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An Analysis of Reservoir Production Strategies in Miscible and Immiscible Gas Injection Projects
Iman Farzad,Mahmood Amani
Advances in Petroleum Exploration and Development , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/2402
Abstract: Successful design and implementation of a miscible gas injection project depends upon the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) and other factors such as reservoir and fluid characterization. The experimental methods available for determining MMP are both costly and time consuming. Therefore, the use of correlations that prove to be reliable for a wide range of fluid types would likely be considered acceptable for preliminary screening studies. This work includes a comparative evaluation of MMP correlations and thermodynamic models using an equation of state by PVTsim software (Schlumberger, 2001a). We observed that none of the evaluated MMP correlations studied in this investigation is sufficiently reliable. EOSbased analytical methods seemed to be more conservative in predicting MMP values. Following an acceptable estimate of MMP, several compositional simulation runs were conducted to determine the sensitivity of the oil recovery to variations in injection pressure (at pressures above, equal to and below the estimated MMP), stratification and mobility ratio parameters in miscible and immiscible gas injection projects. Simulation results indicated that injection pressure was a key parameter that affects oil recovery to a high degree. MMP determined to be the optimum injection pressure. Stratification and mobility ratio could also affect the recovery efficiency of the reservoir in a variety of ways. Key words: Reservoir production; Miscible gas injection; Immiscible gas; Minimum miscibility pressure
Intragastric Balloon (BIB) for the Management of Obesity, Report on the First Egyptian Experience  [PDF]
Hossam Ghoneim, Iman Hamza
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2014.48043
Abstract: Introduction: The bioenteric balloon (BIB) is widely applied in the management of obesity. Aim of the work: This is a report on the efficacy and safety of BIB®; device in the first 101 Egyptian cases. Methods: Patients referred for BIB between January 2011 till December 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. BIB was inserted for 6 months according to predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: In 101 cases, 17 cases were males (16.8%) and 84 cases were females (83.2%), mean age 33.2 (±10.44) years, mean BMI 35.9 (±4.65) kg/m2. None of the patients exhibited balloon migration or perforation. The balloon was removed upon request in 3 patients due to exaggerated intolerance (2.9%). The mean weight loss was 15.5 kg (±4.67), mean EWL 64.12% (±23.48%). The mean BMI at extraction was 29.7 kg/m2 (±4.48) with a BMI loss of 6.2 kg/m2 (±2.0). 87 patients (88.7%) achieved target EWL (32.1% of excess weight), and 87 patients lost >12.2% of their basal weight (88.7%). 70 patients achieved BMI loss >5.7 kg/m2 (71.4%). Conclusion: BIB achieves acceptable success with minimal complications. In further long term, prospective studies are needed to evaluate obesity related comorbidities when using such modality and to compare it to other available devices.
A Fixed Point Method for Convex Systems  [PDF]
Morteza Kimiaei, Farzad Rahpeymaii
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.330189
Abstract: We present a new fixed point technique to solve a system of convex equations in several variables. Our approach is based on two powerful algorithmic ideas: operator-splitting and steepest descent direction. The quadratic convergence of the proposed approach is established under some reasonable conditions. Preliminary numerical results are also reported.
Landslide Hazard Mapping of Nagadhunga-Naubise Section of the Tribhuvan Highway in Nepal with GIS Application  [PDF]
Arjun Raj Pandey, Farzad Shahbodaghlou
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2014.66059
Abstract: The aim of this project was to prepare and study a hazard map of Nagadhunga-Naubise section of the Tribhuvan highway. This section lies in the Middle Mountain region of Nepal. For the preparation of the hazard map of the corridor three steps, initial study, field investigation, and data analysis and presentation were carried out. In the initial study, the collection of available data and review of the literature were done. The base map was then prepared from the topographical map. In the field investigation step, all information and maps prepared earlier in the initial study were verified by field check. In the final step, prepared and verified data were then analyzed for the hazard mapping. Topography (gradient, slope shape and slope aspect), geology, drainage and land-use were considered to be the major influencing factors in the slope stability. Pre-assigned hazard rating method was used for hazard mapping of the study area. The area was divided into equal facets. Then ratings of responsible factors to the hazard were assigned to each facet and overlaid based upon a predetermined rating scheme. Total estimated hazard was the sum of these ratings for each overlay. Hazard map was prepared by using three categories as low hazard, medium hazard and high hazard. The Geographic Information System (GIS) was the main tool for the data input, analysis, and preparing of the final hazard map. The hazard map showed the areas of different hazard potential classes of; “low” with 32% portion, “Medium” with 51%, and “high” with 17% portion.
