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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 14006 matches for " Inderbir Singh "
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Ion-exchange resin complexation: Masking the bitter taste of cefuroxime axetil
Singh,Inderbir; Kumar,Pradeep; Nagpal,Manju; Arora,Sandeep;
Revista Cubana de Farmacia , 2011,
Abstract: objective: the purpose of this research was to formulate taste masked complexes of cefuroxime axetil and to evaluate them for taste, drug loading and characterized by ftir, xrd. tablets were formulated of selected batches and evaluated for drug release and physical parameters. methods: complexation technique is used to prepare complexes of drug where ion exchange resins such as indion? 214, indion? 234 and indion? 414 were used with a drug-resin ratio of 1:0.5, 1:1, 1:2. the drug resinates were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, dsc and x-ray diffraction pattern and evaluated for drug loading and taste. direct compression method was used to formulate tablets. in vitro dissolution was carried out using usp ii apparatus. result: potential taste masking increased with increasing concentration of resin. indion? 214 resin showed better taste masking effect as compared to indion? 234 and indion? 414. percent of drug loading was maximum at drug : resin ratio of 1:1, after that it decreased. prolonged (upto 5 h) and slow drug release was observed with resin 214 at higher concentration. conclusions: out of three resins chosen, indion? 214 at higher concentration exhibit excellent taste masking as well as sustained drug release action.
Complejación de la resina de intercambio de iones: enmascaramiento del sabor amargo de cefuroxime acetil Ion-exchange resin complexation: Masking the bitter taste of cefuroxime axetil
Inderbir Singh,Pradeep Kumar,Manju Nagpal,Sandeep Arora
Revista Cubana de Farmacia , 2011,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: the purpose of this research was to formulate taste masked complexes of cefuroxime axetil and to evaluate them for taste, drug loading and characterized by FTIR, XRD. Tablets were formulated of selected batches and evaluated for drug release and physical parameters. METHODS: complexation technique is used to prepare complexes of drug where ion exchange resins such as Indion 214, Indion 234 and Indion 414 were used with a drug-resin ratio of 1:0.5, 1:1, 1:2. The drug resinates were characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy, DSC and X-Ray Diffraction pattern and evaluated for drug loading and taste. Direct compression method was used to formulate tablets. In vitro dissolution was carried out using USP II apparatus. RESULT: potential taste masking increased with increasing concentration of resin. Indion 214 resin showed better taste masking effect as compared to Indion 234 and Indion 414. Percent of drug loading was maximum at drug : resin ratio of 1:1, after that it decreased. Prolonged (upto 5 h) and slow drug release was observed with resin 214 at higher concentration. CONCLUSIONS: out of three resins chosen, Indion 214 at higher concentration exhibit excellent taste masking as well as sustained drug release action. OBJETIVO: el objetivo de esta investigación fue formular los complejos con sabor amargo de cefuroxime acetil y evaluarlos por sabor, carga medicamentosa y caracterización por FTIR, XRD. Las tabletas fueron formuladas a partir de lotes seleccionados y evaluados en busca de la liberación medicamentosa y parámetros físicos. MéTODOS: la técnica de complejación se utilizó para preparar complejos farmacológicos donde las resinas de intercambio iónico como Indion 214, Indion 234 y el Indion 414 se emplearon a una proporción resina-medicamento de 1:0.5, 1:1, 1:2. Los resinados medicamentosos fueron caracterizados mediante espectroscopia infrarroja, DSC y el patrón de difracción-rayos-X, y evaluados para determinar la carga medicamentosa y el sabor. El método de compresión directa fue empleado para formular las tabletas. Se efectuó una disolución in vitro utilizando el equipo USP II. RESULTADOS: el posible enmascaramiento del sabor aumentó con la creciente concentración de resina. La resina Indion 214 mostró el mejor enmascaramiento del gusto amargo en comparación con Indion 234 e Indion 414. El porcentaje de carga medicamentosa fue máximo en el fármaco: proporción de la resina 1:1, después disminuyó. Se observó una liberación medicamentosa prolongada (hasta 5 h) y lenta con la resina 214 a una mayor concentración. CONCLUSIONES:
Design and Evaluation of Voriconazole Eye Drops for the Treatment of Fungal Keratitis
Sakshi Malhotra,Anubha Khare,Kanchan Grover,Inderbir Singh,Pravin Pawar
Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/490595
