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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 25264 matches for " Ilseob Lee "
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Surface glycoproteins determine the feature of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus
Jin Il Kim1,2,#, Ilseob Lee1,2,#, Sehee Park1,2,# & Man-Seong Park1,2,*
BMB Reports , 2012,
Abstract: After the outbreak of the swine-origin influenza A H1N1 virus inApril 2009, World Health Organization declared this novelH1N1 virus as the first pandemic influenza virus (2009 pH1N1)of the 21st century. To elucidate the characteristics of 2009pH1N1, the growth properties of A/Korea/01/09 (K/09) was analyzedin cells. Interestingly, the maximal titer of K/09 was higherthan that of a seasonal H1N1 virus isolated in Korea 2008 (S/08)though the RNP complex of K/09 was less competent than that ofS/08. In addition, the NS1 protein of K/09 was determined as aweak interferon antagonist as compared to that of S/08. Thus, inorder to confine genetic determinants of K/09, activities of twomajor surface glycoproteins were analyzed. Interestingly, K/09possesses highly reactive NA proteins and weak HA cell-bindingavidity. These findings suggest that the surface glycoproteinsmight be a key factor in the features of 2009 pH1N1.
Immunization with a Hemagglutinin-Derived Synthetic Peptide Formulated with a CpG-DNA-Liposome Complex Induced Protection against Lethal Influenza Virus Infection in Mice
Jae Won Rhee,Dongbum Kim,Byung Kwon Park,Sanghoon Kwon,Sunhee Cho,Ilseob Lee,Man-Seong Park,Jae-Nam Seo,Yong-Sun Kim,Hong Seok Choi,Younghee Lee,Hyung-Joo Kwon
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048750
Abstract: Whole-virus vaccines, including inactivated or live-attenuated influenza vaccines, have been conventionally developed and supported as a prophylaxis. These currently available virus-based influenza vaccines are widely used in the clinic, but the vaccine production takes a long time and a huge number of embryonated chicken eggs. To overcome the imperfection of egg-based influenza vaccines, epitope-based peptide vaccines have been studied as an alternative approach. Here, we formulated an efficacious peptide vaccine without carriers using phosphodiester CpG-DNA and a special liposome complex. Potential epitope peptides predicted from the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the H5N1 A/Viet Nam/1203/2004 strain (NCBI database, AAW80717) were used to immunize mice along with phosphodiester CpG-DNA co-encapsulated in a phosphatidyl-β-oleoyl-γ-palmitoyl ethanolamine (DOPE):cholesterol hemisuccinate (CHEMS) complex (Lipoplex(O)) without carriers. We identified a B cell epitope peptide (hH5N1 HA233 epitope, 14 amino acids) that can potently induce epitope-specific antibodies. Furthermore, immunization with a complex of the B cell epitope and Lipoplex(O) completely protects mice challenged with a lethal dose of recombinant H5N1 virus. These results suggest that our improved peptide vaccine technology can be promptly applied to vaccine development against pandemic influenza. Furthermore our results suggest that potent epitopes, which cannot be easily found using proteins or a virus as an antigen, can be screened when we use a complex of peptide epitopes and Lipoplex(O).
Phylogenetic Analysis of a Swine Influenza A(H3N2) Virus Isolated in Korea in 2012
Jin Il Kim, Ilseob Lee, Sehee Park, Sangmoo Lee, Min-Woong Hwang, Joon-Yong Bae, Jun Heo, Donghwan Kim, Seok-Il Jang, Kabsu Kim, Man-Seong Park
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088782
Abstract: Influenza A virus (IAV) can infect avian and mammalian species, including humans. The genome nature of IAVs may contribute to viral adaptation in different animal hosts, resulting in gene reassortment and the reproduction of variants with optimal fitness. As seen again in the 2009 swine-origin influenza A H1N1 pandemic, pigs are known to be susceptible to swine, avian, and human IAVs and can serve as a ‘mixing vessel’ for the generation of novel IAV variants. To this end, the emergence of swine influenza viruses must be kept under close surveillance. Herein, we report the isolation and phylogenetic study of a swine IAV, A/swine/Korea/PL01/2012 (swPL01, H3N2 subtype). After screening nasopharyngeal samples from pigs in the Gyeongsangnam-do region of Korea from December 2011 to May 2012, we isolated the swPL01 virus and sequenced its all of 8 genome segments (polymerase basic 2, PB2; polymerase basic 1, PB1; polymerase acidic, PA; hemagglutinin, HA; nucleocapsid protein, NP; neuraminidase, NA; matrix protein, M; and nonstructural protein, NS). The phylogenetic study, analyzed with reference strains registered in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database, indicated that the swPL01 virus was similar to the North American triple-reassortant swine strains and that the HA gene of the swPL01 virus was categorized into swine H3 cluster IV. The swPL01 virus had the M gene of the triple-reassortant swine H3N2 viruses, whereas that of other contemporary strains in Korea was transferred from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus. These data suggest the possibility that various swine H3N2 viruses may co-circulate in Korea, which underlines the importance of a sustained surveillance system against swine IAVs.
