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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6710 matches for " Ian Barber "
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Is the Truth Down There?: Cultural Heritage Conflict and the Politics of Archaeological Authority
Ian Barber
Public History Review , 2006,
Abstract: The selective pressures and processes of cultural heritage management effectively disinherit some interest groups. Where this occurs in the context of postcolonial or nationalist conflict, the material archaeological record may be referenced to support or reject particular views. The disciplinary assumptions behind the archaeological evidence so produced are not usually contested in judicial contexts. A review of archaeology’s theoretical foundations suggests that this naivety itself may be problematic. A descriptive culture history approach dominated archaeology over the first half of the twentieth century with a strong political appeal to nationalist politics. Subsequently archaeology became concerned with processual explanation and the scientific identification of universal laws of culture, consistent with postwar technological optimism and conformity. A postprocessual archaeology movement from the 1970s has promoted relativism and challenged the singular authority of scientific explanation. Archaeologists caught within this debate disagree over the use of the archaeological record in situations of political conflict. Furthermore, the use of archaeology in the sectarian debate over the Ayodhya birthplace of Rama suggests that the material record of the past can become highly politicized and seemingly irresolvable. Archaeological research is also subject to other blatant and subtle political pressures throughout the world, affecting the nature and interpretation of the record. A system that privileges archaeological information values may be irrelevant also to communities who value and manage their ancestral heritage for customary purposes. Collectively this review of theory and applied knowledge suggests that it is unrealistic to expect that archaeology can authoritatively resolve strident claims and debates about the past. Instead, an important contemporary contribution of archaeology may be its potential to document cultural and historical contradictions and inclusions for the consideration of contemporary groups in conflict.
Retransplantation for graft failure in chronic hepatitis C infection: A good use of a scarce resource?
Ian A Rowe, Kerri M Barber, Rhiannon Birch, Elinor Curnow, James M Neuberger
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2010,
Abstract: AIM: To investigate the outcome of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection undergoing liver retransplantation.METHODS: Using the UK National Registry, patients undergoing liver transplantation for HCV-related liver disease were identified. Data on patient and graft characteristics, as well as transplant and graft survival were collected to determine the outcome of HCV patients undergoing retransplantation and in order to identify factors associated with transplant survival.RESULTS: Between March 1994 and December 2007, 944 adult patients were transplanted for HCV-related liver disease. At the end of follow-up, 617 of these patients were alive. In total, 194 (21%) patients had first graft failure and of these, 80 underwent liver retransplantation, including 34 patients where the first graft failed due to recurrent disease. For those transplanted for HCV-related disease, the 5-year graft survival in those retransplanted for recurrent HCV was 45% [95% confidence interval (CI): 24%-64%] compared with 80% (95% CI: 62%-90%) for those retransplanted for other indications (P = 0.01, log-rank test); the 5-year transplant survival after retransplantation was 43% (95% CI: 23%-62%) and 46% (95% CI: 31%-60%), respectively (P = 0.8, log-rank test). In univariate analysis of all patients retransplanted, no factor analyzed was significantly associated with transplant survival.CONCLUSION: Outcomes for retransplantation in patients with HCV infection approach agreed criteria for minimum transplant benefit. These data support selective liver retransplantation in patients with HCV infection.
Manual Control Age and Sex Differences in 4 to 11 Year Old Children
Ian Flatters, Liam J. B. Hill, Justin H. G. Williams, Sally E. Barber, Mark Mon-Williams
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088692
Abstract: To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers). We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i) make a series of aiming movements, (ii) trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii) track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled ‘manual control’, whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible). A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4–5 years) but with this pattern reversing in older children (10–11 years). The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual skills.
Towards a full understanding of water splitting in photosynthesis
James Barber
International Journal of Photoenergy , 2004, DOI: 10.1155/s1110662x04000078
Abstract: The capture and conversion of solar radiation by photosynthetic organisms directly or indirectly provides energy for almost all life on our planet. About 2.5 billion years ago a remarkable biological “machine” evolved known as photosystem two (PSII). This machine can use the energy of visible light (actually red quanta of ∼ 1.8 eV) to split water into dioxygen and “hydrogen”. The latter is made available as reducing equivalents, ultimately destined to convert carbon dioxide to organic molecules. In PSII, the “hydrogen” reduces plastoquinone (PQ) to plastoquinol (PQH2). The water splitting process takes place at a catalytic centre composed of 4 Mn atoms and the reactions involved are chemically and thermodynamically challenging. The process is driven by a photooxidised chlorophyll molecule (P680•
La evaluación de competencias complejas: la práctica del portafolio
Barberá,Elena;
Educere , 2005,
Abstract: currently, the acknowledgement of the portfolio as a learning and evaluation instrument is widely spread framing various disciplines despite its lack of usage amongst teachers as an evaluation system. this article wants to collaborate to the practical approach of this tool as well as to its general spreading providing basic information for its practice.
