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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 106412 matches for " I. Song "
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Use of ultrasound in food preservation  [PDF]
Songül ?ahin Ercan,i?dem Soysal
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.58A2002
Abstract:

Ultrasound is versatile and innovative technology due to its wide range of application and increase in knowledge and research studies. It is used in food industry for many purposes including analysis methods and food processings such as freezing, cutting, drying, tempering, homogenization, degassing, antifoaming, filtration and extraction. Ultrasound can be used as a promoter or alternative to food processing. There may be numereous advantages of using ultrasound for food processing such as effective mixing, increased mass transfer, reduced energy, reduced temperature and increased production rate. Due to the elimination of microorganisms and enzymes without destroying nutrients of foods, ultrasound can be used as an alternative method to thermal treatments in the food preservation. Additionally, low power ultrasound is thought to be an attractive nonthermal method due to overcome problems which occur during heat treatments such as physical and chemical changes, nutritional loss and change in organoleptic properties. This review summarizes mechanism, operation and latest potential applications of ultrasound in the food preservation.

Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants of miniature paprika (Capsicum annuum) ‘Hivita Red’ and ‘Hivita Yellow’
JY Song, I Sivanesan, CG An, BR Jeong
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: A simple and efficient protocol was developed for in vitro propagation of two miniature paprika cultivars. Seeds of miniature paprika (Capsicum annuum) ‘Hivita Red’ and ‘Hivita Yellow’ were decontaminated and placed in a petri dish containing a half-strength MS medium and then were incubated in the dark for 7 10 days for germination. Leaf explants excised from one month-old aseptic seedlings were cultured on a MS medium supplemented with TDZ (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 3.0 mgL-1) alone or in a combination with NAA (0.1 or 0.01 mgL-1) for four weeks. The highest number of regenerated shoot buds was obtained when leaf explants were cultured on a MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mgL-1 TDZ and 0.1 mgL-1 NAA with an average shoots per explant of 8.0 in ‘Hivita Red’ and 5.6 in ‘Hivita Yellow’. Regenerated shoot buds were separated and transferred onto a MS medium without growth regulators for shoot growth and rooting. Plantlets were successfully acclimatized in a greenhouse and cultivated for three months. After about two months, they started to produce flowers and continuously produced fruits. Morphology and fruit shape of regenerated plants were normal and plants set seeds as the same as to the seed-raised plants.
2-D reconstruction of atmospheric concentration peaks from horizontal long path DOAS tomographic measurements: parametrisation and geometry within a discrete approach
A. Hartl,B. C. Song,I. Pundt
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2005,
Abstract: In this study, we theoretically investigate the reconstruction of 2-D cross sections through Gaussian concentration distributions, e.g. emission plumes, from long path DOAS measurements along a limited number of light paths. This is done systematically with respect to the extension of the up to four peaks and for six different measurement setups with 2–4 telescopes and 36 light paths each. We distinguish between cases with and without additional background concentrations. Our approach parametrises the unknown distribution by local piecewise constant or linear functions on a regular grid and solves the resulting discrete, linear system by a least squares minimum norm principle. We show that the linear parametrisation not only allows better representation of the distributions in terms of discretisation errors, but also better inversion of the system. We calculate area integrals of the concentration field (i.e. total emissions rates for non-vanishing perpendicular wind speed components) and show that reconstruction errors and reconstructed area integrals within the peaks for narrow distributions crucially depend on the resolution of the reconstruction grid. A recently suggested grid translation method for the piecewise constant basis functions, combining reconstructions from several shifted grids, is modified for the linear basis functions and proven to reduce overall reconstruction errors, but not the uncertainty of concentration integrals. We suggest a procedure to subtract additional background concentration fields before inversion. We find large differences in reconstruction quality between the geometries and conclude that, in general, for a constant number of light paths increasing the number of telescopes leads to better reconstruction results. It appears that geometries that give better results for negligible measurement errors and parts of the geometry that are better resolved are also less sensitive to increasing measurement errors.
2-D reconstruction of atmospheric concentration peaks from horizontal long path DOAS tomographic measurements: parametrisation and geometry within a discrete approach
A. Hartl,B. C. Song,I. Pundt
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2006,
Abstract: In this study, we theoretically investigate the reconstruction of 2-D cross sections through Gaussian concentration distributions, e.g. emission plumes, from long path DOAS measurements along a limited number of light paths. This is done systematically with respect to the extension of the up to four peaks and for six different measurement setups with 2-4 telescopes and 36 light paths each. We distinguish between cases with and without additional background concentrations. Our approach parametrises the unknown distribution by local piecewise constant or linear functions on a regular grid and solves the resulting discrete, linear system by a least squares minimum norm principle. We show that the linear parametrisation not only allows better representation of the distributions in terms of discretisation errors, but also better inversion of the system. We calculate area integrals of the concentration field (i.e. total emissions rates for non-vanishing perpendicular wind speed components) and show that reconstruction errors and reconstructed area integrals within the peaks for narrow distributions crucially depend on the resolution of the reconstruction grid. A recently suggested grid translation method for the piecewise constant basis functions, combining reconstructions from several shifted grids, is modified for the linear basis functions and proven to reduce overall reconstruction errors, but not the uncertainty of concentration integrals. We suggest a procedure to subtract additional background concentration fields before inversion. We find large differences in reconstruction quality between the geometries and conclude that, in general, for a constant number of light paths increasing the number of telescopes leads to better reconstruction results. It appears that geometries that give better results for negligible measurement errors and parts of the geometry that are better resolved are also less sensitive to increasing measurement errors.
