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Formulation and stability study of chlorpheniramine maleate transdermal patch
Iman I,Nadia A,Ebtsam M
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: Administration of drugs through skin has received great attention through the last decade. Hence this study aims to formulate an anti-histaminic drug-Chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as transdermal patch using different bioadhesive polymers such as ethyl cellulose, cellulose acetate, and polyvinyl pyrrolidon with different plasticizers such as propylene glycol (PG) and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400). Patches were prepared though solvent evaporation method, evaluated for their physical and mechanical properties and then subjected to stability study to select the best formulae to be evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The selected formulae were examined for CPM release in phosphate buffer saline pH 5.5 and also tested for CPM permeation through ear rabbit skin. Finally, one formula was evaluated in vivo in comparison with multiple oral doses of commercial CPM oral tablets and results showed that CPM transdermal patch has higher bioavailability than an oral tablet of the same dose, with lower plasma fluctuation and less administration frequency.
Prospective Assessment of the Rockall Risk Scoring System in Egyptian Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding  [PDF]
Mohga A. Reda, Iman F. Montasser, Shereen A. Saleh, Azza M. Hassan, Alaa Eldein I. Ewis
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2015.56012
Abstract: Background: One of the major challenges in managing acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding involves the identification of patients who are at high risk of rebleeding and death; conversely, the identification of patients who are suitable for early discharge and outpatient endoscopy is also important for effective resource. The use of Rockall system has been shown to represent accurate and valid predictor of rebleeding and death. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate validity of Rockall score for prediction of rebleeding and mortality in Egyptian patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients and Methods: 50 patients presented with upper GI bleeding were subjected to detailed clinical, laboratory, sonographic and endoscopic examination together with Rockall score calculation. Results: According to the findings of upper GI endoscopy patients were further subdivided into two subgroups as follows: Group 1 (n = 32): Patients with portal hypertension manifested by variceal bleeding and/or portal hypertensive gastropathy; and Group 2 (n = 18): other causes of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (peptic ulcer disease, Mallory Weiss syndrome…). Clinical condition of the patients was assessed after 48 hours and mortality was recorded. Rockall score was the highest in mortality group, and higher in rebleeding group than stable group (P < 0.01). Rockall score was higher in Child C than Child B and Child A among hepatic patients (P < 0.01). The cutoff value of Rockall score = 3.5 was the best for prediction of rebleeding with sensitivity 100%, specificity 53%, while the cutoff value = 6.5 was the best for prediction of mortality with sensitivity 100% and 93.5% specificity. Conclusion: Rockall score is clinically useful in prediction of rebleeding and mortality in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. It can accurately differentiate between patients with stable condition that could be discharged from hospital and those who require hospitalization and this could help to minimize hospital stay and cost.
Health Related Quality of Life, Disease Activity, Severity and Coping in Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
Fatma A. Shaaban,Iman M. Metwally,Samia M. Samy,Iman I. Salama
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess the health related quality of life in children and adolescences suffering from Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. It also aimed at studying its relationship with disease activity, subtypes and important clinical parameters and accumulated damage and the usefulness of this tool to indicate the improvement or worsening of the patient`s clinical condition in daily practice and physical capacity. This study is a case control study that comprised 52 children and adolescent suffering from Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA) in the age range 5-18 years classified as polyarticular (46.2%), systemic onset (26.9%) and pauciarticular (26.9%) attending the rheumatology and rehabilitation outpatient clinic at Cairo University Hospitals and 61 healthy children as a control. All patients underwent clinical rheumatologic and laboratory assessments. A questionnaire including demographic and anthropometric variables (age, sex, weight and height.....), clinical variables (onset, age at onset, subtype, course, duration, morning stiffness.....) and laboratory variables (ESR, ANA, RF, CRP and HB) was fulfilled. The outcome measure and health assessment were evaluated by two tools: The Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) which is a disease specific instrument that measures functional ability in daily living activities in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and The Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF 50) which is a generic health instrument designed to capture the physical and psychosocial well being of