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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 149943 matches for " Ingmar H. Franken "
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Intentional Modulation of the Late Positive Potential in Response to Smoking Cues by Cognitive Strategies in Smokers
Marianne Littel, Ingmar H. A. Franken
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027519
Abstract: Attentional bias is considered an important concept in addiction since it has been found to correlate with subjective craving and is strongly associated with relapse after periods of abstinence. Hence, investigating in ways to regulate attention for drug cues would be of major clinical relevance. The present study examined deliberate, cognitive modulation of motivated attention for smoking cues in smokers. The effects of three different reappraisal strategies on an electrophysiological measure of attentive processing were investigated. Early and late LPP components in response to passively viewed neutral and smoking pictures were compared with LPPs in response to smoking pictures that were reappraised with three different reappraisal strategies. Results show that when smokers actively imagine how pleasant it would be to smoke (pleasant condition), their early LPP in response to smoking cues increases, but when smokers actively focus on an alternative stimulus (distraction condition) or think of a rational, uninvolved interpretation of the situation (rational condition), smoking-related late LPP amplitude decreases to the processing level of neutral stimuli. Present results are the first to indicate that smoking cue-elicited LPP amplitudes can be modulated by cognitive strategies, suggesting that attentive processing of smoking cues can be intentionally regulated by smokers with various levels of dependence. Although cognitive strategies can lead to enhanced processing of smoking cues, it is not completely clear whether cognitive strategies are also successful in reducing smoking-related motivated attention. Although findings do point in this direction, present study is best considered preliminary and a starting point for other research on this topic. A focus on the distraction strategy is proposed, as there are indications that this strategy is more successful than the rational strategy in decreasing LPP amplitude.
The Clinical Relevance of Neurocognitive Measures in Addiction
Reshmi Marhe,Ingmar H. Franken,Maartje Luijten
Frontiers in Psychiatry , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00185
Abstract: One of the major challenges in addiction treatment is relapse prevention, as rates of relapse following treatment remain very high across the main classes of drugs of abuse. Relapse prevention could be improved by a better understanding of the factors that influence treatment outcomes, including better predictors of risk of relapse following treatment. Recent developments in cognitive neuroscience point to neurocognitive measures (i.e., brain-imaging measures during cognitive task performance) as potential predictors of relapse. These might even be better predictors than self-report measures, such as craving. We first give an overview of the current state of the field, and then discuss the outstanding challenges and future directions in this area of research.
Deficits in Inhibitory Control in Smokers During a Go/NoGo Task: An Investigation Using Event-Related Brain Potentials
Maartje Luijten,Marianne Littel,Ingmar H. A. Franken
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018898
Abstract: The role of inhibitory control in addictive behaviors is highlighted in several models of addictive behaviors. Although reduced inhibitory control has been observed in addictive behaviors, it is inconclusive whether this is evident in smokers. Furthermore, it has been proposed that drug abuse individuals with poor response inhibition may experience greater difficulties not consuming substances in the presence of drug cues. The major aim of the current study was to provide electrophysiological evidence for reduced inhibitory control in smokers and to investigate whether this is more pronounced during smoking cue exposure.
The rich get richer and the poor get poorer
Ingmar H. A. Franken,Irina Georgieva,Peter Muris,Ap Dijksterhuis
Judgment and Decision Making , 2006,
Abstract: Some studies have found that choices become more risk averse after gains and more risk seeking after losses, although other studies have found the opposite. The latter tend to use hypothetical cases that encourage deliberation. In the current study, we examined the effects of prior gains and losses on a task designed to encourage less reflective decision making, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Fifty participants conducted a manipulated decision-making task in which one group gained money, whereas the other group lost money, followed by the IGT. Participants who experienced a prior monetary loss displayed more risky choice behavior on the IGT than subjects who experienced a prior gain. These effects were not mediated by a positive or negative affect, although the sample size may have been too small to detect a small effect.
A New Scale for Measuring Reward Responsiveness
Ivo Van den Berg,Ingmar H. A. Franken,Peter Muris
Frontiers in Psychology , 2010, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2010.00239
Abstract: Several psychological theories assume that there are two basic brain mechanisms that guide behavior: an avoidance or inhibition system, which is responsive to signals of punishment, and an approach or activation system, which is sensitive to signals of reward. Several self-report scales have been developed to assess the sensitivity to punishment and reward, and these instruments have been shown to be useful in research on personality, psychopathology, and underlying biological substrates. However, it is also true that in particular scales for measuring reward responsiveness (RR) suffer from various inadequacies. Therefore, a new RR scale was developed and subjected to an extensive psychometric evaluation. The results show that this scale measures a single factor, RR that is clearly independent of punishment sensitivity. Further, the data indicated that the internal consistency, convergent validity, discriminant validity, test–retest reliability, and predictive properties of the new scale were all adequate. It can be concluded that the RR scale is a psychometrically sound instrument that may be useful for researchers with interest in the personality construct of RR.
Posture as Index for Approach-Avoidance Behavior
Anita Eerland, Tulio M. Guadalupe, Ingmar H. A. Franken, Rolf A. Zwaan
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031291
Abstract: Approach and avoidance are two behavioral responses that make people tend to approach positive and avoid negative situations. This study examines whether postural behavior is influenced by the affective state of pictures. While standing on the Wii? Balance Board, participants viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures (passively viewing phase). Then they had to move their body to the left or the right (lateral movement phase) to make the next picture appear. We recorded movements in the anterior-posterior direction to examine approach and avoidant behavior. During passively viewing, people approached pleasant pictures. They avoided unpleasant ones while they made a lateral movement. These findings provide support for the idea that we tend to approach positive and avoid negative situations.