Abstract: Voriconazole is a novel antifungal agent with excellent broad spectrum activity commercially available for oral and intravenous administration. The purpose of this study was to prepare ophthalmic formulation of hydroxypropyl beta cyclodextrin (HP- -CD) based voriconazole containing benzalkonium chloride BAK and EDTA with or without viscosity modifiers and study its permeation characteristics through freshly excised goat cornea. The results were observed that viscosity and force of bioadhesion of the voriconazole HP- -CD solutions containing xanthan gum (XG) are more as compared to polyvinyl alcohol. The results revealed that voriconazole drop containing PVA provided least viscosity and higher corneal permeation of drug, while drop formulated with XG had maximum viscosity and least permeation. The HP- -CD based voriconazole (1.5%) ophthalmic formulation containing xanthan gum (1.5), preserved with BAK and EDTA, could provide shelf life of 2 years. The microbiological studies showed that voriconazole ophthalmic solution containing xanthan gum shows better antifungal activity as compared to voriconazole and xanthan gum alone. Thus, it can be concluded that HP- -CD based voriconazole (1.5%, pH 7.0) ophthalmic solution containing BAK and EDTA with viscosity modifier XG provided maximum precorneal residence time as compared to other viscosity modifiers and polyvinyl alcohol provided less precorneal residence time than other viscosity modifiers. 1. Introduction The inflammatory disorders of the eye parts are the manifestations of the bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Staphylococcus aureus (due to injury), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (may be due to contact lens), Streptococcus, herpes simplex type I, varicella zoster, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), adenovirus, Candida species, and Actinomyces israelii are the major bacterial, viral, and fungal organisms that infect the different parts of the eyeball causing decreased vision, pain, and red eyes and may even lead to blindness [1]. Fungal keratitis is one of the major causes of ophthalmic mycosis, accounting for more than 50% of proven ophthalmic mycoses in some countries. Fungal keratitis is usually characterized by a corneal epithelial defect and inflammation of the corneal stroma. If untreated, fungal keratitis can lead to corneal scarring and vision loss. Fungal keratitis is most common in tropical regions and developing countries, where it constitutes over 50% of keratitis. The ultimate goal in the treatment of fungal keratitis is to conserve vision. This requires timely diagnosis of the infection and administration
Pharmaceutical Applications of Chemometric Techniques
Inderbir Singh,Prateek Juneja,Birender Kaur,Pradeep Kumar
ISRN Analytical Chemistry , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/795178
Abstract: Chemometrics involves application of various statistical methods for drawing vital information from various manufacturing-related processes. Multiway chemometric models like parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), Tucker-3, N-partial least square (N-PLS), and bilinear models like principle component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) have been discussed in the paper. Chemometric approaches can be used to analyze the data obtained from various instruments including near infrared (NIR), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and terahertz pulse spectroscopy. The technique has been used in the quality assurance and quality control of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. Moreover, application of chemometric methods in the evaluation of properties of pharmaceutical powders and tablet parametric tests has also been discussed in the review. It has been suggested as a useful method for the real-time in-process testing and is a valuable process analytical tool. 1. Introduction Chemometrics is a branch of science that derives data by the application of mathematical and statistical methods, for the extraction of useful information from physical and chemical phenomena involved in a manufacturing process. Chemometrics is used for multivariate data collection and analysis protocols, calibration, process modelling, pattern recognition and classification, signal correction and compression, and statistical process control. Both predictive and descriptive issues of life sciences could be solved by chemometrics. The predictive issues include numerous system properties that are utilized in an elaborated model with the intent of predicting the target properties, desired features, or behaviour of interest. The descriptive issues include properties of the investigated systems that are modelled in order to learn the underlying relationships and the system structure, which leads to the model identification, composition, and understanding. There is a vast volume of measurement data generated by the latest automated laboratory instruments in biological/medical research which are difficult to absorb and interpret. The use of chemometrics helps to perform such a challenging task of consuming the data and reveal the useful information. Some applications of chemometrics in pharmacy and medical sciences are depicted in Figure 1. Figure 1: Applications of chemometrics in pharmacy and medical sciences. Chemometrics and its methods are versatile and there is a high level of abstraction as it characterises
