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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 197915 matches for " Ildefonso; álvarez-Dardet Díaz "
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Valoración de los objetivos de desarrollo del milenio mediante la revisión de la literatura científica en 2008
Gil-González,Diana; Carrasco-Porti?o,Mercedes; Davó Blanes,Ma Carmen; Donat Castelló,Lucas; Franco-Giraldo,álvaro; Ortiz Moncada,Rocio; Palma Solís,Marco; Ruiz-Cantero,Ma Teresa; Vives-Cases,Carmen; Stein,Airton; Hernández Aguado,Ildefonso; álvarez-Dardet Díaz,Carlos;
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1135-57272008000500002
Abstract: the millennium development goals (mdgs) are now at the midterm of their target period, as 2015 is the date scheduled by the united nations organisation (un) for their attainment. the purpose of this article is to review the current situation of the mdgs worldwide and to analyse the barriers which are preventing them from being attained in each of the mdg areas, as well as to assess a number of the indicators evaluated. in order to do so, a review has been made of the scientific literature published on the mdgs in the principal health sciences and social sciences databases, as well as the most significant reports on the issue drawn up by the united nations. the scientific studies on the 8 mdgs and their 18 targets make it possible to undertake a critical analysis of the situation in which each of these goals are found at the present time, identifying the determinants that are preventing the attainment of the goals and the actions considered necessary in order to achieve progress. although there have been improvements in some of the goals on a world level, the research carried out to date reveals barriers to the attainment of the mdgs, as well as the insufficient weight of the developing countries in the economic and political decision-making processes, together with the incoherence between the economic policies and the social and health policies. furthermore, sub-saharan africa constitutes the most disadvantaged region, which means that it will not attain the majority of the mdgs. spain and the developed countries, in addition to contributing resources, can also contribute to the mdgs by means of the identification and eradication of the barriers preventing attainment. this involves promoting international economic relations under conditions of social justice, by supporting a greater decision-making power for developing countries and denouncing actions that increase social inequalities and the impoverishment of the population.
EDITORIAL
CRISTINA GONZáLEZ DíAZ,LORENA MELéNDEZ,CARLOS áLVAREZ-DARDET
Hacia la Promoción de la Salud , 2012,
Abstract:
La opacidad de los acuerdos generales de bienes y servicios en Espa?a
Uma?a Pe?a,Román Andrés; álvarez-Dardet Díaz,Carlos; Vives Cases,Carmen;
Gaceta Sanitaria , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0213-91112006000300009
Abstract: objective: to explore the intensity of the debate in the spanish parliament on the general agreement on trade in services (gats) developed by spain and the world trade organization, and to compare it with the debate on the general agreement on tariffs and trade (gatt). methods: a systematic search and content analysis were performed of all parliamentary initiatives on gats and gatt undertaken from 1979 to 2004 in the spanish parliament and senate. the frequency and percentages of initiatives on both issues were calculated, and the final result and kinds of initiative were analyzed. results: a total of 185 initiatives were presented in the spanish parliament on these agreements, of which 120 were on gatt, 8 were on gats and 57 were on both agreements. most of these initiatives were not discussed in parliament (gatt, 71%; gats, 55.4%) or were the subject of political debate with low participation among parliamentary groups. conclusions: despite the implications of the gats for spanish health policy, the agreement was developed with little prior political debate, which was even less intense than that on gatt. the parliamentary function of controlling the government should be reaffirmed in spain.
