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Influence of the number of players in decision making and performance in the teaching of handball INFLUENCIA DEL NúMERO DE JUGADORES/AS EN LA TOMA DE DECISIONES Y EL RENDIMIENTO EN LA ENSE ANZA DEL BALONMANO [Influence of the number of players in decision making and performance in the teaching of handball]
Javier Aguilar,Luis Javier Chirosa,Ignacio Martín,Ignacio Chirosa
E-balonmano.com : Revista de Ciencias del Deporte , 2012,
Abstract: Handball is a sport in which many actions occur with speed and the pressure of time and space. It constitutes a special context in the decisions making of the players. The aim of this study was to analyze the performance and decision making using the Game Performance Assessment Instrument (GPAI), in situations of numerical equality (three against three) and numerical inequality (three against two) during 396 cycles of game performed by12 students of High School. Significant differences were obtained between the situations of numerical equality and inequality in three of the seven indices: in Decision Making (p=0,047), Technical Execution (p=0,032) and in Mark (p=0,050). In the first two indices the differences were in favor of numerical inequality situations and in the third, the differences were favorable in the situations of numerical equality. Finally, it could be concluded that GPAI is a valid instrument of assessing for an educational context offering an alternative to the evaluation model orientated exclusively towards the skills. Key words: GPAI, Physical Education, numerical Equality-Inequality. El balonmano es un deporte en el que se producen numerosas acciones a gran velocidad, en las que la presión del tiempo y el espacio están muy presentes, constituyendo un contexto especial en la toma de decisiones de los jugadores/as. El objetivo principal del estudio fue estudiar el rendimiento y la toma de decisiones en balonmano usando el Game Perfomance Assessment Instrument (GPAI), en situaciones reducidas de igualdad numérica (tres contra tres) y desigualdad numérica (tres contra dos) durante 396 ciclos de juego realizados por 12 alumnos/as de Bachillerato. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las situaciones de igualdad y desigualdad numérica en tres de los siete índices del GPAI: Toma de Decisiones (p=0,047), Ejecución Técnica (p=0,032) y Marcaje (p=0,050). En los dos primeros índices los resultados fueron favorables a las situaciones de desigualdad numérica, mientras que en el tercero los resultados fueron favorables a las situaciones de igualdad numérica. Por otra parte, el GPAI puede constituir una herramienta válida de evaluación dentro del contexto educativo ofreciendo una alternativa a la evaluación de modelos orientados exclusivamente hacia la técnica. Palabras clave: GPAI, Educación Física, Igualdad -Desigualdad numérica
ESTIMACIóN DE LA FRECUENCIA CARDIACA MáXIMA INDIVIDUAL EN SITUACIONES INTEGRADAS DE JUEGO EN DEPORTES COLECTIVOS: UNA PROPUESTA PRáCTICA Estimation of the players maximum heart rate in real game situations in team sports: a practical propose
Jorge Cuadrado Reyes,Luis Javier Chirosa Ríos,Ignacio Jesús Chirosa Ríos,Ignacio Martín Tamayo
E-balonmano.com : Revista de Ciencias del Deporte , 2011,
Abstract: Resumen En el presente estudio se propone una ecuación logarítmica para el cálculo de la frecuencia cardiaca máxima (FC máx) de forma indirecta en jugadores de deportes de equipo en situaciones integradas de juego. La muestra experimental estuvo formada por trece jugadores (24± 3 a os) pertenecientes a un equipo de División de Honor B de balonmano. Se midió la FC máx inicialmente por medio de la prueba de Course Navette. Posteriormente, se realizaron veintiuna sesiones de entrenamiento en las que se registró la FC, de forma continua, y la percepción subjetiva del esfuerzo (RPE), en cada tarea. Se realizó un análisis de regresión lineal que permitió encontrar una ecuación de predicción de la FC máx. a partir de las frecuencias cardiacas máximas de las tres sesiones de mayor intensidad. Los datos previstos por esta ecuación correlacionan significativamente con los datos obtenidos en el Course Navette y tienen menor error típico de medida que otros métodos de cálculo. Como conclusión principal se destaca que esta ecuación posibilita una manera útil y cómoda del cálculo de FC máx en situaciones reales de juego, evitándose la realización de test analíticos no específicos y, de este modo, reducir la falta de ecología en la valoración funcional. Palabras clave: control del entrenamiento, valoración funcional, fórmula predictiva Abstract This research developed a logarithms for calculating the maximum heart rate (max. HR) for players in team sports in game situations. The sample was made of thirteen players (aged 24 ± 3 ) to a Division Two Handball team. HR was initially measured by Course Navette test. Later, twenty one training sessions were conducted in which HR and Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE), were continuously monitored, in each task. A lineal regression analysis was done to help find a max. HR prediction equation from the max. HR of the three highest intensity sessions. Results from this equation correlate significantly with data obtained in the Course Navette test and with those obtained by other indirect methods. The conclusion of this research is that this equation provides a very useful and easy way to measure the max. HR in real game situations, avoiding non-specific analytical tests and, therefore laboratory testing.. Key words: workout control, functional evaluation, prediction equation.