Development of Corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 Conjugate as Tablet Superdisintegrant: Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets
Prateek Juneja,Birender Kaur,Oluwatoyin A. Odeku,Inderbir Singh
Journal of Drug Delivery , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/827035
Abstract: In the present study, corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates were prepared by physical, chemical, and microwave methods with the aim of using the conjugates as tablet superdisintegrant. Various powder tests, namely, angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Hausner’s ratio, Carr’s index, swelling index, and powder porosity were conducted on the samples. The conjugates were characterized by ATR-FTIR, XRD, DSC, and SEM techniques. Heckel and Kawakita models were applied to carry out compression studies for the prepared conjugates. Fast disintegrating tablets of domperidone were prepared using corn starch and corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates as tablet superdisintegrants in different concentrations. Conjugates were found to possess good powder flow and tabletting properties. Heckel analysis indicated that the conjugates prepared by microwave method showed the slowest onset of plastic deformation while Kawakita analysis indicated that the conjugates prepared by microwave method exhibited the highest amount of total plastic deformation. The study revealed that the corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates possess improved powder flow properties and could be a promising superdisintegrant for preparing fast disintegrating tablet. Also, the results sugessted that the microwave method was found to be most effective for the preparation of corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates. 1. Introduction Amongst innumerable applications, starch and its derivatives are one of the most widely used excipients in the pharmaceutical industry as they are incorporated in the manufacture of assorted dosage forms due to their biodegradability and biocompatibility. Starches have become a valuable ingredient because of their inertness, abundance, and cost effectiveness in the food industry, where they are used as thickeners, bulking, water retention, and gelling agents, in the pharmaceutical industry where they are used as fillers, binders, and disintegrants in tablet formulations. Commercially, starches are obtained from a variety of cereals (corn, waxy corn, high amylose corn, wheat, and various rice varieties) and from the tubers and roots (predominantly potato and cassava). In the pharmaceutical formulations, starch can be used both as a disintegrant and as a binder depending on the explicit attributes crucial for the formulation. As a disintegrant, the mechanism of action of starch includes wicking, the imbibitions of water into the tablet matrix via capillary action. The concentration of starch used is crucial; if it is below the optimum concentration then there are insufficient
Pertinent issues related to laparoscopic radical prostatectomy
Abreu, Sidney C.;Gill, Inderbir S.;
International braz j urol , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1677-55382003000600002
Abstract: purpose: we describe the critical steps of the laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (lrp) technique and discuss how they impact upon the pertinent issues regarding prostate cancer surgery: blood loss, potency and continence. results: a major advantage of lrp is the reduced operative blood loss. the precise placement of the dorsal vein complex stitch associated with the tamponading effect of the co2 pneumoperitoneum significantly decrease venous bleeding, which is the main source of blood loss during radical prostatectomy. at the cleveland clinic, the average blood loss of our first 100 patients was 322.5 ml, resulting in low transfusion rates. the continuous venous bleeding narrowed pelvic surgical field and poor visibility can adversely impact on nerve preservation during open radical prostatectomy. laparoscopy, with its enhanced and magnified vision in a relatively bloodless field allows for excellent identification and handling of the neurovascular bundles. during open retropubic radical prostatectomy, the pubic bone may impair visibility and access to the urethral stump, and the surgeon must tie the knots relying on tactile sensation alone. consequently, open prostatectomy is associated with a prolonged catheterization period of 2 - 3 weeks. comparatively, during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy all sutures are meticulously placed and each is tied under complete visual control, resulting in a precise mucosa-to-mucosa approximation. conclusion: the laparoscopic approach may represent a reliable less invasive alternative to the conventional open approach. despite the encouraging preliminary anatomical and functional outcomes, prospective randomized comparative trials are required to critically evaluate the role of laparoscopy for this sophisticated and delicate operation.
Pertinent issues related to laparoscopic radical prostatectomy
Abreu Sidney C.,Gill Inderbir S.
