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Global incidence of dengue, a vector-borne tropical disease, has seen a dramatic increase with several major outbreaks in the past few decades. We formulate and analyze a stochastic epidemic model for the transmission dynamics of a single strain of dengue virus. The stochastic model is constructed using a continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) and is based on an existing deterministic model that suggests the existence of a backward bifurcation for some values of the model parameters. The dynamics of the stochastic model are explored through numerical simulations in this region of bistability. The mean of each random variable is numerically estimated and these are compared to the dynamics of the deterministic model. It is observed that the stochastic model also predicts the co-existence of a locally asymptotically stable disease-free equilibrium along with a locally stable endemic equilibrium. This co-existence of equilibria is important from a public health perspective because it implies that dengue can persist in populations even if the value of the basic reproduction number is less than unity.
During 2013-2014 a field experiment was conducted at experimental area of Faculty of Agriculture under Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Science, Uthal, Lasbela to evaluate the influence of various row spacing on the yield and yield components of Raya Anmol and Faisal Canola under coastal climatic conditions of Lasbela. Randomized complete block design (RCBD) with factorial arrangement having 3 replications was used. Experiment comprises two canola varieties, C1 = Raya Anmol, C2 = Faisal Canola at 3 row spacing distances RS1 = 30 cm, RS2 = 45 cm and RS3 = 60 cm respectively. Result showed that yield and yield contributing traits are significant. It was concluded that seed yield of C1 (Faisal Canola) was better as compared to that of Raya Anmol. Row spacing (RS3 = 60 cm) yielded more crop canopy and the highest number of pod per plant, pod length and seed yield under agro climatic condition of Lasbela as compared to other densely arranged row spacing.