Iman Santoso
Jurnal Akuntansi dan Keuangan , 2004,
Abstract: Economic globalization impacts to the increase of international transactions. The Company does not boundary their operation within their county anymore, but also extends their business performance abroad and may become multinasional and transnational typed of enterprise. The company then will be operating through its affiliates and branchs in many countries. This brings a consequence of a transfer pricing arrangement in their inter-group transactions. Transfer pricing could be conducted among others with taxes motivation, in which the main objective is to transfer the tax burden from the higher rated country to the lower rate jurisdiction. Under this circumstance, some countries may have losses the potential taxes revenue because of such transfer mechanism. To anticipate the conditions outlined above, Indonesian Tax Law introduces a transfer pricing resolution so called Advance Pricing Agreements (APA). APA are short of agreement betwen the tax authority and the tax payers on the reasonable (fair) selling prices of the product that has been concluded to the parties who has special relationship to justify that the transactions are arms length. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Globalisasi ekonomi telah membawa dampak semakin meningkatnya transaksi internasional. Perusahaan tidak lagi membatasi operasinya hanya di negara sendiri, tetapi merambah ke mancanegara dan menjadi perusahaan multinasional dan transnasional. Perusahaan-perusahaan ini beroperasi melalui anak perusahaan dan cabang-cabangnya di banyak negara. Akibatnya, timbul harga transfer yang disebut transfer pricing karena adanya transaksi antarmereka. Transfer pricing dapat dilakukan dengan motivasi pajak, yang bertujuan menggeser beban pajak dari negara dengan tarif pajak tinggi ke negara dengan tarif pajak rendah. Pergeseran ini diyakini dapat menghilangkan potensi penerimaan pajak suatu negara. Untuk mencegah praktek transfer pricing dengan motivasi pajak ini, Undang-Undang Pajak Penghasilan Indonesia mengatur tentang Advance Pricing Agreement, yang adalah kesepakatan harga antara Wajib Pajak dengan aparat pajak mengenai harga jual wajar atas produk yang dihasilkannya kepada pihak-pihak yang mempunyai hubungan istimewa. Kata kunci: transfer pricing, advance pricing agreement, special relationship, arms length principle.
The effect of pH on endo-1,4-b-glucanase activity from Bacillus sp. AR 009
Biodiversitas , 2005,
Abstract: The determinination of the suitable pH condition for maximizing the activity of endo-1,4- -glucanase of Bacillus sp. AR 009 had been done. The acidity range of media for examining the enzyme activities were 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 at 37°C. The experiments show that the value of maximum activity of endo-1,4- -glucanase was 23.068 U/mL at third day incubation with 124.565 mg/L of sugar reduction at pH 7.
Health Hazard Assessment of Tractor Driver Whole-body Vibration Utilizing the ISO 2631 Standard
Iman Ahmadi
Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus (ACS) , 2013,
Abstract: In order to quantify tractor driver Whole-Body Vibration (WBV) induced by some of the agricultural operations, the ISO 2631 standard was utilized. Detailed methodology of the calculation of the WBV evaluating indices using the time-domain acceleration data analysis was presented. According to the results of the study, typical weighted root mean square (WRMS) value of the Z-axis vibration was more than the WRMS value of the X and Y axes vibrations. Furthermore all of the severity categories (SV) obtained from driving the tractor on asphalt road, plowing and power tilling based on the equivalent daily stress index (Sed), were graded in the class of 3 or 4; which means that the health hazard associated with these operations is marginal. Finally among the examined machines; the locally built, tractor front mounted, hydraulic power aided loader caused vibrations that were slightly higher than the exposure limit value (ELV), with regard to the parameter of WRMS over an eight hour period (A(8)).
