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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 410879 matches for " Ian M. Wilson "
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The acceleration of aging and Alzheimer’s disease through the biological mechanisms behind obesity and type II diabetes  [PDF]
Ian James Martins, Wei Ling Florence Lim, Andrea C. Wilson, Simon M. Laws, Ralph Nigel Martins
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.55121
Abstract:

The incidence of diabetes is predicted to increase to 21% by 2050. Currently, one third of US adults are obese and over 11% of these individuals have diabetes. Due to the growing need for therapeutic intervention to control and/or stabilize this increase in the incidence of diabetes in Western communities, gaining a comprehensive understanding of the association between obesity and Type 2 diabetes has become increasingly important to diabetes research. The increased cell senescence associated with diabetes has been associated with the limited ability of cells to divide, with indication of telomere shortening and genomic instability of the cells. Obese individuals have shorter telomeres suggesting an inverse relationship between adiposity and telomere length. The implication that Type 2 diabetes has on biological aging is of particular interest since telomere shortening in obesity and diabetes has been associated with an early risk for dementia and even progression to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Lifestyle, nutrition and longevity are closely related and cellular senescence has been associated with telomere shortening and connected to longevity. Diet, cholesterol lowering drugs and exercise that control food intake and glucose tolerance in aging and diabetic individuals, via connections between liver circadian clocks and the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the brain, also have been shown to alter telomere lengths. Lifestyle interventions, such as diets low in fat and exercise, target the rise in obesity and associated telomere shortening by delaying or preventing the onset of Type 2 diabetes. The implementation of these anti-aging therapies early in life may prevent calorie overload and activation of calorie sensitive genes such as Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1). This may maintain telomere length and the control of obesity, which is linked to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and accelerates aging and AD.

A Study of 279 General Outbreaks of Gastrointestinal Infection in the North-East Region of England
Grahame M. Tebbutt,Deborah Wilson,Ian Holtby
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph6020547
Abstract: All outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease reported to the authorities were entered on a computer database with outbreak control teams being established to investigate larger or more significant incidents. The outbreak database and, when set up, the notes of outbreak team meetings were examined for the 279 outbreaks reported in a three-year period (2003-2005). Faeces specimens submitted as part of an outbreak were examined for microbial pathogens and the results cross-matched to the outbreak number. Almost half of the general outbreaks reported (137) occurred in long-term care facilities for the elderly, 51 outbreaks were recorded in hospitals and 31 occurred in the wider community. In 76 outbreaks no specimen was logged. A microbial cause was confirmed in about one-third of outbreaks, with noroviruses being the most common (19%). Salmonellas accounted for 12 of the 21 community outbreaks linked to social events and all were foodborne. Suggestions for improving notification and surveillance are discussed.
Sirtuin-1 mediates the obesity induced risk of common degenerative diseases: Alzheimer’s disease, coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes  [PDF]
Ian James Martins, Andrea. C. Wilson, Wei Ling Florence Lim, Simon. M. Laws, Stephanie. J. Fuller, Ralph Nigel Martins
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.412A209
Abstract:

Obesity, especially at mid-life, is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome, which in turn contribute to coronary artery disease (CAD), Type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The rise in overweight and obesity in all societies is prompting intense research into the causes and effects of the condition. Obesity disrupts many body systems including glucose and lipid metabolism, circadian rhythms and liver function. It also causes or increases inflammation and oxidative stress. Within cells, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) appears to be particularly susceptible to such metabolic disruption. Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and leptin have received attention recently as they are central regulatory factors for the body’s metabolic pathways which interact at particular levels, for example lipid and Abeta metabolism. This mini-review discusses recent findings concerning obesity, lipid metabolism and the role of Sirtuin 1 and how all influence the ER. A greater understanding of obesity and its effects on metabolic control systems of the body are required, to develop pharmacological, dietary and lifestyle changes that will reduce the incidence of CAD, Type 2 diabetes and AD.


