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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5729 matches for " Igor Shumakov "
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New Tasks and New Codes for RFQ Beam Simulation
Boris Bondarev,Alexander Durkin,Stanislav Vinogradov,Igor Shumakov
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: Proton linear accelerator is the base Accelerator Driven Power System (ADS). Such ADS are dedicated to various purposes: weapon plutonium conversion, "energy amplifier", transmutation of radionuclear wastes etc. Solution of these tasks requires proton beams with energy 1 GeV and average current up to 30 mA. At the moment there are no problems of fundamental nature in such linac construction. The main problems have economic and technical aspects. Problems of CW linac will be demonstrated on the base beam dynamics requirements. New code package LIDOS.RFQ.Designer makes possible to simulate beam dynamics in RF fields of real vane shape (including gaps between RFQ section) as well as to determine channel parameters tolerances for reliable operation
On the Chain Length and Rate of Ozone Depletion in the Main Stratospheric Cycles  [PDF]
Igor Larin
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2013.31016
Abstract: Algorithm for calculation of the chain length and rate of stratospheric ozone depletion in Ox, HOx, NOx, ClOx and BrOx cycles has been developed. The most important new element in the theory of stratospheric chain processes is the correct determination the propagation rate, taking into account all reactions involved rather than a single reaction, which has the lowest rate, as it was usually done before. The role of null chain processes in the cycles has been considered and shown that these processes play a decisive role in formation of families of the odd oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine and bromine in the daytime while at night they play no role. Using two-dimensional model Socrates, and algorithm developed correct rate of ozone depletion and chain length in the cycles above for model conditions of June 2020 at 50N have been calculated.

On the Relationship between Statistical and Phenomenological Models of the Thermodynamic Systems  [PDF]
Igor Samkhan
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.47A2006
Abstract:

The paper deals with the performing of a critical analysis of the problems arising in matching the classical models of the statistical and phenomenological thermodynamics. The performed analysis shows that some concepts of the statistical and phenomenological methods of describing the classical systems do not quite correlate with each other. Particularly, in these methods various caloric ideal gas equations of state are employed, while the possibility existing in the thermodynamic cyclic processes to obtain the same distributions both due to a change of the particle concentration and owing to a change of temperature is not allowed for in the statistical methods. The above-mentioned difference of the equations of state is cleared away when using in the statistical functions corresponding to the canonical Gibbs equations instead of the Planck’s constant a new scale factor that depends on the parameters of a system and coincides with the Planck’s constant in going of the system to the degenerate state. Under such an approach, the statistical entropy is transformed into one of the forms of heat capacity. In its turn, the agreement of the methods under consideration in the question as to the dependence of the molecular distributions on the concentration of particles, apparently, will call for further refinement of the physical model of ideal gas and the techniques for its statistical description.

How Concerned, Afraid and Hopeful Are We? Effects of Egoism and Altruism on Climate Change Related Issues  [PDF]
Igor Knez
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.410106
Abstract:

The idea that concerns for and emotional reactions to climate change may be due to environment-related egoism and altruism was tested. Participants assessed as “high” on egoism were shown to be more concerned for myself-related issues and afraid of the climate change impact on their local environment, indicating a self-benefit goal motive. Participants assessed as “high” on altruism were those more concerned for issues related to others and nature and more afraid and less hopeful for the whole world, indicating a pro-social goal motive in this group of individuals. This indicates that environment-related value orientations of egoism and altruism may prompt concerns and convey feelings differently about the climate change issue. Accordingly, when encouraging sustainable development, policy and pro-environmental actions, we have to bear in mind people’s world views grounded in environment-related selfishness vs. unselfishness; indicating different goal-directed motives in climate change decision making.

Black Holes—Information Models  [PDF]
Igor Gurevich
Open Journal of Microphysics (OJM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojm.2013.34019
Abstract:

Estimation of the volume of information in black holes is necessary for generation of restrictions for their formation, development and interconversion. Information is an integral part of the Universe. By its physical essence information is heterogeneity of matter and energy. The universal measure of physical heterogeneity of information is the Shannon in- formation entropy. It is important to note that the Neumann entropy cannot be applied as the universal measure of het- erogeneity because it is equal to zero for structured pure state. Therefore information is inseparably connected with matter and energy. The informatics laws of nature are: the basic law of Zeilinger’s quantum mechanics postulates that the elementary physical system (in particular, fundamental particles: quarks, leptons,…) bears one bit of information, the law of simplicity of complex systems, the law of uncertainty (information) conservation, the law of finiteness of complex systems characteristics, the law of necessary variety by W. Ashby, and the theorem of K. Gödel. The law of finiteness of complex systems characteristics and the principle of necessary variety by W. Ashby impose restrictions on the topology and symmetry of the universe. The author’s works testify about the practicality of information laws simultaneously with physical rules for cognition of the Universe. The results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of informational approach to studying the black holes. The article discusses the following questions: The volume of information in the black hole, Emission and absorption of usual substance by a black hole, Formation and development (changing) of black holes, Black hole merger. Black hole is called optimal if information content is minimal at the Uni