Effects of Temperature on Denitrifying Growth and Nitrate Reduction End Products of Comamonas testosteroni Isolated from Estuarine Sediment
Microbiology Indonesia , 2007,
Abstract: Predictions of seasonal changes in N2O emission that occur in natural estuaries are important to anticipate the future implications of global warming. This study showed the effect of temperature on denitrifying growth and nitrate reduction end product of Comamonas testoteroni isolated from estuarine sediment using both batch and continuous cultures. The μmax values of Comamonas testosteroni grown in anaerobic batch culture were increased with increasing temperature, and the highest μmax was found at 26 °C. Concentrations of nitrate reduced (mg-1 dried weight cells) were higher at low temperature. Concentrations of N2 produced were higher at low temperature and the production of N2 was higher than both NO2- and N2O productions
Biosynthesis of Bacitracin in Stirred Fermenter by Bacillus Licheniformis Using Defatted Oil Seed Cakes as Substrate
Iman Zarei
Modern Applied Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/mas.v6n2p30
Abstract: Bacitracin is being imported in India involving substantial amount of foreign exchange for its incorporation in poultry feed. The raw material for its production is readily available and cheap such as soybean meal, sunflower meal & wheat bran. Thus development of this technology in this country would result in saving a reasonable amount of foreign exchange by utilizing our resources.The present study is concerned with the biosynthesis of antibioticBacitracin by Bacillus licheniformison laboratory to scale up studies in StirredFermenter using defatted oil seed cakes of agricultural bye-products as startingmaterial for maximum production of the antibiotic Bacitracin.In stirred fermenter, antibiotic formation reached maximum (342 i.u. ml-1), 30hours after inoculation at 37oC using different natural media such as defattedsoybean meal, glucose and metal ions.In solid-state fermentation, wheat bran, soybean meal, sunflower meal, rice hulls and their different combinationswere used. The antibiotic activity 48 hours after inoculation was 4540 i.u/g when only soybean was used.
éduquer les éducateurs : les revues pédagogiques égyptiennes de l’entre-deux-guerres
Iman Farag
Revue des Mondes Musulmans et de la Méditerranée , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/remmm.239
Abstract: la contribution porte sur un corpus de trois revues pédagogiques qui correspondent à la cristallisation des groupes d'enseignants en Egypte dans la période de l'entre-deux-guerres : la Sah fat al-mu'allim n (1923-1925) publiée par le syndicat des enseignants est à situer dans le cadre des regroupements professionnels caractéristiques de la période. Les enseignants sont à la fois les auteurs et les lecteurs de cette revue qui illustre un éphémère mouvement unitaire. Sah fat al-ta'l m al-ilzam (1933-1935) a été publiée par les instituteurs issus de la filière gratuite mise en place en 1905 et fort mal considérée socialement. La parution de cette revue appara t dans le cadre d'une mobilisation collective pour l'enseignement élémentaire obligatoire et gratuit. Enfin la Majallat al-tarbiya al-had tha (1927-1951) publiée par l'Université américaine du Caire illustre le transfert de savoir volontariste en direction des enseignants égyptiens, auxquels on inculque la pédagogie américaine. This contribution is based on three pedagogical journals associated with different groups of teachers in Egypt during the interwar period. The Sah fat al-Mu talli-m n (1923-1925), published by the Teachers' Union may be situated within the professional reorganisation characteristic of that time. Teachers are both authors and readers of this journal which illustrates a unitary ephemeral movement. Sah fat al-ta'l m al-ilzam (1933-1935) was published by elementary school teachers who taught in the free schools established in 1905 and which were socially looked down upon. The publication of this journal appears within the framework of a collective mobilisation for obligatory and elementary school education. The Majallat al-tarbiya al-had tha (1927-1951), published by the American University of Cairo, illustrates the voluntary transfer of knowledge towards Egyptian teachers who are being inculcated with American pedagogy.
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