La educación en Bibliotecología y Ciencia de la Información ante el desafío de la Sociedad de la Información
Barber,Elsa;
Informaci?3n, cultura y sociedad , 2004,
Abstract: throughout history, it took agriculture years to develop, to expand, and become known to most cultures. during the last 200 years, part of the humankind has been dominated by the industrial activity. while the rest of the world struggles to participate in the industrial revolution, some countries go through a stage that transforms everything in an extraordinarily fast way. it is what is known as &"information society&". there is no doubt that society is entering a new era in which each aspect of people lives is characterized by the application of information and communication technologies (ict). this article presents some changes that must take place in the education of library and information science professionals in this new environment
Understanding Online Audio-Visual Content: A European Initiative, Media Literacy and the User
Sian Barber
Medijske Studije , 2012,
Abstract: Recent debates about media literacy and the internet have begun to acknowledge the importance of active user-engagement and interaction. It is not enough simply to access material online, but one must also be able to comment upon it and re-use it. Yet how do these new user expectations fit within digital initiatives which increase access to audio-visual-content but which prioritise access, preservation of archives and online research rather than active user-engagement? This article will address these issues of media literacy in relation to audio-visual content. It will consider how these issues are currently being addressed, focusing particularly on the high-profile European initiative EUscreen. EUscreen brings together 20 European television archives into a single searchable database of over 40,000 digital items. Yet creative re-use restrictions and copyright issues prevent users from re-working the material they find on the site. Instead of re-use, EUscreen offers access and detailed contextualisation of its collection of material. But if the emphasis for resources within an online environment no longer rests upon access but on user-engagement, what does EUscreen and similar sites have to offer to different users?
La educación en Bibliotecología y Ciencia de la Información ante el desafío de la Sociedad de la Información Library and Information Science education in the face of the Information Society challenge
Elsa Barber
Información, Cultura y Sociedad , 2004,
Abstract: A lo largo de la historia, el desarrollo de la agricultura tardó siglos en concretarse, en expandirse y en darse a conocer en la mayoría de las culturas. Durante los últimos 200 a os, parte de la humanidad ha sido dominada por la actividad industrial. Mientras el resto del mundo se esfuerza por participar en la Revolución Industrial, algunas naciones atraviesan por una etapa que transforma todo de un modo extraordinariamente acelerado. Es lo que se conoce como &"sociedad de la información&". No cabe ninguna duda, de que la sociedad está entrando en una nueva era, en la que cada aspecto de la vida de las personas se caracteriza por las aplicaciones de las Tecnologías de la Información y de la Comunicación (TIC). Se presentan, en este nuevo medio ambiente, algunos cambios que deben plantearse en la formación de los profesionales de la Bibliotecología y la Ciencia de la Información. Throughout history, it took agriculture years to develop, to expand, and become known to most cultures. During the last 200 years, part of the humankind has been dominated by the industrial activity. While the rest of the world struggles to participate in the Industrial Revolution, some countries go through a stage that transforms everything in an extraordinarily fast way. It is what is known as &"information society&". There is no doubt that society is entering a new era in which each aspect of people lives is characterized by the application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). This article presents some changes that must take place in the education of library and information science professionals in this new environment
Filosofía wiki: el compromiso de las soluciones
Elena Barberà
REDU : Revista de Docencia Universitaria , 2011,
Abstract: RESUMEN Una wiki representa el tipo de herramientas que muchos estábamos esperando. Después de unos a os siguiendo un enfoque sorprendentemente individualista en el desarrollo y uso de los espacios virtuales parece que nos hemos decidido a colaborar. En el presente artículo, a modo de introducción de este número especial dedicado a las wiki docentes universitarias, se aportan razones para considerar a esta herramienta como una de las más “académicas” entre los entornos 2.0. Basándose para ello en la decisión de las comunidades educativas más innovadoras de apostar por las metodologías docentes que se ven favorecidas por el trabajo colaborativo. No obstante se concluye diciendo que, a pesar de la decidida apuesta por la wiki, se necesita todavía mucha investigación multidisciplinar y se anima a las experiencias sólidas que valoren en primera instancia sus potencialidades, pero también que exploren sus límites de utilización y sostenimiento. ABSTRACT A wiki represents the kind of tool many of us have been waiting for. After a few years of a surprisingly individualistic approach in the development and use of virtual environments, it so seems we have made up our mind to collaborate. This introductory article to the special issue devoted to faculty wikis at university brings some reasons to consider them as one of the most “academic” tools in the 2.0 environment on a basis on the decisions taken by the most innovative educational communities to back into teaching approaches that are favoured by collaborative work. However, it is concluded that in spite of the positive case for the wikis much more multi-disciplinary research is still needed. Sound experiences are encouraged – those that initially value the potentialities of the wikis but that also explore its limitations as regards use and sustainability.
Filosofía wiki: el compromiso de las soluciones
Elena Barberà
RED : Revista de Educación a Distancia , 2010,
Abstract: Un wiki representa el tipo de herramientas que muchos estábamos esperando. Después de unos a os siguiendo un enfoque sorprendentemente individualista en el desarrollo y uso de los espacios virtuales parece que nos hemos decidido a colaborar. En el presente artículo, a modo de introducción de este número especial dedicado a los wikis docentes universitarios, se aportan razones para considerar a esta herramienta como una de las más "académicas" entre los entornos 2.0. Basándose para ello en la decisión de las comunidades educativas más innovadoras de apostar por las metodologías docentes que se ven favorecidas por el trabajo colaborativo. No obstante se concluye diciendo que, a pesar de la decidida apuesta por el wiki, se necesita todavía mucha investigación multidisciplinar y se anima a las experiencias sólidas que valoren en primera instancia sus potencialidades, pero también que exploren sus límites de utilización y sostenimiento.
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