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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3492 matches for " Ilhem Messaoudi equal contributor "
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Effective Control of Chronic γ-Herpesvirus Infection by Unconventional MHC Class Ia–Independent CD8 T Cells
Douglas C Braaten equal contributor,James Scott McClellan equal contributor,Ilhem Messaoudi equal contributor,Scott A Tibbetts,Kelly B McClellan,Janko Nikolich-Zugich equal contributor,Herbert W Virgin IV equal contributor
PLOS Pathogens , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0020037
Abstract: Control of virus infection is mediated in part by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class Ia presentation of viral peptides to conventional CD8 T cells. Although important, the absolute requirement for MHC Class Ia–dependent CD8 T cells for control of chronic virus infection has not been formally demonstrated. We show here that mice lacking MHC Class Ia molecules (Kb?/?xDb?/? mice) effectively control chronic γ-herpesvirus 68 (γHV68) infection via a robust expansion of β2-microglobulin (β2-m)-dependent, but CD1d-independent, unconventional CD8 T cells. These unconventional CD8 T cells expressed: (1) CD8αβ and CD3, (2) cell surface molecules associated with conventional effector/memory CD8 T cells, (3) TCRαβ with a significant Vβ4, Vβ3, and Vβ10 bias, and (4) the key effector cytokine interferon-γ (IFNγ). Unconventional CD8 T cells utilized a diverse TCR repertoire, and CDR3 analysis suggests that some of that repertoire may be utilized even in the presence of conventional CD8 T cells. This is the first demonstration to our knowledge that β2-m–dependent, but Class Ia–independent, unconventional CD8 T cells can efficiently control chronic virus infection, implicating a role for β2-n–dependent non-classical MHC molecules in control of chronic viral infection. We speculate that similar unconventional CD8 T cells may be able to control of other chronic viral infections, especially when viruses evade immunity by inhibiting generation of Class Ia–restricted T cells.
Animal Models of Varicella Zoster Virus Infection
Kristen Haberthur,Ilhem Messaoudi
Pathogens , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/pathogens2020364
Abstract: Primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) results in varicella (chickenpox) followed by the establishment of latency in sensory ganglia. Declining T cell immunity due to aging or immune suppressive treatments can lead to VZV reactivation and the development of herpes zoster (HZ, shingles). HZ is often associated with significant morbidity and occasionally mortality in elderly and immune compromised patients. There are currently two FDA-approved vaccines for the prevention of VZV: Varivax ? (for varicella) and Zostavax ? (for HZ). Both vaccines contain the live-attenuated Oka strain of VZV. Although highly immunogenic, a two-dose regimen is required to achieve a 99% seroconversion rate. Zostavax vaccination reduces the incidence of HZ by 51% within a 3-year period, but a significant reduction in vaccine-induced immunity is observed within the first year after vaccination. Developing more efficacious vaccines and therapeutics requires a better understanding of the host response to VZV. These studies have been hampered by the scarcity of animal models that recapitulate all aspects of VZV infections in humans. In this review, we describe different animal models of VZV infection as well as an alternative animal model that leverages the infection of Old World macaques with the highly related simian varicella virus (SVV) and discuss their contributions to our understanding of pathogenesis and immunity during VZV infection.
Effective control of chronic gamma-herpesvirus infection by unconventional MHC Class Ia-independent CD8 T cells.
Braaten Douglas C,McClellan James Scott,Messaoudi Ilhem,Tibbetts Scott A
PLOS Pathogens , 2006,
Abstract: Control of virus infection is mediated in part by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class Ia presentation of viral peptides to conventional CD8 T cells. Although important, the absolute requirement for MHC Class Ia-dependent CD8 T cells for control of chronic virus infection has not been formally demonstrated. We show here that mice lacking MHC Class Ia molecules (K(b-/-)xD(b-/-) mice) effectively control chronic gamma-herpesvirus 68 (gammaHV68) infection via a robust expansion of beta2-microglobulin (beta2-m)-dependent, but CD1d-independent, unconventional CD8 T cells. These unconventional CD8 T cells expressed: (1) CD8alphabeta and CD3, (2) cell surface molecules associated with conventional effector/memory CD8 T cells, (3) TCRalphabeta with a significant Vbeta4, Vbeta3, and Vbeta10 bias, and (4) the key effector cytokine interferon-gamma (IFNgamma). Unconventional CD8 T cells utilized a diverse TCR repertoire, and CDR3 analysis suggests that some of that repertoire may be utilized even in the presence of conventional CD8 T cells. This is the first demonstration to our knowledge that beta2-m-dependent, but Class Ia-independent, unconventional CD8 T cells can efficiently control chronic virus infection, implicating a role for beta2-n-dependent non-classical MHC molecules in control of chronic viral infection. We speculate that similar unconventional CD8 T cells may be able to control of other chronic viral infections, especially when viruses evade immunity by inhibiting generation of Class Ia-restricted T cells.
