Abstract:
Violation of modified Wigner inequality by means binary bipartite quantum system allows the discrimination between the quantum world and the classical local-realistic one, and also ensures the security of Ekert-like quantum key distribution protocol. In this paper we study both theoretically and experimentally the bounds of quantum correlation associated to the modified Wigner's inequality finding the optimal experimental configuration for its maximal violation. We also extend this analysis to the implementation of Ekert's protocol.

Abstract:
In the last years quantum correlations received large attention as key ingredient in advanced quantum metrology protocols, in this letter we show that they provide even larger advantages when considering multiple-interferometer setups. In particular we demonstrate that the use of quantum correlated light beams in coupled interferometers leads to substantial advantages with respect to classical light, up to a noise-free scenario for the ideal lossless case. On the one hand, our results prompt the possibility of testing quantum gravity in experimental configurations affordable in current quantum optics laboratories and strongly improve the precision in "larger size experiments" such as the Fermilab holometer; on the other hand, they pave the way for future applications to high precision measurements and quantum metrology.

Abstract:
In this report we discuss the insecurity with present implementations of the Ekert protocol for quantum-key distribution based on the Wigner Inequality. We propose a modified version of this inequality which guarantees safe quantum-key distribution.

Abstract:
Many quantum computation and communication schemes require, or would significantly benefit from, true sources of single photon on-demand (SPOD). Unfortunately, such sources do not exist. It is becoming increasingly clear that coupling photons out of a SPOD source will be a limiting factor in many SPOD implementations. In particular, coupling these source outputs into optical fibers (usually single mode fibers) is often the preferred method for handling this light. We investigate the practical limits to this coupling as relates to parametric downconversion, an important starting point for many SPOD schemes. We also explored whether it is possible to optimize the engineering of the downconversion sources to improve on this coupling. We present our latest results in this area.

Abstract:
We implemented the experiment proposed by Cabello [arXiv:quant-ph/0309172] to test the bounds of quantum correlation. As expected from the theory we found that, for certain choices of local observables, Cirel'son's bound of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality ($2\sqrt{2}$) is not reached by any quantum states.

Abstract:
We explore the feasibility of using high conversion-efficiency periodically-poled crystals to produce photon pairs for photon-counting detector calibrations at 1550 nm. The goal is the development of an appropriate parametric down-conversion (PDC) source at telecom wavelengths meeting the requirements of high-efficiency pair production and collection in single spectral and spatial modes (single-mode fibers). We propose a protocol to optimize the photon collection, noise levels and the uncertainty evaluation. This study ties together the results of our efforts to model the single-mode heralding efficiency of a two-photon PDC source and to estimate the heralding uncertainty of such a source.

Abstract:
We present a scheme for a photon-counting detection system that can be operated at incident photon rates higher than otherwise possible by suppressing the effects of detector deadtime. The method uses an array of N detectors and a 1-by-N optical switch with a control circuit to direct input light to live detectors. Our calculations and models highlight the advantages of the technique. In particular, using this scheme, a group of N detectors provides an improvement in operation rate that can exceed the improvement that would be obtained by a single detector with deadtime reduced by 1/N, even if it were feasible to produce a single detector with such a large improvement in deadtime. We model the system for continuous and pulsed light sources, both of which are important for quantum metrology and quantum key distribution applications.

Abstract:
Quantum-cryptography key distribution (QCKD) experiments have been recently reported using polarization-entangled photons. However, in any practical realization, quantum systems suffer from either unwanted or induced interactions with the environment and the quantum measurement system, showing up as quantum and, ultimately, statistical noise. In this paper, we investigate how ideal polarization entanglement in spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC) suffers quantum noise in its practical implementation as a secure quantum system, yielding errors in the transmitted bit sequence. Because all SPDC-based QCKD schemes rely on the measurement of coincidence to assert the bit transmission between the two parties, we bundle up the overall quantum and statistical noise in an exhaustive model to calculate the accidental coincidences. This model predicts the quantum-bit error rate and the sifted key and allows comparisons between different security criteria of the hitherto proposed QCKD protocols, resulting in an objective assessment of performances and advantages of different systems.

Abstract:
We develop a new approach in magneto-optical imaging (MOI), applying for the first time a ghost imaging (GI) protocol to perform Faraday microscopy. MOI is of the utmost importance for the investigation of magnetic properties of material samples, through Weiss domains shape, dimension and dynamics analysis. Nevertheless, in some extreme conditions such as e. g. cryogenic temperatures or high magnetic fields application, there exists a lack of domains images due to the difficulty in creating an efficient imaging system in such environments. Here we present an innovative MOI technique that separates the imaging optical path from the one illuminating the object. The technique is based on thermal light GI and exploits correlations between light beams to retrieve the image of magnetic domains. As a proof of principle, the proposed technique is applied to the Faraday magneto-optical observation of the remanence domain structure of an yttrium iron garnet sample.

Abstract:
We experimentally implemented an eavesdropping attack against the Ekert protocol for quantum key distribution based on the Wigner inequality. We demonstrate a serious lack of security of this protocol when the eavesdropper gains total control of the source. In addition we tested a modified Wigner inequality which should guarantee a secure quantum key distribution.