International braz j urol , 2003,
Abstract: PURPOSE: We describe the critical steps of the laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) technique and discuss how they impact upon the pertinent issues regarding prostate cancer surgery: blood loss, potency and continence. RESULTS: A major advantage of LRP is the reduced operative blood loss. The precise placement of the dorsal vein complex stitch associated with the tamponading effect of the CO2 pneumoperitoneum significantly decrease venous bleeding, which is the main source of blood loss during radical prostatectomy. At the Cleveland Clinic, the average blood loss of our first 100 patients was 322.5 ml, resulting in low transfusion rates. The continuous venous bleeding narrowed pelvic surgical field and poor visibility can adversely impact on nerve preservation during open radical prostatectomy. Laparoscopy, with its enhanced and magnified vision in a relatively bloodless field allows for excellent identification and handling of the neurovascular bundles. During open retropubic radical prostatectomy, the pubic bone may impair visibility and access to the urethral stump, and the surgeon must tie the knots relying on tactile sensation alone. Consequently, open prostatectomy is associated with a prolonged catheterization period of 2 - 3 weeks. Comparatively, during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy all sutures are meticulously placed and each is tied under complete visual control, resulting in a precise mucosa-to-mucosa approximation. CONCLUSION: The laparoscopic approach may represent a reliable less invasive alternative to the conventional open approach. Despite the encouraging preliminary anatomical and functional outcomes, prospective randomized comparative trials are required to critically evaluate the role of laparoscopy for this sophisticated and delicate operation.
Comparison of radical prostatectomy techniques: open, laparoscopic and robotic assisted
Frota, Rodrigo;Turna, Burak;Barros, Rodrigo;Gill, Inderbir S.;
International braz j urol , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1677-55382008000300002
Abstract: introduction: to review the current status of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (lrp) and robotic assisted radical prostatectomy (ralp) in relation to radical retropubic prostatectomy (rrp) in the management of localized prostate cancer. materials and methods: between 1982 and 2007 published literature was reviewed using the national library of medicine database and the following key words: retropubic, laparoscopic, robotic, robot-assisted, and radical prostatectomy. special emphasis was given to the technical and cost considerations as well as operative, functional and oncologic outcomes. in particular, reports with pioneering work that have contributed to the evolution of the technique, presenting comparative outcomes and with large series encompassing intermediate/long term follow-up, were taken into account. results: after intermediate term follow-up, lrp and ralp achieved similar oncologic and functional results compared to rrp. however, lrp and ralp were associated with decreased blood loss, faster convalescence and better cosmetics when compared to rrp. the ralp technique is undoubtedly more expensive. conclusions: the oncologic and functional outcomes for lrp and ralp are similar to rrp after intermediate term follow-up. long term follow-up and adequately designed studies will determine the inherent advantages and disadvantages of the individual techniques in the management of localized prostate cancer.
Analysis of Vortex Motion in Porous Media  [PDF]
Beant Singh, Chanpreet Singh
Journal of Electronics Cooling and Thermal Control (JECTC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jectc.2012.22003
Abstract: In vortex motion fluid moves in curve path and the stream lines are curved. When the fluid flows between curved stream line, the centrifugal forces are setup which is counter balanced by pressure forces acting in the radial direction. The vortex motion has two types of curved motion. The first type called free vortex type, the fluid moves due to its own natural effect but energy is not added to fluid when moving in curved path. The second type called forced vortex, in which energy is added to fluid. A two dimensional steady laminar free convective flow of viscous incompressible flow in porous media voids is considered. In this paper the motion of fluid is studied while moving in the porous media. It is studied that the motion of the fluid in the porous media is vortex motion at the low Reynolds’s number, where the motion is laminar motion and the fluid obeys the laws of vortex motion.
Chromohysteroscopy—A new technique for endometrial biopsy in Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB)  [PDF]
Nisha Singh, Bharti Singh
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2013.35A1003
Abstract:

Objective: To evaluate the role of chromohysteroscopy in improving diagnostic accuracy of endometrial biopsy in cases of AUB. Design: Cross sectional interventional study. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 60 women with AUB in Dept. of Obst. & Gyne at King George Medical University, Lucknow over a period of one year. All cases underwent diagnostic hysteroscopy followed by chromohysteroscopy using 2% methylene blue dye. Hysteroscopic guided biopsy was taken from stained and unstained areas followed by an endometrial aspiration biopsy from whole uterine cavity. The histopathology results of three samples were compared and analyzed in relation with staining pattern and type of AUB. Data analysis was done on SPSS version 15 of windows 2007. Results: Out of 60 cases, 11cases were found to have non hormonal pathology after chromohysterosopic biopsy. Eight (72.72%) cases were diagnosed by stained endometrial tissue, one (9.09%) by unstained tissue and three (27.27%) by endometrial aspiration. The diagnostic ability of stained tissue biopsy was significantly higher (p = 0.006) than unstained biopsy and endometrial aspiration. Conclusion: Chromohysteroscopy is a simple and effective technique for diagnosing endometrial pathology in cases of AUB.

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