Effects of the creatine oral supplement in handball players to improve jump EFECTO DEL SUPLEMENTO ORAL DE CREATINA A JUGADORES DE BALONMANO PARA LA MEJORA DEL SALTO
L. J. Chirosa,I. J. Chirosa,P. Padial,A. Pozo
Motricidad : European Journal of Human Movement , 2010,
Abstract: The knowledge of the efficiency creatine supplements for the improvement of the performanceis the main motive that it has carried us to accomplish this study. There is a huge controversy in this regard. To prove its efficiency have been used N = 10 (20 ± 2y) (82Kg.± 5Kg.) trained subjects, Team Handbal players (1st National Division). The protocol has been the following: They have been divided the subjects in two groups G1 = 5 and G2= 5 in a random way. To the G1 have been administered 4 x 5 g per day of creatine monohydratate (CRH2O) during five days. To the G2 (control group) has been administered glucose. A pretest and a posttest were done after ending the feed. In the tests were controlled the following parameters: SJ and CMJ in a platform of pressure and the corporal weight in kgs. Al the subjects accomplished the same training (6 days of training: 3 of them destined to improve strength). Once completed t Student for independent samples, the results did not show meaningful improvements in the variables analyzed. These results demonstrate that an increase in the capacity of the fosfogenolitic route by exogenous way it is not possible in explosive movements in Team handbal players. KEY WORDS: Handbal, Supplements Creatine, Training, Explosive Power. El conocimiento de la efectividad de los suplementos de creatina para la mejora del rendimiento es el principal motivo que nos ha llevado a realizar este estudio. La controversia existente al respecto es grande. Para comprobar su eficacia se han utilizado N = 10 (20 ± 2 a.) (82 Kg. ± 5 kgr.) sujetos entrenados, jugadores de balonmano (1a División Nacional). El protocolo seg uido ha sido el siguiente: Se han dividido los sujetos en dos grupos G1 = 5 y G2= 5 de forma aleatoria. Al G1 se le han administrado 4 x 5 g./día de creatina monohidratada (CRH20) durante cinco días. Al G2 o grupo control (placebo) se le ha administrado glucosa. A todos los sujetos se le realizó un pretest y un postest, dos días después de finalizar las ingestas. En los tests se controlaron los siguientes parámetros: SJ y CMJ en una alfombrilla de presión y el peso corporal en kg. Durante el periodo comprendido entre los dos test todos los sujetos realizaron el mismo entrenamiento (6 días de entrenamiento: 3 de ellos destinados al trabajo de fuerza). Dicho periodo coincidió, de forma intencionada con un microciclo de choque (McCH) dentro de un bloque de fuerza. Una vez realizada t Student para muestras independientes, los resultados no mostraron mejoras significativas en ninguna de las variables analizadas. Estos resultados demuestra
EFECTO DEL ENTRENAMIENTO INTEGRADO SOBRE LA MEJORA DE LA FUERZA DE IMPULSIóN EN UN LANZAMIENTO EN SUSPENSIóN EN BALONMANO
I. J. Chirosa,L. J. Chirosa,P. Padial
Motricidad : European Journal of Human Movement , 2010,
Abstract: RESUMEN Se ha analizado el efecto de dos tipos diferentes de entrenamiento en balonmano, uno que integra carga física y técnica dentro del mismo ejercicio (entrenamiento integrado), y otro que sigue los cánones tradicionales (entrenamiento de fuerza y entrenamiento técnico se trabajan por separado). Se trataba de comprobar el efecto de entrenar cargas pesadas más lanzamiento inmediato dentro de una acción táctica y contrastar esto con un método de entrenamiento más tradicional en balonmano. Muestra: 16 sujetos (16-17a os), varones, pertenecientes al CDU de Granada. Procedimiento: Dos grupos de 8 sujetos cada uno, el primer grupo es el experimental que realiza el entrenamiento integrado (EI) y el segundo grupo es el de control (GC) que realiza el entrenamiento tradicional, ambos grupos entrenaron 2 veces a la semana, durante 7 semanas consecutivas. La intensidad del entrenamiento y la carga fue la misma para los dos grupos. Se realizaron medidas de la altura de salto en SJ, CMJ, SJ25, SJ50 y AB en la 3 y 7a semana de entrenamiento, con plataforma de presión. Resultados: Con el entrenamiento integrado se produce un incremento muy significativo en todas manifest incremento mejor que el grupo en el con carga. nes: El entrenamiento integrado con cargas del de la manifestaciones de fuerza dinámica. Para jóvenes jugadores de balonmano se presenta