Los sistemas de género y/en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud
Ruiz Cantero,María Teresa; Papí Gálvez,Natalia; Carbrera Ruiz,Virginia; Ruiz Martínez,Ana; álvarez-Dardet Díaz,Carlos;
Gaceta Sanitaria , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0213-91112006000600003
Abstract: objective: to analyze the spanish national health interview survey (nhis) from a gender perspective, with special emphasis on gender division of labor. method: we analyzed the 2003 spanish nhis from the perspective of the levels of gender observation, with gender understood as: a) the basis of social norms (responsibilities by sex, health risks, and problems related to masculine/feminine roles); b) the organizer of the social structure: gender division of labor, work overload, vertical/horizontal segregation, time spent in activities according to social times, access to resources), and c) a component of individual identity (conflicts due to multiple roles, body image dissatisfaction, self-esteem, self-perceived recognition of the work performed, assimilation of the sexual gender role, sex differences in health conditions). results: the spanish nhis is centered on the main provider, referred to in masculine grammatical form. gender division of domestic labor is identified only by a general question. when using the concept of main activity for productive or reproductive work, the survey requires respondents to evaluate them and select only one, thus losing information and hampering analysis of the impact of an overload of work on health. information on time used for reproductive work and leisure is not solicited. assaults (intentional) and accidents (non-intentional) are combined in the same question, thus preventing research on gender-related violence. conclusions: the spanish nhis includes the variable of sex, but its more descriptive than analytic focus limits gender analysis. the survey allows specific circumstances of employment-related inequalities between sexes to be measured, but does not completely allow other indicators of gender inequalities, such as the situation of housewives or work overload, to be measured.
Assessment criteria for public policies on obesity: the view of Spanish stakeholders
González-Zapata,Laura I.; álvarez-Dardet Díaz,Carlos; Clemente,Vicente; Davo,Mari Carmen; Ortiz-Moncada,Rocío;
Gaceta Sanitaria , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0213-91112008000400003
Abstract: aim: to explore the criteria used to assess public policy initiatives on obesity in spain by the main stakeholders. methods: multicriteria mapping was performed within the framework of the european porgrow project ?policy options for responding to obesity? through a structured interview with 21 stakeholders, who were leaders in the public and private sectors in spain in the area of food and physical exercise. qualitative and quantitative information was included in the analysis. the interviewees justified their positions for or against the various policy options with criteria that were weighted by their relative importance and documented with quotations and ?nuggets? from the interviewees' discourse. results: we identified 93 criteria for policy selection in the 21 interviewees. the most frequent criteria and those perceived as most important were efficacy (n = 18), social benefits (n = 17) and social acceptability (n = 14). the economic impact on individuals and the public sector was not considered important by the interviewees. the economic impact on the commercial sector was not included by any of the participants. the criterion most highly valued by public sector stakeholders was societal benefits while that most valued by private sector stakeholders was efficacy. conclusions: spain is in the initial stages of developing public policy on obesity and, as yet, there are no winners and losers among those concerned, which may explain why economic costs seem to be relatively unimportant for the stake-holders, opening a window of opportunity for the development of regulatory policies.
Epidemiología de las desigualdades del desarrollo de género en Espa?a (1990-2000)
Carrasco-Porti?o,Mercedes; Ruiz-Cantero,María Teresa; Gil-González,Diana; álvarez-Dardet Díaz,Carlos; Torrubiano-Domínguez,Jordi;
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1135-57272008000300005
Abstract: background: gender is an important health determinant for public health policies. this study describes the changes in gender development inequalities in spain and its autonomous regions from 1990 to 2000. methods: an ecological study using the human development index (hdi) and the gender development index (gdi) was done. idg both men and women was analysed according to indexes of education, income and life expectancy at birth. results: although the gdi has had an increase of 5,05% in the 90′s, 51,5% of the population was located above the global gdi of spain in 1990, moreover this number decreased to 46,3% in 2000. gender inequalities have been reduced both at national and regional levels. the regions with the lowest increase were asturias (3.37%), cantabria (3.68%) and baleares islands (3.71%). the regions with the highest increase were madrid (6,46%) and extremadura (6,75%). all the autonomous regions showed a number of gdi lower than the value of hdi. both sexes achieved similar increase in life expectancy (men: 5% and women: 4%). an unequal variation was detected according to the autonomous region (basque country; men: 7% and women: 3%; madrid; men:8% and women:5%). women have improved their educational level in comparison to men (men: 3% and women: 6%). in the 90s, men obtained more income than women, but women improved their situation three times more than men. conclusions: inequalities in human development analysed by gender have been reduced in the 90s in spain. however, the improvement of education, income and life expectancy occurred only in some autonomous regions. this situation shows the differences among spanish autonomous regions.