The experience of palliative patients and their families of a family meeting utilised as an instrument for spiritual and psychosocial care: A qualitative study
Heather M Tan, Anne Wilson, Ian Olver, Christopher Barton
BMC Palliative Care , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-684x-10-7
Abstract: This qualitative study, philosophically underpinned by hermeneutic phenomenology, investigates the participatory experience of palliative care patients and their significant family members of such a family meeting. People registered with two large metropolitan palliative care services, who met selection criteria, were referred by medical staff. Twelve of the 66 referred took part in family meetings which also included significant others invited by the patient. A total of 36 family members participated. The number of participants of individual family meetings ranged from two to eleven. After the family meeting every participant was invited to take part in an individual in-depth interview about their experience of the meeting. Forty seven interviews were conducted. These were audio recorded and transcribed.Data analysis, utilising Ricoeur's theory of interpretation, revealed seven main themes: personal experience of the meeting, personal outcomes, observation of others' experience, observation of experience and outcomes for the family unit, meeting facilitation, how it could have been different and general applicability of the family meeting. Throughout these themes were numerous references to aspects of the web of relationships which describe the concept of spirituality as it is defined for the purpose of this study.The findings indicate the potential of the type of family meeting reported for use in the spiritual and psychosocial care of people receiving palliative care and their families. However further research is needed to explore its application to more culturally diverse groups and its longer term impact on family members.It is widely accepted that spiritual care of palliative patients, near the end-of-life, is an important part of their total care and that its provision is a multi-disciplinary task [1-4]. A review of qualitative literature on perspectives on spirituality at the end of life, concluded that the "fundamental importance of spirituality at end-of-
The Joint Center for Structural Genomics: exploration of the human gut microbiome
Ian Wilson
Genome Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2011-12-s1-i18
Abstract:
Biologically induced mineralization of dypingite by cyanobacteria from an alkaline wetland near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada
Ian M Power, Siobhan A Wilson, James M Thom, Gregory M Dipple, Gordon Southam
Geochemical Transactions , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1467-4866-8-13
Abstract: Field observations show that evaporation of wetland water produces carbonate films of nesquehonite (MgCO3·3H2O) on the water surface and crusts on exposed surfaces. In contrast, benthic microbial mats possessing filamentous cyanobacteria (Lyngbya sp.) contain platy dypingite (Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·5H2O) and aragonite. Bulk carbonates in the benthic mats (δ13C avg. = 6.7‰, δ18O avg. = 17.2‰) were isotopically distinguishable from abiotically formed nesquehonite (δ13C avg. = 9.3‰, δ18O avg. = 24.9‰). Field and laboratory experiments, which emulated natural conditions, were conducted to provide insight into the processes for magnesium carbonate precipitation in this environment. Field microcosm experiments included an abiotic control and two microbial systems, one containing ambient wetland water and one amended with nutrients to simulate eutrophic conditions. The abiotic control developed an extensive crust of nesquehonite on its bottom surface during which [Mg2+] decreased by 16.7% relative to the starting concentration. In the microbial systems, precipitation occurred within the mats and was not simply due to the capturing of mineral grains settling out of the water column. Magnesium concentrations decreased by 22.2% and 38.7% in the microbial systems, respectively. Laboratory experiments using natural waters from the Atlin site produced rosettes and flakey globular aggregates of dypingite precipitated in association with filamentous cyanobacteria dominated biofilms cultured from the site, whereas the abiotic control again precipitated nesquehonite.Microbial mats in the Atlin wetland create ideal conditions for biologically induced precipitation of dypingite and have presumably played a significant role in the development of this natural Mg-carbonate playa. This biogeochemical process represents an important link between the biosphere and the inorganic carbon pool.The contribution to carbonate precipitation and sedimentation by microorganisms has been substantial since the
Direct visualization of electroporation-assisted in vivo gene delivery to tumors using intravital microscopy – spatial and time dependent distribution
Maja Cemazar, Ian Wilson, Gabi U Dachs, Gillian M Tozer, Gregor Sersa
BMC Cancer , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-4-81