children independently from the underlying disease. The disability index (DI), Physical and Psychosocial scores (PhS and PsS) were then drawn out and correlated to the variables reflecting disease activity. There was a significant difference for almost all measures of disease activity being significantly higher in the systemic onset compared to the other two subtypes (p<0.005). The CHAQ significantly discriminated between healthy subjects and JRA patients [DI= 0.1±0.2 vs 1.1±0.8, respectively (p<0.01)]. It also discriminated between the three subtypes of JRA where the DI was significantly higher in the systemic onset type (1.4±0.7), followed by the polyarticular (1.2±0.7) then the pauciarticular subtype (0.7±0.6and p<0.05). The CHQ discriminated clinically healthy subjects from JRA patients, with the patients having significantly lower physical and psychosocial well- being scores when compared to their healthy peers (PhS = 46.8±18.8 vs 78.0±14.2), (PsS = 57.3±17.2 vs 68.9±15.6), respectively and (p = 0.000). The CHQ pro
Intragastric Balloon (BIB) for the Management of Obesity, Report on the First Egyptian Experience  [PDF]
Hossam Ghoneim, Iman Hamza
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2014.48043
Abstract: Introduction: The bioenteric balloon (BIB) is widely applied in the management of obesity. Aim of the work: This is a report on the efficacy and safety of BIB®; device in the first 101 Egyptian cases. Methods: Patients referred for BIB between January 2011 till December 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. BIB was inserted for 6 months according to predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: In 101 cases, 17 cases were males (16.8%) and 84 cases were females (83.2%), mean age 33.2 (±10.44) years, mean BMI 35.9 (±4.65) kg/m2. None of the patients exhibited balloon migration or perforation. The balloon was removed upon request in 3 patients due to exaggerated intolerance (2.9%). The mean weight loss was 15.5 kg (±4.67), mean EWL 64.12% (±23.48%). The mean BMI at extraction was 29.7 kg/m2 (±4.48) with a BMI loss of 6.2 kg/m2 (±2.0). 87 patients (88.7%) achieved target EWL (32.1% of excess weight), and 87 patients lost >12.2% of their basal weight (88.7%). 70 patients achieved BMI loss >5.7 kg/m2 (71.4%). Conclusion: BIB achieves acceptable success with minimal complications. In further long term, prospective studies are needed to evaluate obesity related comorbidities when using such modality and to compare it to other available devices.
ADVANCE PRICING AGREEMENT DAN PROBLEMATIKA TRANSFER PRICING DARI PERSPEKTIF PERPAJAKAN INDONESIA
Iman Santoso
Jurnal Akuntansi dan Keuangan , 2004,
Abstract: Economic globalization impacts to the increase of international transactions. The Company does not boundary their operation within their county anymore, but also extends their business performance abroad and may become multinasional and transnational typed of enterprise. The company then will be operating through its affiliates and branchs in many countries. This brings a consequence of a transfer pricing arrangement in their inter-group transactions. Transfer pricing could be conducted among others with taxes motivation, in which the main objective is to transfer the tax burden from the higher rated country to the lower rate jurisdiction. Under this circumstance, some countries may have losses the potential taxes revenue because of such transfer mechanism. To anticipate the conditions outlined above, Indonesian Tax Law introduces a transfer pricing resolution so called Advance Pricing Agreements (APA). APA are short of agreement betwen the tax authority and the tax payers on the reasonable (fair) selling prices of the product that has been concluded to the parties who has special relationship to justify that the transactions are arms length. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Globalisasi ekonomi telah membawa dampak semakin meningkatnya transaksi internasional. Perusahaan tidak lagi membatasi operasinya hanya di negara sendiri, tetapi merambah ke mancanegara dan menjadi perusahaan multinasional dan transnasional. Perusahaan-perusahaan ini beroperasi melalui anak perusahaan dan cabang-cabangnya di banyak negara. Akibatnya, timbul harga transfer yang disebut transfer pricing karena adanya transaksi antarmereka. Transfer pricing dapat dilakukan dengan motivasi pajak, yang bertujuan menggeser beban pajak dari negara dengan tarif pajak tinggi ke negara dengan tarif pajak rendah. Pergeseran ini diyakini dapat menghilangkan potensi penerimaan pajak suatu negara. Untuk mencegah praktek transfer pricing dengan motivasi pajak ini, Undang-Undang Pajak Penghasilan Indonesia mengatur tentang Advance Pricing Agreement, yang adalah kesepakatan harga antara Wajib Pajak dengan aparat pajak mengenai harga jual wajar atas produk yang dihasilkannya kepada pihak-pihak yang mempunyai hubungan istimewa. Kata kunci: transfer pricing, advance pricing agreement, special relationship, arms length principle.
The effect of pH on endo-1,4-b-glucanase activity from Bacillus sp. AR 009
IMAN HIDAYAT
Biodiversitas , 2005,
Abstract: The determinination of the suitable pH condition for maximizing the activity of endo-1,4- -glucanase of Bacillus sp. AR 009 had been done. The acidity range of media for examining the enzyme activities were 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 at 37°C. The experiments show that the value of maximum activity of endo-1,4- -glucanase was 23.068 U/mL at third day incubation with 124.565 mg/L of sugar reduction at pH 7.