como un método muy interesante de mejora de la fuerza máxima dinámica. PALABRAS CLAVE: ABSTRACT Researchers analyzed different methodologies handball training. One method combines strength and technique the same (integrated training) the other traditional principles separate training and practice. during technical action contrast that a more traditional method of handball training. Subjects: 16 Aged Members of CDU Granada Sport Club Granada). into groups of 8 members each. One group served the control (GC), training to traditional principles, and other group the experimental doing integrated Both groups trained two times a week for seven consecutive The intensity and weight training for both of the groups was the same. The measures were ght of jump in CMJ, SJ25, and AB the third seventh week training, with platform pressure.Results: The doing the training experienced increases in types of strength training, in AB. This increase was better in the control group in the load jumps. Conclusions: The integrated training with weights (70% of 1RM) throws improved differents sort dinamic force.This study indicates younger handball might improve play, in respect to maximum force, by training with the integrated method. KEY
Effect of different training methods.for improving the performance in vertical jump force Efecto de diferentes métodos de entrenamiento de contraste para la mejora de la fuerza de impulsión en un salto vertical
L.J. Chirosa,I. J. Chirosa,B. Requena,B. Feriche
Motricidad : European Journal of Human Movement , 2010,
Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to determine the effect of two types of strength training on the different manifestations of dynamic force in which light loads (repetitive jumps) and heavy loads are combined (Squat 70% of the 1RM). The study sample was selected from the Spanish Army (n=30: 15 males in each group, 22 ± 4 years of age), for which no control group existed. The reason for the lack of group control is sufficiently verified by scientific literature demonstrating that strength training produces significant gains in the height of the jump. The manipulated independent variable is the form of combination of the loads. In group 1 the combination of loads is made in the same set, and in group 2 the combination of loads is made in different sets, thereby determining which method, of both used, is more effective. Procedure: Both experimental groups trained 3 times per week, during 8 consecutive weeks. The intensity of the training and the load were the same for both groups. The height of the jumps was measured by means of an electronic platform at the beginning of the experiment and in the 4th and 8th weeks. Measures were made following the Bosco protocol: Squat Jump (SJ), Contramovement Jump (CMJ), Squat Jump with 50% of body weight (SJ50), Squat Jump with 100% of body weight (SJ100) and the maximum force of the lower limbs by means of a maximum repetition -1RM in Squats. Results: After the corresponding statistical analysis, made the t-Student, it was observed that of all the variables studied a significant increase took place (p<.001). In the comparison between groups, group 1 obtained gains in height more quickly, although ultimately the results between both groups were equal. However, with respect to the maximum force obtained, group 1 obtained higher increases (p<.001). Conclusions: The different manifestations of dynamic force improve significantly with both methods. Group 1 training produces faster adaptations in explosive force and higher increases in the maximum force than in group 2 training. KEY WORDS: Training, strength, vertical jump. La finalidad del presente estudio es conocer el efecto de dos tipos de entrenamiento de contraste de fuerza en los que se combinan cargas ligeras (multisaltos) con cargas pesadas (sentadillas al 70% del 1RM) sobre las distintas manifestaciones de la fuerza dinámica. La muestra seleccionada se extrajo del Ejercito Espa ol de Tierra, divididos en dos grupos experimentales (n=30: 15 en cada grupo, varones, 22 ± 4 a os de edad), sin que existiera para ello grupo control. La razón de este dise o, sin grupo c
Functional profile determination "trained" and "untrained" by the speed of the bar on the bench press DETERMINACIóN DEL PERFIL FUNCIONAL “ENTRENADOS” Y “NO ENTRENADOS” SEGúN LA VELOCIDAD DE LA BARRA EN EL PRESS DE BANCA [Functional profile determination "trained" and "untrained" by the speed of the bar on the bench press]