Resistance to β-Lactam Antibiotics Conferred by Point Mutations in Penicillin-Binding Proteins PBP3, PBP4 and PBP6 in Salmonella enterica
Song Sun, Maria Selmer, Dan I. Andersson
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097202
Abstract: Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are enzymes responsible for the polymerization of the glycan strand and the cross-linking between glycan chains as well as the target proteins for β-lactam antibiotics. Mutational alterations in PBPs can confer resistance either by reducing binding of the antibiotic to the active site or by evolving a β-lactamase activity that degrades the antibiotic. As no systematic studies have been performed to examine the potential of all PBPs present in one bacterial species to evolve increased resistance against β-lactam antibiotics, we explored the ability of fifteen different defined or putative PBPs in Salmonella enterica to acquire increased resistance against penicillin G. We could after mutagenesis and selection in presence of penicillin G isolate mutants with amino-acid substitutions in the PBPs, FtsI, DacB and DacC (corresponding to PBP3, PBP4 and PBP6) with increased resistance against β-lactam antibiotics. Our results suggest that: (i) most evolved PBPs became ‘generalists” with increased resistance against several different classes of β-lactam antibiotics, (ii) synergistic interactions between mutations conferring antibiotic resistance are common and (iii) the mechanism of resistance of these mutants could be to make the active site more accessible for water allowing hydrolysis or less binding to β-lactam antibiotics.
Timing Channels with Multiple Identical Quanta
Christopher Rose,I. Saira Mian,Ruochen Song
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: We consider mutual information between release times and capture times for a set of M identical quanta traveling independently from a source to a target. The quanta are immediately captured upon arrival, ?first-passage times are assumed independent and identically distributed and the quantum emission times are constrained by a deadline. The primary application area is intended to be inter/intracellular molecular signaling in biological systems whereby an organelle, cell or group of cells must deliver some message (such as transcription or developmental instructions) over distance with reasonable certainty to another organelles, cells or group of cells. However, the model can also be applied to communications systems wherein indistinguishable signals have random transit latencies.
The Intrathymic Pathogenesis of Myasthenia Gravis
Arnold I. Levinson,Decheng Song,Glen Gaulton,Yi Zheng
Clinical and Developmental Immunology , 2004, DOI: 10.1080/17402520400001769
Abstract: The thymus is considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Myasthenia gravis, an autoimmune disease characterized by antibody-mediated skeletal muscle weakness. However, its role is yet to be defined. The studies described herein summarize our efforts to determine how intrathymic expression of the neuromuscular type of acetylcholine (ACh) receptors is involved in the immunopathogenesis of this autoimmune disease. We review the work characterizing the expression of neuromuscular ACh receptors in the thymus and advance a new hypothesis that examines the intrathymic expression of this autoantigen in disease pathogenesis.
Selection-Driven Gene Loss in Bacteria
Sanna Koskiniemi,Song Sun,Otto G. Berg,Dan I. Andersson
PLOS Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002787
Abstract: Gene loss by deletion is a common evolutionary process in bacteria, as exemplified by bacteria with small genomes that have evolved from bacteria with larger genomes by reductive processes. The driving force(s) for genome reduction remains unclear, and here we examined the hypothesis that gene loss is selected because carriage of superfluous genes confers a fitness cost to the bacterium. In the bacterium Salmonella enterica, we measured deletion rates at 11 chromosomal positions and the fitness effects of several spontaneous deletions. Deletion rates varied over 200-fold between different regions with the replication terminus region showing the highest rates. Approximately 25% of the examined deletions caused an increase in fitness under one or several growth conditions, and after serial passage of wild-type bacteria in rich medium for 1,000 generations we observed fixation of deletions that substantially increased bacterial fitness when reconstructed in a non-evolved bacterium. These results suggest that selection could be a significant driver of gene loss and reductive genome evolution.
Experience and analysis of Delphian lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma
Kim Won,Yang Song I,Kim Jeong,Choi Young
World Journal of Surgical Oncology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7819-10-226
Abstract: Background Recently, lymph node metastasis (LNM) has been regarded as an important factor influencing loco-regional recurrence and survival rate in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients. The aims of this study were to investigate the detection rate and metastasis rate of the Delphian lymph node (DLN) and clinical patterns related to regional LNM, and to examine how DLN metastasis affects PTC treatment. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 413 patients with pathologically confirmed PTC from among 452 patients who underwent thyroid surgery between January 2010 and October 2010 in the Department of Endocrine Surgery at Kosin University Gospel Hospital in Busan, South Korea. Results Multivariate analyses revealed a significantly higher proportion of cases with lymphovascular invasion (56.6% vs. 12.5%, P <0.001), central neck node metastasis (88.6% vs. 34.5%, P <0.001) and lateral neck node metastasis (47.2% vs. 10.2%, P <0.005) among cases with DLN metastasis compared to those without. The negative predictive value (NPV) of DLN metastasis with regard to the presence of contralateral central LNM for cases with a tumor size 1 cm or smaller than 1 cm was found to be 93.3% (127/136). Conclusion When DLN metastasis is not detected in papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMC), thyroid lobectomy on the affected side and ipsilateral central neck lymph node dissection should be sufficient. In addition, even in cases where lateral neck LNM is not detected on preoperative examination, if DLN metastasis is detected postoperatively, more careful attention should be paid to the lateral neck nodes during follow-up.
A Numerical Study on Passive Control of Shock Wave/Turbulent Boundary Layer in a Supersonic Compressore Cascade
Seo J. I.,Kim S. D.,Song D. J.
International Journal of Rotating Machinery , 2002,
Abstract:
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