - Device Independent Access to Mobile Services
Stina Nylander,Markus Bylund,Annika Waern
Computer Science , 2003,
Abstract: The Ubiquitous Interactor (UBI) addresses the problems of design and development that arise around services that need to be accessed from many different devices. In UBI, the same service can present itself with different user interfaces on different devices. This is done by separating interaction between users and services from presentation. The interaction is kept the same for all devices, and different presentation information is provided for different devices. This way, tailored user interfaces for many different devices can be created without multiplying development and maintenance work. In this paper we describe the system design of UBI, the system implementation, and two services implemented for the system: a calendar service and a stockbroker service.
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