Autophagic Killing Effects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Alveolar Macrophages from Young and Aged Rhesus Macaques
Sophia A. Pacheco, Katelyn M. Powers, Flora Engelmann, Ilhem Messaoudi, Georgiana E. Purdy
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066985
Abstract: Non-human primates, notably rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta, RM), provide a robust experimental model to investigate the immune response to and effective control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. Changes in the function of immune cells and immunosenescence may contribute to the increased susceptibility of the elderly to tuberculosis. The goal of this study was to examine the impact of age on M. tuberculosis host-pathogen interactions following infection of primary alveolar macrophages derived from young and aged rhesus macaques. Of specific interest to us was whether the mycobactericidal capacity of autophagic macrophages was reduced in older animals since decreased autophagosome formation and autophagolysosomal fusion has been observed in other cells types of aged animals. Our data demonstrate that alveolar macrophages from old RM are as competent as those from young animals for autophagic clearance of M. tuberculosis infection and controlling mycobacterial replication. While our data do not reveal significant differences between alveolar macrophage responses to M. tuberculosis by young and old animals, these studies are the first to functionally characterize autophagic clearance of M. tuberculosis by alveolar macrophages from RM.
Exponential Decay Rate of the Perturbed Energy of the Wave Equation with Zero Order Term  [PDF]
Hamchi Ilhem
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2011.15049
Abstract: In this paper, we consider the wave equation with zero order term. We use the compactness uniqueness argument and some result of I. Lasiecka and D. Tataru in [4] to prove, directly, the exponential decay rate of the perturbed energy.
A Replicating Cytomegalovirus-Based Vaccine Encoding a Single Ebola Virus Nucleoprotein CTL Epitope Confers Protection against Ebola Virus
Yoshimi Tsuda,Patrizia Caposio,Christopher J. Parkins,Sara Botto,Ilhem Messaoudi,Luka Cicin-Sain,Heinz Feldmann,Michael A. Jarvis
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001275
Abstract: Background Human outbreaks of Ebola virus (EBOV) are a serious human health concern in Central Africa. Great apes (gorillas/chimpanzees) are an important source of EBOV transmission to humans due to increased hunting of wildlife including the ‘bush-meat’ trade. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an highly immunogenic virus that has shown recent utility as a vaccine platform. CMV-based vaccines also have the unique potential to re-infect and disseminate through target populations regardless of prior CMV immunity, which may be ideal for achieving high vaccine coverage in inaccessible populations such as great apes. Methodology/Principal Findings We hypothesize that a vaccine strategy using CMV-based vectors expressing EBOV antigens may be ideally suited for use in inaccessible wildlife populations. To establish a ‘proof-of-concept’ for CMV-based vaccines against EBOV, we constructed a mouse CMV (MCMV) vector expressing a CD8+ T cell epitope from the nucleoprotein (NP) of Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) (MCMV/ZEBOV-NPCTL). MCMV/ZEBOV-NPCTL induced high levels of long-lasting (>8 months) CD8+ T cells against ZEBOV NP in mice. Importantly, all vaccinated animals were protected against lethal ZEBOV challenge. Low levels of anti-ZEBOV antibodies were only sporadically detected in vaccinated animals prior to ZEBOV challenge suggesting a role, at least in part, for T cells in protection. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates the ability of a CMV-based vaccine approach to protect against an highly virulent human pathogen, and supports the potential for ‘disseminating’ CMV-based EBOV vaccines to prevent EBOV transmission in wildlife populations.
A Flow Cytometry-Based Assay for Quantifying Non-Plaque Forming Strains of Yellow Fever Virus
Erika Hammarlund, Ian J. Amanna, Melissa E. Dubois, Alex Barron, Flora Engelmann, Ilhem Messaoudi, Mark K. Slifka
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041707
Abstract: Primary clinical isolates of yellow fever virus can be difficult to quantitate by standard in vitro methods because they may not form discernable plaques or induce a measurable cytopathic effect (CPE) on cell monolayers. In our hands, the Dakar strain of yellow fever virus (YFV-Dakar) could not be measured by plaque assay (PA), focus-forming assay (FFA), or by measurement of CPE. For these reasons, we developed a YFV-specific monoclonal antibody (3A8.B6) and used it to optimize a highly sensitive flow cytometry-based tissue culture limiting dilution assay (TC-LDA) to measure levels of infectious virus. The TC-LDA was performed by incubating serial dilutions of virus in replicate wells of C6/36 cells and stained intracellularly for virus with MAb 3A8.B6. Using this approach, we could reproducibly quantitate YFV-Dakar in tissue culture supernatants as well as from the serum of viremic rhesus macaques experimentally infected with YFV-Dakar. Moreover, the TC-LDA approach was >10-fold more sensitive than standard plaque assay for quantitating typical plaque-forming strains of YFV including YFV-17D and YFV-FNV (French neurotropic vaccine). Together, these results indicate that the TC-LDA technique is effective for quantitating both plaque-forming and non-plaque-forming strains of yellow fever virus, and this methodology may be readily adapted for the study and quantitation of other non-plaque-forming viruses.
