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(geographic) and vertical (geonemic) spatial distribution of the integral
properties of a large multispecies assemblage (1306 species of fish and
invertebrate with body size ≥ 1 cm) from northwest Pacific sea bottom is investigated. There are total number and biomass, average animal size (mean
individual weight), species diversity (Shannon’s index) and its components:
species richness and evenness (Pielou’s index), i.e. generalized parameters describing benthic macrofauna as a
whole. Correlations of these parameters with distance from shore and depth have
been found as well as very weak latitudinal zonality display in the region.
Even such well-known generalization as Humboldt-Wallace’s law and Bergman’s rule
has no noticeable manifestations here. Earlier similar, but not identical,
regularities were discovered in the northwest Pacific pelagic water layer.
Collation of what there is in the two different sea zones results in new
supplements to Zenkevich-Bogorov’s concept of biological structure of the
Multimoment hydrodynamics equations are applied to investigate the phenomena of appearance and development of instability in problem on a flow around a solid sphere at rest. The simplest solution to the multimoment hydrodynamics equations coincides with the Stokes solution to the classic hydrodynamics equations in the limit of small Reynolds number values, . Solution to the multimoment hydrodynamics equations reproduces recirculating zone in the wake behind the sphere having the form of an axisymmetric toroidal vortex ring. The solution remains stable while the entropy production in the system exceeds the entropy outflow through the surface confining the system. The passage of the first critical value is accompanied by the solution stability loss. The solution, when loses its stability, reproduces periodic pulsations of the periphery of the recirculating zone in the wake behind the sphere. The and solutions to the multimoment hydrodynamics equations interpret a vortex shedding. After the second critical value is reached, the solution at the periphery of the recirculating zone and in the far wake is replaced by the solution. In accordance with the solution, the periphery of the recirculating zone periodically detached from the core and moves downstream in the form of a vortex ring. After the attainment of the third critical value , the solution at the periphery of the recirculating zone and in the far wake is replaced by the solution. In accordance with the solution, vortex rings penetrate into each other and form the continuous vortex sheet in the wake behind the sphere. The replacement of one unstable flow regime by another unstable regime is governed the tendency of the system to discover the fastest path to depart from the state of statistical equilibrium. Having lost the stability, the system does not reach a new stable position. Such a scenario differs from the ideas of classic hydrodynamics, which interprets the development of instability in terms of bifurcations from one stable state to another stable state. Solutions to the multimoment hydrodynamics equations indicate the direction of instability development, which qualitatively reproduces the experimental data in a wide range of Re values. The problems encountered by classic hydrodynamics when interpreting the observed instability development process are solved on the way toward an increase in the number of principle hydrodynamic values.
In this paper, developed wireless portable infrared pyrometer with dual channel fiber optic is described. The pyrometer measures surface temperature in wide infrared spectral range of 2 - 25 um. A data processing algorithm based on the methods of synchronous detection providing accuracy <0.1°C within the range of 10°C - 50°C and with time constant of 1 sec was developed. Flexible fiber optic allows measuring the temperature in difficult-to-access places.