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Cuadernos de Economía , 2010,
Abstract: the objective of the present study is to estimate the economy growth rate in the context of full use of the productive resources. time series univariete models, including a deterministic tendency (with mean breaks), and a space-state model that considers a stochastic tendency and a cyclic component, estimated by kalman′s filter were used. the cyclic component is calculated with and without regime chages (markov-switching models), according to friedman′s idea -plucking model. the results indicate that the chilean economy potential growth rate would be greater than 4% annually, accompanied by economic asymmetric cycles.
Estudios Gerenciales , 2006,
Abstract: balancing work and family life can be facilitated or hampered by companies. companies are increasingly aware that personal balance has an impact on performance and productivity. this article presents data from a survey about the current situation of colombian companies with regard to the issue of work and family life balance. this data should allow conducting an assessment of organizations that follow policies and practices that enable their employees to achieve a sound balance between their work and family life. one of the conclusions of the survey is that, although colombian companies are more and more aware that work-and-family balance is not only essential to their employees? well-being and commitment to the organization, but also has a significant impact on performance and productivity, the development and implementation of a comprehensive work-and-family life balance program at the companies are now in a rather incipient stage.
Posibles efectos en la salud asociados con la metalurgia precolombina
Idrovo,Alvaro Javier;
Biomédica , 2005,
Abstract: in the old world, several researchers have indicated that adverse health effects were associated with exposure to arsenic, and that this influenced a change in the use of copper-arsenic alloys to others less toxic. this hypothesis was evaluated for three pre-columbian metallurgy traditions: central andes, intermediate area, and west mexico. the metal artifacts from the central andes showed arsenic concentrations similar to those in the old world (0.5%-1.0%). in the intermediate area the values were smallest; however, in west mexico the arsenic content was very high (7%-25%). in central andes arsenical bronze was used initially, but copper-tin alloys when introduced were preferred and distributed throughout the inca empire. osteological and artistic evidences of foot amputations among moche individuals from central andes support the presence of "black foot disease" (a condition associated with arsenic poisoning) among pre-columbian populations. in conclusion, the adverse effects of arsenic have been observed in the new world, and that these effects promoted a change toward the use of less toxic alloys.
Raíces históricas, sociales y epidemiológicas de la tuberculosis en Bogotá, Colombia
Idrovo,Alvaro Javier;
Biomédica , 2004,
Abstract: understanding the current epidemiologic dynamic of tuberculosis (tb) in any society requires a holistic approach. in the current paper, the history and behavior of the tb is summarized for bogotá, colombia. in prehispanic periods the occurrence of tb was low. during the conquest and the colony periods, a moderate increase of pulmonary and abdominal tb was observed. in the 1870s, a great increase in cases of pulmonary tb was associated with the accelerated urbanization process. since the 1920s, the occurrence of pulmonary tb shifted to the status of an endemic disease. after 1920, its occurrence was relatively steady until the 1970s, when its occurence greatly decreased. more recently, however, an increase in case numbers has been observed. the occurrence of tb in each period is associated with clearly defined social and environmental phenomena.
Physical environment and life expectancy at birth in Mexico: an eco-epidemiological study
Idrovo, Alvaro J.;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2011000600014
Abstract: the objective of this ecological study was to ascertain the effects of physical environment on life expectancy at birth, using data from all 32 mexican states. 50 environmental indicators with information about demography, housing, poverty, water, soils, biodiversity, forestry resources, and residues were included in exploratory factor analysis. four factors were extracted: population vulnerability/susceptibility, and biodiversity (fc1), urbanization, industrialization, and environmental sustainability (fc2), ecological resilience (fc3), and free-plague environments (fc4). using ols regressions, fc2, fc3, and fc4 were found to be positively associated with life expectancy at birth, while fc1 was negatively associated. this study suggests that physical environment is an important macro-determinant of the health of the mexican population, and highlights the usefulness of ecological concepts in epidemiological studies.
Hacia una salud pública pluralista: el caso de los plaguicidas y la salud humana
Idrovo,álvaro Javier;
Revista de Salud Pública , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0124-00642005000300010
Abstract: suggesting that epidemiology should be employed as the standard means of studying public health problems. some authors have called for the use of qualitative research methods during the last few decades due to the complexity of sanitary problems. the complementary use of quantitative and qualitative methods is conservative and limited, which is why it is suggested that public health should use diverse epistemological approaches and not just conjugate quantitative and qualitative methods. the case of pesticides and their effect on human health is used as an example to show different theoretical models' contribution towards and limitations on public health (i.e. sanitary, biomedical, classical epidemiological, hygienist-preventative, ecological, social-epidemiological, economic, material-historical and neoconservative) as well as expressing the need to use different epistemological approaches. an integrated approach will lead to more pluralist and democratic public health.