Factores económicos relacionados con los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio en salud: una revisión bibliográfica
Palma,Marco; Hernández,Ildefonso; álvarez-Dardet,Carlos; Gil-González,Diana; Ruiz,María T.; Medina,Manuel;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892009000800009
Abstract: objectives: to systematize all the information published on the status of and progress made toward the health-related millennium development goals (hmdgs), as well as to understand associations with certain economic factors and the potential for success. methods: a search was conducted for all scientific articles covering the millennium development goals in general, published from 1 january 2000 to 31 august 2006, in the electronic databases of the ebsco, csa illumina, thomson gale, swetswise, and bireme. all original articles in english or spanish that evaluated hmdg status, progress, and determinants were selected. the analysis evaluated the distribution of determinants of hmdg status or progress, the hmdgs referred to, the study type, the relationship between economic indicators and health, the study location, and the status and potential for attaining the hmdgs. the quality of the articles was also rated. results: of the 304 original articles found, 114 (37.5%) covered one or more hmdgs. the most frequently addressed goals were those concerning infant and maternal mortality. of the 39 articles that evaluated hmdgs and their association with economic variables, 13 dealt with economic factors related to equity, policy, or globalization. economic and policy factors were most frequently associated with hmdg status or progress. conclusions: there is a definitive trend toward measuring hmdg status and progress according to economic factors that reflect the population's condition. there is an information gap regarding government spending, international commerce, international aid, and global economic policy. the potential for achieving hmdgs in poor countries is low.
Armadilha das piramides
Harzheim, Erno;álvarez-Dardet, Carlos;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2001000400035
Abstract: this paper discusses the impact of globalization on public health practice. neoliberal supremacy has resulted in both greater interdependence between countries and increasing inequalities. globalization of health risks and the dependence of local health conditions on external forces precludes the use of local/national solutions for global problems. in this context, the classical organization of public health services in a hierarchical pyramid based on geographically defined areas (from the local to the regional and national levels) no longer makes sense. we thus suggest some characteristics of a different type of organization based on new information technologies: a transnational network, horizontally shaped, more independent from political power, allowing for exchange of information and good practices, promoting dissemination of knowledge and producing "glocal" solutions. through the creation of work opportunities between health professionals, the model will permit the creation of common strategies and increase the power of their political demands, perhaps allowing for the collective development of a more equitable world.
La salud persecutoria
Castiel,Luis David; álvarez-Dardet,Carlos;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102006005000029
Abstract: a critical approach from the standpoint of social philosophy is taken aiming at analyzing aspects of current production of knowledge and technologies in health promotion. its capacity of generating perplexities, dilemmas and dissatisfactions is also evaluated, despite its strength and effectiveness in many levels. the analysis is based on ivan illich's "social iatrogenesis," peter skrabanek's "coercive healthism," and giorgio agamben's theoretical approach of "homo sacer" - a man whose life is worthless. the limits and dilemmas of the idea of personal responsibility are discussed as a persuasion strategy in health promotion discourses and practices. all these proposals produce "persecutory health" as a side effect.
Las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación en salud pública: las precariedades del exceso
Castiel,Luis David; álvarez-Dardet,Carlos;
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1135-57272005000300002
Abstract: a critique of the possible side-effects of the current use of communications and information technologies in health and the implications thereof for public health theory and practice. the idea of excess and it scarcities is invoked from the sociological perspectives of ellul, illich and bauman, as a way of monitoring the changes wrought by the general use of technical objects and the communication strategies. particular emphasis is placed on the role of scientific journalism in the dissemination of biotechnology-related subject matter. some suggestions are also made for setting out guidelines for regulating this activity. additionally, under the heading of framing, relevant persuasive dimensions are presented which may interfere with the modern communication-related practices in health. by virtue of the involvement of other aspects within the scope of excess and its scarcities in public health, such as in the case of nutrition or the emerging diseases, emphasis is placed on the role played by public health specialists in studying health-related matters from this viewpoint as perhaps one of the ways of contributing toward a global epidemiology.
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