Combination Effects of Peramivir and Favipiravir against Oseltamivir-Resistant 2009 Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Infection in Mice
Sehee Park, Jin Il Kim, Ilseob Lee, Sangmoo Lee, Min-Woong Hwang, Joon-Yong Bae, Jun Heo, Donghwan Kim, Seok-Il Jang, Hyejin Kim, Hee Jin Cheong, Jin-Won Song, Ki-Joon Song, Luck Ju Baek, Man-Seong Park
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101325
Abstract: Antiviral drugs are being used for therapeutic purposes against influenza illness in humans. However, antiviral-resistant variants often nullify the effectiveness of antivirals. Combined medications, as seen in the treatment of cancers and other infectious diseases, have been suggested as an option for the control of antiviral-resistant influenza viruses. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic value of combination therapy against oseltamivir-resistant 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1 virus infection in DBA/2 mice. Mice were treated for five days with favipiravir and peramivir starting 4 hours after lethal challenge. Compared with either monotherapy, combination therapy saved more mice from viral lethality and resulted in increased antiviral efficacy in the lungs of infected mice. Furthermore, the synergism between the two antivirals, which was consistent with the survival outcomes of combination therapy, indicated that favipiravir could serve as a critical agent of combination therapy for the control of oseltamivir-resistant strains. Our results provide new insight into the feasibility of favipiravir in combination therapy against oseltamivir-resistant influenza virus infection.
The Relationship between Visual Satisfaction and Water Clarity and Quality Management in Tourism Fishing Ports  [PDF]
Lee-Hsueh Lee
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2016.88064
Abstract: Visual satisfaction of the tourists with a water body is strongly influenced by water clarity, which is in turn influenced by a number of water quality parameters. Visual satisfaction thus stands to benefit from having a water quality management tool that results in better water clarity. A Clarity Suitability Index of Water Quality (CSIWQ), derived from clarity suitability curves of selected water quality parameters, can allow estimation of optimal values for these parameters, while ensuring high visual satisfaction among tourists. The present study used sampling and survey methodologies to investigate water clarity and quality at five tourism fishing ports; simultaneously, tourists’ visual satisfaction with a water body was assessed through a questionnaire based on their perceptions. The relationship between tourists’ visual satisfaction and water clarity was found to be positive and strong, with water clarity having predictive power of 74.2%. The study showed that DO, BOD, TP, and SS were the most critical parameters for water clarity. A continued product approach of CSIWQ was found to be most appropriate for describing the relationship between water clarity and these four parameters. This enabled a CSIWQ Index value to be calculated. With a CSIWQ value of 0.6, water clarity would be more than 2.08 m, and tourists would experience very high satisfaction. CSI curves showed that DO would preferably be 9.0 mg/L, and BOD, TP, and SS less than 0.5 mg/L, 0.12 mg/L, and 45.0 mg/L, respectively. The model thus produced valuable insights for assessing and improving water quality and ensuring high levels of visual satisfaction among tourists in tourism fishing ports. This model identified only four parameters but could be improved by ensuring that other water quality parameters were included, to encourage an increase in the number of tourists and to include monitoring of more pollutant sources.
Appearance’s Aesthetic Appreciation to Inform Water Quality Management of Waterscapes  [PDF]
Lee-Hsueh Lee
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2017.913103
Abstract:
The appearance of the water is just one aspect of a waterscape that can be appreciated aesthetically. Water appearance is affected by water clarity and water colour. Here, an aesthetic assessment model of waterscape was suggested. In the model, water clarity and colour have direct effects, whereas water quality and phytoplankton biomass have indirect effects, on tourists’ aesthetic assessment of water bodies. The preferred water colour is aquamarine to blue, regardless of depth of clarity. Water colour ranges from pastel yellow to yellow-green are not favoured by tourists. Four water-quality parameters were correlated with water clarity and phytoplankton biomass. The coefficient of indirect effect of river pollution index on tourists’ aesthetic valuation of aquamarine to blue water colour was -0.457, and for pastel yellow to yellowgreen, it was -0.209. The research results showed observation of water colour could not only reflect waterscape aesthetic value, but also serve as a guide of judging water quality, and the status of phytoplankton benefited to simplify the process of water-quality management for waterscape.