Health Hazard Assessment of Tractor Driver Whole-body Vibration Utilizing the ISO 2631 Standard
Iman Ahmadi
Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus (ACS) , 2013,
Abstract: In order to quantify tractor driver Whole-Body Vibration (WBV) induced by some of the agricultural operations, the ISO 2631 standard was utilized. Detailed methodology of the calculation of the WBV evaluating indices using the time-domain acceleration data analysis was presented. According to the results of the study, typical weighted root mean square (WRMS) value of the Z-axis vibration was more than the WRMS value of the X and Y axes vibrations. Furthermore all of the severity categories (SV) obtained from driving the tractor on asphalt road, plowing and power tilling based on the equivalent daily stress index (Sed), were graded in the class of 3 or 4; which means that the health hazard associated with these operations is marginal. Finally among the examined machines; the locally built, tractor front mounted, hydraulic power aided loader caused vibrations that were slightly higher than the exposure limit value (ELV), with regard to the parameter of WRMS over an eight hour period (A(8)).
Effects of Temperature on Denitrifying Growth and Nitrate Reduction End Products of Comamonas testosteroni Isolated from Estuarine Sediment
IMAN RUSMANA
Microbiology Indonesia , 2007,
Abstract: Predictions of seasonal changes in N2O emission that occur in natural estuaries are important to anticipate the future implications of global warming. This study showed the effect of temperature on denitrifying growth and nitrate reduction end product of Comamonas testoteroni isolated from estuarine sediment using both batch and continuous cultures. The μmax values of Comamonas testosteroni grown in anaerobic batch culture were increased with increasing temperature, and the highest μmax was found at 26 °C. Concentrations of nitrate reduced (mg-1 dried weight cells) were higher at low temperature. Concentrations of N2 produced were higher at low temperature and the production of N2 was higher than both NO2- and N2O productions
Biosynthesis of Bacitracin in Stirred Fermenter by Bacillus Licheniformis Using Defatted Oil Seed Cakes as Substrate
Iman Zarei
Modern Applied Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/mas.v6n2p30
Abstract: Bacitracin is being imported in India involving substantial amount of foreign exchange for its incorporation in poultry feed. The raw material for its production is readily available and cheap such as soybean meal, sunflower meal & wheat bran. Thus development of this technology in this country would result in saving a reasonable amount of foreign exchange by utilizing our resources.The present study is concerned with the biosynthesis of antibioticBacitracin by Bacillus licheniformison laboratory to scale up studies in StirredFermenter using defatted oil seed cakes of agricultural bye-products as startingmaterial for maximum production of the antibiotic Bacitracin.In stirred fermenter, antibiotic formation reached maximum (342 i.u. ml-1), 30hours after inoculation at 37oC using different natural media such as defattedsoybean meal, glucose and metal ions.In solid-state fermentation, wheat bran, soybean meal, sunflower meal, rice hulls and their different combinationswere used. The antibiotic activity 48 hours after inoculation was 4540 i.u/g when only soybean was used.
éduquer les éducateurs : les revues pédagogiques égyptiennes de l’entre-deux-guerres
Iman Farag
Revue des Mondes Musulmans et de la Méditerranée , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/remmm.239
Abstract: la contribution porte sur un corpus de trois revues pédagogiques qui correspondent à la cristallisation des groupes d'enseignants en Egypte dans la période de l'entre-deux-guerres : la Sah fat al-mu'allim n (1923-1925) publiée par le syndicat des enseignants est à situer dans le cadre des regroupements professionnels caractéristiques de la période. Les enseignants sont à la fois les auteurs et les lecteurs de cette revue qui illustre un éphémère mouvement unitaire. Sah fat al-ta'l m al-ilzam (1933-1935) a été publiée par les instituteurs issus de la filière gratuite mise en place en 1905 et fort mal considérée socialement. La parution de cette revue appara t dans le cadre d'une mobilisation collective pour l'enseignement élémentaire obligatoire et gratuit. Enfin la Majallat al-tarbiya al-had tha (1927-1951) publiée par l'Université américaine du Caire illustre le transfert de savoir volontariste en direction des enseignants égyptiens, auxquels on inculque la pédagogie américaine. This contribution is based on three pedagogical journals associated with different groups of teachers in Egypt during the interwar period. The Sah fat al-Mu talli-m n (1923-1925), published by the Teachers' Union may be situated within the professional reorganisation characteristic of that time. Teachers are both authors and readers of this journal which illustrates a unitary ephemeral movement. Sah fat al-ta'l m al-ilzam (1933-1935) was published by elementary school teachers who taught in the free schools established in 1905 and which were socially looked down upon. The publication of this journal appears within the framework of a collective mobilisation for obligatory and elementary school education. The Majallat al-tarbiya al-had tha (1927-1951), published by the American University of Cairo, illustrates the voluntary transfer of knowledge towards Egyptian teachers who are being inculcated with American pedagogy.
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