Abstract:
We study the bosonic analog of Andreev reflection at a normal-superfluid interface where the superfluid is a boson condensate. We model the normal region as a zone where nonlinear effects can be neglected. Against the background of a decaying condensate, we identify a novel contribution to the current of reflected atoms. The group velocity of this Andreev reflected component differs from that of the normally reflected one. For a three-dimensional planar or two-dimensional linear interface Andreev reflection is neither specular nor conjugate.

Abstract:
Supercurrent flow is studied in a structure that in the Ginzburg-Landau regime can be described in terms of an effective double barrier potential. In the limit of strongly reflecting barriers, the passage of Cooper pairs through such a structure may be viewed as a realization of resonant tunneling with a rigid wave function. For interbarrier distances smaller than $d_0=\pi\xi(T)$ no current-carrying solutions exist. For distances between $d_0$ and $2d_0$, four solutions exist. The two symmetric solutions obey a current-phase relation of $\sin(\Delta\varphi/2)$, while the two asymmetric solutions satisfy $\Delta\varphi=\pi$ for all allowed values of the current. As the distance exceeds $nd_0$, a new group of four solutions appears, each contaning $(n-1)$ soliton-type oscillations between the barriers. We prove the inexistence of a continuous crossover between the physical solutions of the nonlinear Ginzburg-Landau equation and those of the corresponding linearized Schr\"odinger equation. We also show that under certain conditions a repulsive delta function barrier may quantitatively describe a SNS structure. We are thus able to predict that the critical current of a SNSNS structure vanishes as $\sqrt{T'_c-T}$, where $T'_c$ is lower than the bulk critical temperature.

Abstract:
Roughly speaking, a conic bundle is a surface, fibered over a curve, such that the fibers are conics (not necessarily smooth). We define stability for conic bundles and construct a moduli space. We prove that (after fixing some invariants) these moduli spaces are irreducible (under some conditions). Conic bundles can be thought of as generalizations of orthogonal bundles on curves. We show that in this particular case our definition of stability agrees with the definition of stability for orthogonal bundles. Finally, in an appendix by I. Mundet i Riera, a Hitchin-Kobayashi correspondence is stated for conic bundles.

Abstract:
We show that triplet pairing correlations are generated in purely s-waves superfluids whenever population imbalance enforces anisotropic Fulde-Ferrell (FF) or inhomogeneous Larkin-Ovchinikov (LO) states. The same set of quasiparticle states contributes to the triplet component and to the polarization, thus spatially correlating them. In the LO case, this set forms a narrow band of Andreev states centered on the nodes of the s-wave order parameter. This picture naturally provides a unifying explanation of previous findings that attractive p-wave interaction stabilizes FFLO states. We also study a similar triplet mixing which occurs when a balanced two-component system displays FFLO type oscillations due to a spin-dependent optical lattice. We discuss how this triplet component can be measured in systems of ultra-cold atoms using a rapid ramp across a p-wave Feshbach resonance. This should provide a smoking gun signature of FFLO states.

Abstract:
We study the dynamics of the relative phase following the connection of two independently formed Bose-Einstein condensates. Dissipation is assumed to be due to the creation of quasiparticles induced by a fluctuating condensate particle number. The coherence between different values of the phase, which is characteristic of the initial Fock state, is quickly lost after the net exchange of a few atoms has taken place. This process effectively measures the phase and marks the onset of a semiclassical regime in which the system undergoes Bloch oscillations around the initial particle number. These fast oscillations excite quasiparticles within each condensate and the system relaxes at a longer time scale until it displays low-energy, damped Josephson plasma oscillations, eventually coming to a halt when the equilibrium configuration is finally reached.

Abstract:
In the present paper we want to give a common structure theory of left action, group operations, R-modules and automata of different types defined over various kinds of carrier objects: sets, graphs, presheaves, sheaves, topological spaces (in particular: compactly generated Hausdorff spaces). The first section gives an axiomatic approach to algebraic structures relative to a base category B, slightly more powerful than that of monadic (tripleable) functors. In section 2 we generalize Lawveres functorial semantics to many-sorted algebras over cartesian closed categories. In section 3 we treat the structures mentioned in the beginning as many-sorted algebras with fixed “scalar ” or “input ” object and show that they still have an algebraic (or monadic) forgetful functor (theorem 3.3) and hence the general theory of algebraic structures applies. These structures were usually treated as one-sorted in the Lawvere-setting, the action being expressed by a family of unary operations indexed over the scalars. But this approach cannot, as the one developed here, describe continuity of the action (more general: the action to be a B-morphism), which is essential for the structures mentioned above, e.g. modules for a sheaf of rings or topological automata. Finally we discuss consequences of theorem 3.3 for the structure theory of various types of automata. The particular case of algebras with fixed “natural numbers object ” has been studied by the authors in [23].

Abstract:
The violation of a classical Cauchy-Schwarz (CS) inequality is identified as an unequivocal signature of spontaneous Hawking radiation in sonic black holes. This violation can be particularly large near the peaks in the radiation spectrum emitted from a resonant boson structure forming a sonic horizon. As a function of the frequency-dependent Hawking radiation intensity, we analyze the degree of CS violation and the maximum violation temperature for a double barrier structure separating two regions of subsonic and supersonic condensate flow. We also consider the case where the resonant sonic horizon is produced by a space-dependent contact interaction. In some cases, CS violation can be observed by direct atom counting in a time-of-flight experiment. We show that near the conventional zero-frequency radiation peak, the decisive CS violation cannot occur.

Abstract:
We consider a sonic black-hole scenario where an atom condensate flows through a subsonic-supersonic interface. We discuss several criteria that reveal the existence of nonclassical correlations resulting from the quantum character of the spontaneous Hawking radiation. We unify previous general work as applied to Hawking radiation analogs. We investigate the measurability of the various indicators and conclude that, within a class of detection schemes, only the violation of quadratic Cauchy-Schwarz inequalities can be discerned. We show numerical results that further support the viability of measuring deep quantum correlations in concrete scenarios.

Abstract:
Some features of nonadiabatic electron heat pumps are studied and connected to general questions of quantum cooling. Inelastic reflection is shown to contribute to heating if the external driving signal is time-symmetric. The quantum of cooling power, $\pi^2 k_B^2 T^2/6h$, is shown to be an upper limit to the cooling rate per transport channel in the presence of an arbitrary driving signal. The quantum limit to bulk atom cooling is also discussed. Within the electron tunneling limit, it is shown that electron cooling still occurs if the coherent ac source is replaced by a sufficiently hot thermal bath. A comparison with related refrigeration setups is presented.

Abstract:
I present an overview of the physics of the Josephson effect between Bose condensed systems, with emphasis on the recently achieved BEC's in trapped alkali gases. I focus mostly on those physical phenomena that are likely to be observed only (or more easily) in these novel systems. Thus I omit the discussion of problems which may be viewed as straightforward applications of well known Josephson physics. In particular, I review the external and the internal Josephson effects, and discuss how in the latter case it may be possible to explore the crossover between collective Josephson behavior and independent boson Rabi dynamics. I also describe novel macroscopic quantum phenomena such as self-trapping and interference between separate Bose condensates.