Abdominal Fat Reduction through Cryolipolysis  [PDF]
Doyeop Lee, Kyurae Lee
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2018.69005
Abstract: Although several studies showed the efficacy and safety from this procedure, the comparative assessment of adipose tissue by cryolipolysis has not been studied until now. Therefore we investigated the quantitative change of cross sectional areas of abdominal SAT (subcutaneous adipose tissue) and VAT (visceral adipose tissue) following cryolipolysis. A prospective study for twelve subjects with a single session of cryolipolysis on abdomen was performed. We assessed for their height, weight, and waist circumferences, body contours by photographs, and the cross sectional areas of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues were measured at umbilicus level by computerized tomography for 2 months. The cross sectional areas in SAT reduced from 243.3 ± 24.7 to 238.5 ± 40.7 cm2 at 2 months post-treatment. Those of VAT reduced from 141.3 ± 46.4 to 125.1 ± 42.8 cm2 at 2 months post-treatment. Cross sectional areas of VAT, and waist circumferences were significantly reduced by 16.2 cm2, 4.1 cm respectively. Additionally visual improvement without unexpected adverse events was noted. In conclusion a single session cryolipolysis demonstrated to reduce visceral adipose tissue as well as waist circumferences tissue for 2 months. Further controlled study would be needed to evaluate for reduction of visceral adipose tissue by cryolipolysis.
Exponential Ergodicity and β-Mixing Property for Generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck Processes  [PDF]
Oesook Lee
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.21004
Abstract: The generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is derived from a bivariate Lévy process and is suggested as a continuous time version of a stochastic recurrence equation [1]. In this paper we consider the generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and provide sufficient conditions under which the process is exponentially ergodic and hence holds the expo-nentially β-mixing property. Our results can cover a wide variety of areas by selecting suitable Lévy processes and be used as fundamental tools for statistical analysis concerning the processes. Well known stochastic volatility models in finance such as Lévy-driven Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is examined as a special case.
Coastal Planning Strategies for Adaptation to Sea Level Rise: A Case Study of Mokpo, Korea  [PDF]
Yumi Lee
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research (JBCPR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbcpr.2014.21007
Abstract: Climate change and sea level rise necessitate adaptation strategies for coastal areas. This paper showcases five strategies for sea level rise adaptation: hard protection, soft protection, accommodation, retreat, and attack. This study proposes adaptation measures and a phased development strategy for coastal areas of Mokpo, an old port city on the southwestern tip of the Korean Peninsula that has been expanded by land reclamation. Mokpo presently experiences frequent flooding during high-water and storm events; due to their low elevation and land subsidence, most of the reclaimed areas are susceptible to future inundation via sea level rise. The fundamental adaptation strategies for the impact areas are: hard protection of important infrastructures via multi-tiered terraces; the retreat of coastal developments accompanied by green buffer zones such as wetlands and parks to accommodate temporary inundation; and up-leveling the ground for new development and phased relocation of existing development. Through the case study of Mokpo, the paper emphasizes the importance of resilient planning strategies for urban development, and highlights both the challenges and opportunities for sea level rise adaptation.
Study on the Classification of Speech Anxiety Using Q-Methodology Analysis  [PDF]
SeoYoung Lee
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2014.23008
Abstract: Public speaking is one of the cornerstones of mass communication, the influence of which has only been enhanced with the advent of the modern era. Yet despite its importance, up to 40% of the world’s population feels anxious when faced with the prospect of presenting in front of an audience (Wilbur, 1981). However, public speaking anxiety is human condition that can be understood and with effort, overcome by sufferers. Based on theoretical research, this study presents an empirical investigation of speech anxiety. The research uses Q-methodology to generate categories of speakers and then draws on the PQ-method program to suggest ways for speakers to improve their speaking confidence based on these categories. This research is of a value to those who are interested in speech anxiety for therapeutic or pedagogical practice.
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