A Simple Explanation of the Information Paradox by the Information Model of a Black Hole  [PDF]
Igor Gurevich
Open Journal of Microphysics (OJM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojm.2014.43004
Abstract:
The information paradox first surfaced in the early 1970s when Stephen Hawking of Cambridge University suggested that black holes are not totally black. Hawking showed that particle-antiparticle pairs generated at the event horizon—the outer periphery of a black hole—would be separated. One particle would fall into the black hole while the other would escape, making the black hole a radiating body. Characteristics of the emission and absorption of usual substance by a black hole can be described by information models. Estimation of the volume of information in black holes is necessary for generation of restrictions for their formation, development and interconversion. Information is an integral part of the Universe. By its physical essence information is heterogeneity of matter and energy. Therefore information is inseparably connected with matter and energy. An information approach along with a physical one allows to obtain new, sometimes more general data in relation to data obtained on the ground of physical rules only. The author’s works, testify about the practicality of information laws usage simultaneously with physical rules for cognition of the Universe. The results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of informational approach for studying the black holes. The article discusses the following questions: The volume of information in the black hole; Information model of a black hole; Characteristics of the emission and absorption of usual substance by a black hole describes the information model of a black hole; The information paradox; A simple explanation of the information paradox by the information model of a black hole.
Is Climate Change a Moral Issue? Effects of Egoism and Altruism on Pro-Environmental Behavior  [PDF]
Igor Knez
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2016.42012
Abstract: Do value orientations of egoism and altruism affect pro-environmental behaviour? The answer is “yes”, according to the results obtained. Corresponding to the self-benefit goal hypothesis, egoistic individuals (rated “high” on egoism) were shown to perceive having less control; that is, they believed that it was too difficult as well as pointless to do much about environmental issues. They were also less willing to pay higher taxes and prices as well as cut their standard of living for environmental protection. In contrast, and along the lines of empathy-altruism hypothesis, altruistic individuals (rated “high” on altruism) were shown to perceive having more control and showed a greater willingness to make sacrifices. Egoistic compared to altruistic individuals were also shown to be less prepared not to drive their car for environmental reasons. This suggests that a deontic proposition of “we should behave pro-environmentally” is recognized as a moral issue by the altruistic individuals, but not by the egoistic ones. Accordingly, when promoting sustainable policy and “ethical” decision making, it is important to take into account imperatives of egoism and altruism involved in climate-change-related decision making.
Demand Function for Croatian Tourist Product: A Panel Data Approach Aper Title  [PDF]
Lorena ?kufli?, Igor ?tokovi?
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.21008
Abstract: Croatia as a small country with GDP of 14.255 US $ per capita and 44.6 milliard Euro of gross external debt has a strong need for a development process and construction of production bases which, in the future, will be capable to generate revenue for the return of foreign debt. As a small country, with relatively low produc- tion potential, the service sector seems the only way for achieving the necessary income to servicing foreign debt, and to start new development cycle. In Croatia, tourism sector participates with approximately 3% in the structure of GDP, while revenues from tourism has been growing constantly, from 10.6% (1996) to 22% (2008) in GDP. This sector employs about 3.5 of total employees and has a significant multiplicative effect on the overall economy, where the multiplier of tourist consumption is around 2.5. According to statistics, tourism activity tends to grow faster than the total Croatian production. The high import dependence and the weak export propulsive of goods, in last decade, had a negative impact on external trade sector, furthermore, the trade deficit reached 7.3 billion Euros, while revenues from tourism amounted 6.4 billion Euros (2009). In the Mediterranean basin the most significant Croatian competitors are France, Spain and Italy, states that are also among the five most desirable destinations in the world, while Croatia with 11 million arrivals and 56.3 million overnights (2009), was ranked around 20th place. Tourism is a sector that involves a multiplic-ity of economic activities responding to differentiated demands with specific characteristics at the national and international levels. Identifying the main determinants of tourism demand is becoming imperative for the country whose development process depends heavily on tourist revenues. Tourism brings obvious economic benefits, with the two most important being the generation of foreign exchange and revenues as well as the creation of jobs. Therefore, it is no surprise that tourism is an important economic activity in many parts of the world, including Croatia. Given the importance of the tourism, the aim of this paper is to design the model of demand for Croatian tourist product.
Acousto-Optic Measurement Device with High Angular Resolution  [PDF]
Gennady Kaloshin, Igor Lukin
Journal of Sensor Technology (JST) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jst.2012.22008
Abstract: The paper introduces a new laser interferometry-based method for diagnosis of random media by means of high accuracy angle measurements and describes the results of its development and testing. Theoretical calculations of the dependence of the range of the laser interferometer on laser beam parameters, device geometry, and atmospheric turbulence characteristics are reported. It is demonstrated that at moderate turbulence intensities corresponding to those observed most frequently in turbulent atmosphere at moderate latitudes and with low interference contrast values, the performance range of the laser interferometer-based device exceeds 5 km.
Restoration of Time-Spatial Scales in Global Temperature Data  [PDF]
Igor Zurbenko, Ming Luo
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2012.13013
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to utilize images of spatial and temporal fluctuations of temperature over the Earth to study the global climate variation. We illustrated that monthly temperature observations from weather stations could be decomposed as components with different time scales based on their spectral distribution. Kolmogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filters were applied to smooth and interpolate gridded temperature data to construct global maps for long-term (≥ 6 years) trends and El Nino-like (2 to 5 years) movements over the time period of 1893 to 2008. Annual temperature seasonality, latitude and altitude effects have been carefully accounted for to capture meaningful spatiotemporal patterns of climate variability. The result revealed striking facts about global temperature anomalies for specific regions. Correlation analysis and the movie of thermal maps for El Nino-like component clearly supported the existence of such climate fluctuations in time and space.
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