Internal Consistency of Event-Related Potentials Associated with Cognitive Control: N2/P3 and ERN/Pe
Wim J. R. Rietdijk, Ingmar H. A. Franken, A. Roy Thurik
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102672
Abstract: Recent studies in psychophysiology show an increased attention for examining the reliability of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs), which are measures of cognitive control (e.g., Go/No-Go tasks). An important index of reliability is the internal consistency (e.g., Cronbach's alpha) of a measure. In this study, we examine the internal consistency of the N2 and P3 in a Go/No-Go task. Furthermore, we attempt to replicate the previously found internal consistency of the Error-Related Negativity (ERN) and Positive-Error (Pe) in an Eriksen Flanker task. Healthy participants performed a Go/No-Go task and an Eriksen Flanker task, whereby the amplitudes of the correct No-Go N2/P3, and error trials for ERN/Pe were the variables of interest. This study provides evidence that the N2 and P3 in a Go/No-Go task are internally consistent after 20 and 14 trials are included in the average, respectively. Moreover, the ERN and Pe become internally consistent after approximately 8 trials are included in the average. In addition guidelines and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Neurophysiological correlates of anhedonia in feedback processing
Gabry W. Mies,Ivo Van den Berg,Ingmar H. A. Franken,Frederik M. Van der Veen
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00096
Abstract: Disturbances in feedback processing and a dysregulation of the neural circuit in which the cingulate cortex plays a key role have been frequently observed in depression. Since depression is a heterogeneous disease, instead of focusing on the depressive state in general, this study investigated the relations between the two core symptoms of depression, i.e., depressed mood and anhedonia, and the neural correlates of feedback processing using fMRI. The focus was on the different subdivisions of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Undergraduates with varying levels of depressed mood and anhedonia performed a time-estimation task in which they received positive and negative feedback that was either valid or invalid (i.e., related vs. unrelated to actual performance). The rostral cingulate zone (RCZ), corresponding to the dorsal part of the ACC, was less active in response to feedback in more anhedonic individuals, after correcting for the influence of depressed mood, whereas the subgenual ACC was more active in these individuals. Task performance was not affected by anhedonia, however. No statistically significant effects were found for depressed mood above and beyond the effects of anhedonia. This study therefore implies that increasing levels of anhedonia involve changes in the neural circuitry underlying feedback processing.
Electrophysiological correlates of associative learning in smokers: a higher-order conditioning experiment
Marianne Littel, Ingmar HA Franken
BMC Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-13-8
Abstract: Data showed that the geometrical figure that was paired with smoking stimuli elicited significantly larger P2 and P3 waves than the geometrical figure that was paired with neutral stimuli. During the first half of the experiment this effect was only present in smokers whereas non-smokers displayed no significant differences between both stimuli, indicating that neutral cues paired with motivationally relevant smoking-related stimuli gain more motivational significance even though they were never paired directly with smoking. These conclusions are underscored by self-reported evidence of enhanced second-order conditioning in smokers.It can be concluded that smokers show associative learning for higher-order smoking-related stimuli. The present study directly shows the contribution of higher-order conditioning to smoking addiction and is the first to reveal its electrophysiological correlates. Although results are preliminary, they may help in understanding the etiology of smoking addiction and its persistence.Classical conditioning has been suggested to play an important role in the development, maintenance, and relapse of drug use [e.g., [1-5]]. Classical conditioning theory predicts that with repeated drug use, drug-related stimuli or contexts (conditioned stimuli, CS) become associated with drug intake (unconditioned stimulus, UCS), and consequently, in the course of time, these stimuli acquire motivational significance and evoke conditioned drug responses or cue reactivity, such as subjective craving, drug seeking behaviors, or changes in physiological measures [e.g., [6-9]]. Once the learning process has taken place and the CS are able to elicit the conditioned drug responses, the CS can be paired with new neutral stimuli or contexts, which will also acquire associative strength and elicit conditioned drug responses or cue reactivity. This process is called second-order conditioning (higher-order conditioning; CS-CS learning) and can lead to unlimited sequences
Determinants of Physiological and Perceived Physiological Stress Reactivity in Children and Adolescents
Brittany E. Evans, Kirstin Greaves-Lord, Anja S. Euser, Joke H. M. Tulen, Ingmar H. A. Franken, Anja C. Huizink
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061724
Abstract: Aims Abnormal physiological stress reactivity is increasingly investigated as a vulnerability marker for various physical and psychological health problems. However, studies are inconsistent in taking into account potential covariates that may influence the developing stress system. We systematically tested determinants (individual, developmental, environmental and substance use-related) of physiological and perceived physiological stress reactivity. We also examined the relation between physiological and perceived physiological stress reactivity. Method In a stratified sample of 363 children (7–12 years) and 344 adolescents (13–20 years) from the general population, we examined cortisol, heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia and perceived physiological stress reactivity to a psychosocial stress procedure. Results Using multivariate linear regression models, we found that individual, developmental, environmental and substance use-related factors were related to each of the stress response indices. These determinant factors were different for each of the stress reactivity indices, and different in children versus adolescents. Perceived physiological stress reactivity predicted cortisol reactivity in adolescents only. All other relations between perceived physiological and physiological stress reactivity were not significant. Conclusions As physiological stress variables are often examined as vulnerability markers for the development of health problems, we maintain that it is essential that future studies take into consideration factors that may account for found relations. Our study provides an overview and indication of which variables should be considered in the investigation of the relation between physiological stress indices and illness.
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