Estimación de la incidencia de enfermedades ocupacionales en Colombia, 1985-2000
Idrovo,Alvaro Javier;
Revista de Salud Pública , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0124-00642003000300003
Abstract: objectives: the occurrence of labor related diseases in colombia is unknown. the objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of occupational disease in colombia in the period 1985-2000. methods: the annual incidence was estimated with the methodology recommended by leigh et al. based upon the population estimates of the national administrative statistics department (dane). results: the results showed an increase in the incidence of occupational diseases from 68 063 cases in 1985 to 101 645 in 2000. discussion: the economic losses caused to the social security health system by underreporting of occupational diseases are estimated.
Desigualdad en el ingreso, corrupción y esperanza de vida al nacer en México
Javier Idrovo,álvaro;
Revista de Salud Pública , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0124-00642005000200001
Abstract: objective: to ascertain if the effect of income inequality on life expectancy at birth in mexico is mediated by corruption, used as a proxy of social capital. material and methods: an ecological study was carried out with the 32 mexican federative entities. global and by sex correlations between life expectancy at birth were estimated by federative entity with the gini coefficient, the corruption and good government index, the percentage of catholics, and the percentage of the population speaking indigenous language. robust linear regressions, with and without instrumental variables, were used to explore if corruption acts as intermediate variable in the studied relationship. results: negative correlations with spearman's rho near to -0.60 (p < 0.05) and greater than -0.66 (p < 0.05) between life expectancy at birth, the gini coefficient and the population speaking indigenous language, respectively, were observed. moreover, the corruption and good government index correlated with men's life expectancy at birth with spearman's rho -0.3592 (p < 0.05). regressions with instruments were more consistent than conventional ones and they show a strong negative effect (p < 0.05) of income inequality on life expectancy at birth. this effect was greater among men. conclusion: the findings suggest a negative effect of income inequality on life expectancy at birth in mexico, mediated by corruption levels and other related cultural factors.
Capital social, muertes violentas y mortalidad por cáncer en Colombia: una aproximación poblacional
Idrovo,álvaro Javier;
Revista de Salud Pública , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0124-00642006000100004
Abstract: objective in colombia there are evidences that social capital (sc) is associated with greater rates of violent crime ("perverse" sc). this study explores the relation between sc, violent deaths (1973-1996), and the accumulated occurrence of cancer deaths (1990-1996). material and methods an ecologic study with the 33 colombian departments was carried out. correlations between violent deaths (inverse proxy of sc), the internal displacement ratio, and the mortality rates by each type of cancer. with robust regressions the effect of violent deaths ("perverse" sc) on the occurrence of mortality cancer were explored, adjusting by economic convergence or polarization (1960-1995), and the internal displacement ratio until 1996. results positive correlations (p<0.05) between violent deaths ("perverse" cs) and all types of cancer, except breast and lung among men, were observed. in all the cases statistically significant associations were observed, after adjust by departmentsa?? economic convergence/polarization and internal displacement. discussion this study shows a direct relation between violent deaths on the occurrence of cancer. the findings obtained here suggest an inverted u shape relation between sc and disease occurrence.
Salud y Regímenes Políticos: ?Presidencialismo o Parlamentarismo para Colombia?
Idrovo,Alvaro J.;
Revista de Salud Pública , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0124-00642007000200005
Abstract: objective changing the presidential regime for a parliamentarian one is currently be-ing discussed in colombia. this preliminary study explores the potential effects on health of both presidential and parliamentary regimes by using world-wide data. material and methods an ecological study was undertaken using countries from which comparable information concerning life-expectancy at birth, political regime, economic development, inequality in income, social capital (as measured by general-ised trust or corruption perceptions index), political rights, civil freedom and cultural diversity could be obtained. life-expectancy at birth and macro-determinants were compared between both political regimes. the co-relationship between these macro-determinants was estimated and the relationship between political regimen and life-expectancy at birth was estimated using robust regression. results crude analysis revealed that parliamentary countries have greater life-expectancy at birth than countries having a presidential regime. significant co-relationships between all macro-determinants were observed. no differential effects were observed between both political regimes regarding life-expectancy at birth in multiple robust regressions. discussion there is no evidence that presidential or parliamentary regimes provide greater levels of health for the population. it is suggested that public health policies be focused on other macro-determinants having more known effects on health, such as income inequality.
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