W. Albarracín,I Bautista,L. J. Chirosa,I. Martín
E-balonmano.com : Revista de Ciencias del Deporte , 2012,
Abstract: A descriptive study was designed to explore differences in strength, power and velocity in an incremental load protocol in bench press (PB), to obtain an indicator to catalogue a subject as “trained“ or “untrained” in the PB exercise.. Thirty male subjects consisted two groups, “trained group”, consisted of the participants whose one repetition maximum (1RM) exceeded his body weight (BW) and “untrained group” consisted of participants whose 1RM was less than their BW. The value of 1RM was 82.33 ± 11.09 kg and 59.67 ± 5.16 kg, in the trained and untrained groups, respectively. The indicator of the level of strength (kg 1RM / kg BW) in the trained group was greater than 1, and lower in the untrained group. The average strength showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in the 60, 80% and 1RM. Average power and peak power were higher in the trained group in all analyzed intensities, with the exception of the 1RM. Average velocity and peak velocity showed significant differences between the two groups in the first two intensities analyzed. The main conclusion of this study is provides a functional profile of subjects as “trained”, when the 1RM and BW ratio is equal to or greater than 1 (1RM>BW), while when this ratio is less than 1 (1RMKeywords: 1RM, Evaluation of the strength, functional profile, manifestations of strength. Un estudio descriptivo fue dise ado para explorar diferencias en fuerza, potencia y velocidad, en un protocolo incremental de cargas en press de banca (PB), de esta forma se pretendió obtener un indicador para catalogar el perfil de un sujeto como “entrenado” y “no entrenado” en el ejercicio del PB. Treinta participantes varones conformaron los grupos; “grupo entrenados” conformado por los participantes con una repetición máxima (1RM) superior a su peso corporal (BW) y “grupo no entrenados” conformado por los participantes con 1RM menor a su BW. El valor de 1RM fue 82.33 ± 11.09 kg y 59.67 ± 5.16 kg, en el grupo entrenados y no entrenados respectivamente. El indicador del nivel de fuerza (kg 1RM / kg BW) en el grupo entrenados fue superior a 1 e inferior en el grupo no entrenados. La fuerza media mostró diferencias significativas (p < 0.05) al 60, 80% y 1RM. La potencia media y el pico máximo de potencia, fueron mayores en el grupo entrenados en todas las intensidades analizadas, exceptuando en 1RM. La velocidad media y el pico máximo de velocidad mostraron diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos en las dos primeras intensidades analizadas. La principal conclusión de este estudio, es proporcionar un perfil funcional de los sujetos
A kinetic and Kinematic analysis in two assessment situation with bench press. Free Weight vs Smith Machine. Project pilot. ANáLISIS CINéTICO Y CINEMáTICO DEL PRESS DE BANCA EN DOS SITUACIONES DE EVALUACIóN: PRESS BANCA LIBRE VS PRESS BANCA MáQUINA SMITH. PROYECTO PILOTO [A kinetic and Kinematic analysis in two assessment situation with bench press. Free Weight vs Smith Mach]
I. J. Bautista,I. J. Chirosa,J. Arguelles,J. M. Monje
E-balonmano.com : Revista de Ciencias del Deporte , 2012,
Abstract: This pilot study examines the most relevant kinetic and kinematics variables in two bench press exercises; Smith Machine (PMS) vs. free weights (PBL). Two trained subjects participated in the research following informed consent. To determine the maximum load (1-RM), two incremental protocols were used for PMS and PBL. Subject 1 (S-1) produced force values of 770N and 837N, peak force of 28ms and 12ms, in PBL and PMS respectively. Values for subject 2 (S-2) were 693N and 849N, PMF of 60ms and 66ms for PBL and PMS respectively. Detailed analyses of the following variables were performed; velocity curves for each load, the “sticking period”, the distances of grip width, and changes in bar inclination during the ascent phase of the lift were examined. The key findings of this research, and the basis for future research demonstrate that PBL is recommended as a training exercise, while more reliable information regarding force variables can be attained through using PMS in measurement sessions. Key Words: Bench Press, smith machine, free weight, strength assessment, upper limb. En este estudio piloto se analizan algunas de las variables cinéticas y cinemáticas que pueden afectar a la