CD4 T Cell Immunity Is Critical for the Control of Simian Varicella Virus Infection in a Nonhuman Primate Model of VZV Infection
Kristen Haberthur,Flora Engelmann,Byng Park,Alex Barron,Alfred Legasse,Jesse Dewane,Miranda Fischer,Amelia Kerns,Monica Brown,Ilhem Messaoudi
PLOS Pathogens , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002367
Abstract: Primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) results in varicella (more commonly known as chickenpox) after which VZV establishes latency in sensory ganglia. VZV can reactivate to cause herpes zoster (shingles), a debilitating disease that affects one million individuals in the US alone annually. Current vaccines against varicella (Varivax) and herpes zoster (Zostavax) are not 100% efficacious. Specifically, studies have shown that 1 dose of varivax can lead to breakthrough varicella, albeit rarely, in children and a 2-dose regimen is now recommended. Similarly, although Zostavax results in a 50% reduction in HZ cases, a significant number of recipients remain at risk. To design more efficacious vaccines, we need a better understanding of the immune response to VZV. Clinical observations suggest that T cell immunity plays a more critical role in the protection against VZV primary infection and reactivation. However, no studies to date have directly tested this hypothesis due to the scarcity of animal models that recapitulate the immune response to VZV. We have recently shown that SVV infection of rhesus macaques models the hallmarks of primary VZV infection in children. In this study, we used this model to experimentally determine the role of CD4, CD8 and B cell responses in the resolution of primary SVV infection in unvaccinated animals. Data presented in this manuscript show that while CD20 depletion leads to a significant delay and decrease in the antibody response to SVV, loss of B cells does not alter the severity of varicella or the kinetics/magnitude of the T cell response. Loss of CD8 T cells resulted in slightly higher viral loads and prolonged viremia. In contrast, CD4 depletion led to higher viral loads, prolonged viremia and disseminated varicella. CD4 depleted animals also had delayed and reduced antibody and CD8 T cell responses. These results are similar to clinical observations that children with agammaglobulinemia have uncomplicated varicella whereas children with T cell deficiencies are at increased risk of progressive varicella with significant complications. Moreover, our studies indicate that CD4 T cell responses to SVV play a more critical role than antibody or CD8 T cell responses in the control of primary SVV infection and suggest that one potential mechanism for enhancing the efficacy of VZV vaccines is by eliciting robust CD4 T cell responses.
Simian Varicella Virus Infection of Rhesus Macaques Recapitulates Essential Features of Varicella Zoster Virus Infection in Humans
Ilhem Messaoudi ,Alexander Barron,Mary Wellish,Flora Engelmann,Alfred Legasse,Shannon Planer,Don Gilden,Janko Nikolich-Zugich ,Ravi Mahalingam
PLOS Pathogens , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000657
Abstract: Simian varicella virus (SVV), the etiologic agent of naturally occurring varicella in primates, is genetically and antigenically closely related to human varicella zoster virus (VZV). Early attempts to develop a model of VZV pathogenesis and latency in nonhuman primates (NHP) resulted in persistent infection. More recent models successfully produced latency; however, only a minority of monkeys became viremic and seroconverted. Thus, previous NHP models were not ideally suited to analyze the immune response to SVV during acute infection and the transition to latency. Here, we show for the first time that intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques with SVV closely mimics naturally occurring varicella (chickenpox) in humans. Infected monkeys developed varicella and viremia that resolved 21 days after infection. Months later, viral DNA was detected only in ganglia and not in non-ganglionic tissues. Like VZV latency in human ganglia, transcripts corresponding to SVV ORFs 21, 62, 63 and 66, but not ORF 40, were detected by RT-PCR. In addition, as described for VZV, SVV ORF 63 protein was detected in the cytoplasm of neurons in latently infected monkey ganglia by immunohistochemistry. We also present the first in depth analysis of the immune response to SVV. Infected animals produced a strong humoral and cell-mediated immune response to SVV, as assessed by immunohistology, serology and flow cytometry. Intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques with SVV provides a novel model to analyze viral and immunological mechanisms of VZV latency and reactivation.
Dialectology an Interactional Overlap of Disciplines  [PDF]
Mortad-Serir Ilhem
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2013.32021
Abstract: Dialectology has long been stereotyped as a limited scope of research since dialectologists long lived with the prejudice of being data collectors who amused their time to wander in rural meadows and converse with old peoples; and if there was any relationship between dialectology with other disciplines it was often viewed as intricate and sometimes controversial through many classificatory approaches. It is a false perception to view dialectology as autonomous discipline that inherits traditional dialect atlases; dialectology transcends the work on grounds to scrutinize the way linguistic variables function in speech. Since speech styles have social meaning that marks speakers’ social and personal identity, dialectology as an illustrious field of research is related to many other disciplines to study the analysis of these markers: such as anthropology, folklore, linguistics, phonology, sociology, psychology, history, sociolinguistics, education and literature. This paper, thus, highlights the relationship of dialectology to other disciplines of language in linguistic studies like sociolinguistics and education.
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