Abstract: Intravital microscopy was used to monitor real time spatial distribution of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and time dependence of transfection efficiency in syngeneic P22 rat tumor model. DNA alone, liposome-DNA complexes and electroporation-assisted DNA delivery using two different sets of electric pulse parameters were compared.Electroporation-assisted DNA delivery using 8 pulses, 600 V/cm, 5 ms, 1 Hz was superior to other methods and resulted in 22% increase in fluorescence intensity in the tumors up to 6 days post-transfection, compared to the non-transfected area in granulation tissue. Functional GFP was detected within 5 h after transfection. Cells expressing GFP were detected throughout the tumor, but not in the surrounding tissue that was not exposed to electric pulses.Intravital microscopy was demonstrated to be a suitable method for monitoring time and spatial distribution of gene expression in experimental tumors and provided evidence that electroporation-assisted gene delivery using 8 pulses, 600 V/cm, 5 ms, 1 Hz is an effective method, resulting in early onset and homogenous distribution of gene expression in the syngeneic P22 rat tumor model.Despite some promising early results, gene therapy does not, as yet, live up to expectation [1]. The main stumbling block remains gene delivery, and all advances in the control of gene expression and selection of therapeutic genes are hampered by inefficient gene transfection. Hence the development of a safe and effective method of gene delivery in vivo is of utmost importance if gene therapy is to move from the experimental to the clinical stage.Electroporation is currently receiving much attention as a way to increase drug and DNA delivery [2-5]. Electroporation has long been used as an effective in vitro gene delivery system in both prokaryotes and eukaryotic cells. Electroporation is a physical means of importing small molecules and macromolecules into cells via increased cell membrane permeability. Electr
Australian medical students' perceptions of professionalism and ethics in medical television programs
Roslyn Weaver, Ian Wilson
BMC Medical Education , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-11-50
Abstract: A medical television survey was administered to 386 undergraduate medical students across Years 1 to 4 at a university in New South Wales, Australia. The survey collected data on demographics, year of course, viewing of medical television programs, perception of programs' realism, depiction of ethics, professionalism and role models.The shows watched by most students were House, Scrubs, and Grey's Anatomy, and students nominated watching 30 different medical programs in total. There was no statistical association between year of enrolment and perceptions of accuracy. The majority of students reported that friends or family members had asked them for their opinion on an ethical or medical issue presented on a program, and that they discussed ethical and medical matters with their friends. Students had high recall of ethical topics portrayed on the shows, and most believed that medical programs generally portrayed ideals of professionalism well.Medical programs offer considerable currency and relevance with students and may be useful in teaching strategies that engage students in ethical lessons about practising medicine.Popular images of particular careers can have an impact on students' decisions to enter and remain in a profession. Students in professional courses can often develop their sense of professional identity early in their studies [1]. Anecdotally, images of medical doctors in popular culture may have some influence on students' professional identity, particularly in television programs. Research suggests that medical televisual texts can affect students' expectations of the medical profession, whereby fictional doctors in programs such as ER may influence medical students' perceptions and beliefs in a similar way to the real doctors they encounter [2]. These images can potentially help to shape students' expectations of medical practice, ethics and professional identity even before they make their decision to enrol in a medical degree.Images of the medic
The constitution, evaluation and ceramic properties of ball clays
Wilson, Ian Richard;
Ceramica , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0366-69131998000400002
Abstract: ball clay is a fine-grained highly plastic, mainly kaolinitic, sedimentary clay, the higher grades of which fire to a white or near white colour. the paper will review the origin of the term "ball clay" and the location and origins of several deposits with particular emphasis on the mineralogical, physical and rheological properties which make the clays so important in ceramics bodies. particular attention will be paid to the well known bay clay deposits of devon and dorset in southwest england, which are mined by ecc international europe and watts blake bearne & company plc, and brief descriptions from elsewhere in the world of ball clays from the united states, germany, czech republic, thailand, indonesia, argentina and china. the evaluation of deposits will be covered along with a description of the main types of ball clay for ceramics with details of the mining, processing and blending techniques which are necessary to ensure long term consistency of products. a brief description in given of the ceramic properties of some brazilian ball clays. the location of some ball clay deposits is shown in fig. 1.
The constitution, evaluation and ceramic properties of ball clays
Wilson Ian Richard
Ceramica , 1998,
Abstract: Ball clay is a fine-grained highly plastic, mainly kaolinitic, sedimentary clay, the higher grades of which fire to a white or near white colour. The paper will review the origin of the term "Ball Clay" and the location and origins of several deposits with particular emphasis on the mineralogical, physical and rheological properties which make the clays so important in ceramics bodies. Particular attention will be paid to the well known bay clay deposits of Devon and Dorset in southwest England, which are mined by ECC International Europe and Watts Blake Bearne & Company PLC, and brief descriptions from elsewhere in the world of ball clays from the United States, Germany, Czech Republic, Thailand, Indonesia, Argentina and China. The evaluation of deposits will be covered along with a description of the main types of ball clay for ceramics with details of the mining, processing and blending techniques which are necessary to ensure long term consistency of products. A brief description in given of the ceramic properties of some Brazilian ball clays. The location of some ball clay deposits is shown in Fig. 1.
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