situación de ejecución/evaluación del Press de Banca, en máquina Smith (PMS) vs con barra y discos (PBL). Dos sujetos entrenados participaron en esta investigación habiendo sido informados previamente de la finalidad de la misma. En dos momentos se llevó a cabo un protocolo incremental de cargas hasta alcanzar su máximo peso a desplazar en una repetición (1-RM), uno para el PMS y otro para el PBL. El Sujeto 1 (S-1) manifestó valores de fuerza de 770 y 837 N, en PBL y PMS, alcanzando este pico máximo de fuerza (PMF) a los 28 y 12 ms, respectivamente. En el caso del Sujeto 2 (S-2), los valores de PMF fueron de 693 y 849 N, empleando un tiempo en alcanzar estos PMF fue de 60 y 66 ms, en PBL y PMS, respectivamente. Se realizó un análisis detallado de las curvas de “sticking period”, las distancias de agarre e inclinación de la barra. Como conclusión más relevante de nuestro trabajo y como base para futuras investigaciones, decir que a la hora de entrenar, el ejercicio en PBL puede ser más aconsejado. Mientras que para evaluar, el ejercicio en PMS aporta información más fiable en cuanto a las variables relevantes de la fuerza. Palabras Clave: Press de banca, máquina Smith, peso libre, evaluación de la fuerza, tren superior.
Revisiting the Classics to Recover the Physical Sense in Electrical Noise  [PDF]
Jose-Ignacio Izpura
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2011.26055
Abstract: This paper shows a physically cogent model for electrical noise in resistors that has been obtained from Thermodynamical reasons. This new model derived from the works of Johnson and Nyquist also agrees with the Quantum model for noisy systems handled by Callen and Welton in 1951, thus unifying these two Physical viewpoints. This new model is a Complex or 2-D noise model based on an Admittance that considers both Fluctuation and Dissipation of electrical energy to excel the Real or 1-D model in use that only considers Dissipation. By the two orthogonal currents linked with a common voltage noise by an Admittance function, the new model is shown in frequency domain. Its use in time domain allows to see the pitfall behind a paradox of Statistical Mechanics about systems considered as energy-conserving and deterministic on the microscale that are dissipative and unpredictable on the macroscale and also shows how to use properly the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem.
On the Absence of Carrier Drift in Two-Terminal Devices and the Origin of Their Lowest Resistance Per Carrier Rk=h/Q2  [PDF]
Jose Ignacio Izpura
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.38100
Abstract: After a criticism on today’s model for electrical noise in resistors, we pass to use a Quantum-compliant model based on the discreteness of electrical charge in a complex Admittance. From this new model we show that carrier drift viewed as charged particle motion in response to an electric field is unlike to occur in bulk regions of Solid-State devices where carriers react as dipoles against this field. The absence of the shot noise that charges drifting in resistors should produce and the evolution of the Phase Noise with the active power existing in the resonators of L-C oscillators, are two effects added in proof for this conduction model without carrier drift where the resistance of any two-terminal device becomes discrete and has a minimum value per carrier that is the Quantum Hall resistance Rk=h/q2 Ω
Electrical Noise, Brownian Motion and the Arrow of Time  [PDF]
Jose-Ignacio Izpura
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.62018
Abstract: The origin of the Johnson noise of resistors is reviewed by a new model fitting in the Fluctuation-Dissipation framework and compared with the velocity noise in Brownian motion. This new model handling both fluctuations as well as dissipations of electrical energy in the Complex Admittance of any resistor excels current model based on the dissipation in their conductance. From the two orthogonal currents associated to a sinusoidal voltage in an electrical admittance, the new model that also considers the discreteness of the electrical charge shows a Cause-Effect dynamics for electrical noise. After a brief look at systems considered as energy-conserving and deterministic on the microscale that are dissipative and unpredictable on the macroscale, the arrow of time is discussed from the noise viewpoint.
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