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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 291436 matches for " I. C. Edmond Turcu "
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Population Inversion in Monolayer and Bilayer Graphene
Isabella Gierz,Matteo Mitrano,Jesse C. Petersen,Cephise Cacho,I. C. Edmond Turcu,Emma Springate,Alexander St?hr,Axel K?hler,Ulrich Starke,Andrea Cavalleri
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0953-8984/27/16/164204
Abstract: The recent demonstration of saturable absorption and negative optical conductivity in the Terahertz range in graphene has opened up new opportunities for optoelectronic applications based on this and other low dimensional materials. Recently, population inversion across the Dirac point has been observed directly by time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (tr-ARPES), revealing a relaxation time of only ~ 130 femtoseconds. This severely limits the applicability of single layer graphene to, for example, Terahertz light amplification. Here we use tr-ARPES to demonstrate long-lived population inversion in bilayer graphene. The effect is attributed to the small band gap found in this compound. We propose a microscopic model for these observations and speculate that an enhancement of both the pump photon energy and the pump fluence may further increase this lifetime.
Momentum-dependent snapshots of a melting charge density wave
Jesse C. Petersen,Stefan Kaiser,Nicky Dean,Alberto Simoncig,Haiyun Liu,Adrian L. Cavalieri,Cephise Cacho,I. C. Edmond Turcu,Emma Springate,Fabio Frassetto,Luca Poletto,Sarnjeet S. Dhesi,Helmuth Berger,Andrea Cavalleri
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.177402
Abstract: Charge density waves (CDWs) underpin the electronic properties of many complex materials. Near-equilibrium CDW order is linearly coupled to a periodic, atomic-structural distortion, and the dynamics is understood in terms of amplitude and phase modes. However, at the shortest timescales lattice and charge order may become de-coupled, highlighting the electronic nature of this many-body broken symmetry ground state. Using time and angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy with sub-30-fs XUV pulses, we have mapped the time- and momentum-dependent electronic structure in photo-stimulated 1T-TaS2, a prototypical two-dimensional charge density wave compound. We find that CDW order, observed as a splitting of the uppermost electronic bands at the Brillouin zone boundary, melts well before relaxation of the underlying structural distortion. Decoupled charge and lattice modulations challenge the view of Fermi Surface nesting as a driving force for charge density wave formation in 1T-TaS2.
Probing the structure and dynamics of molecular clusters using rotational wavepackets
Gediminas Galinis,Cephise Cacho,Richard T. Chapman,Andrew M. Ellis,Marius Lewerenz,Luis G. Mendoza Luna,Russell S. Minns,Mirjana Mladenovic,Arnaud Rouzée,Emma Springate,I. C. Edmond Turcu,Mark J. Watkins,Klaus von Haeften
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.043004
Abstract: The chemical and physical properties of molecular clusters can heavily depend on their size, which makes them very attractive for the design of new materials with tailored properties. Deriving the structure and dynamics of clusters is therefore of major interest in science. Weakly bound clusters can be studied using conventional spectroscopic techniques, but the number of lines observed is often too small for a comprehensive structural analysis. Impulsive alignment generates rotational wavepackets, which provides simultaneous information on structure and dynamics, as has been demonstrated successfully for isolated molecules. Here, we apply this technique for the firsttime to clusters comprising of a molecule and a single helium atom. By forcing the population of high rotational levels in intense laser fields we demonstrate the generation of rich rotational line spectra for this system, establishing the highly delocalised structure and the coherence of rotational wavepacket propagation. Our findings enable studies of clusters of different sizes and complexity as well as incipient superfluidity effects using wavepacket methods.
Direct view on the ultrafast carrier dynamics in graphene
Jens Christian Johannsen,S?ren Ulstrup,Federico Cilento,Alberto Crepaldi,Michele Zacchigna,Cephise Cacho,I. C. Edmond Turcu,Emma Springate,Felix Fromm,Christian Raidel,Thomas Seyller,Fulvio Parmigiani,Marco Grioni,Philip Hofmann
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.027403
Abstract: The ultrafast dynamics of excited carriers in graphene is closely linked to the Dirac spectrum and plays a central role for many electronic and optoelectronic applications. Harvesting energy from excited electron-hole pairs, for instance, is only possible if these pairs can be separated before they lose energy to vibrations, merely heating the lattice. While the hot carrier dynamics in graphene could so far only be accessed indirectly, we here present a direct time-resolved view on the Dirac cone by angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES). This allows us to show the quasi-instant thermalisation of the electron gas to a temperature of more than 2000 K; to determine the time-resolved carrier density; to disentangle the subsequent decay into excitations of optical phonons and acoustic phonons (directly and via supercollisions); and to show how the presence of the hot carrier distribution affects the lifetime of the states far below the Fermi energy.
Snapshots of non-equilibrium Dirac carrier distributions in graphene
Isabella Gierz,Jesse C. Petersen,Matteo Mitrano,Cephise Cacho,Edmond Turcu,Emma Springate,Alexander St?hr,Axel K?hler,Ulrich Starke,Andrea Cavalleri
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1038/nmat3757
Abstract: The optical properties of graphene are made unique by the linear band structure and the vanishing density of states at the Dirac point. It has been proposed that even in the absence of a semiconducting bandgap, a relaxation bottleneck at the Dirac point may allow for population inversion and lasing at arbitrarily long wavelengths. Furthermore, efficient carrier multiplication by impact ionization has been discussed in the context of light harvesting applications. However, all these effects are difficult to test quantitatively by measuring the transient optical properties alone, as these only indirectly reflect the energy and momentum dependent carrier distributions. Here, we use time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with femtosecond extreme ultra-violet (EUV) pulses at 31.5 eV photon energy to directly probe the non-equilibrium response of Dirac electrons near the K-point of the Brillouin zone. In lightly hole-doped epitaxial graphene samples, we explore excitation in the mid- and near-infrared, both below and above the minimum photon energy for direct interband transitions. While excitation in the mid-infrared results only in heating of the equilibrium carrier distribution, interband excitations give rise to population inversion, suggesting that terahertz lasing may be possible. However, in neither excitation regime do we find indication for carrier multiplication, questioning the applicability of graphene for light harvesting. Time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy in the EUV emerges as the technique of choice to assess the suitability of new materials for optoelectronics, providing quantitatively accurate measurements of non-equilibrium carriers at all energies and wavevectors.
On the recollision-free excitation of krypton during ultrafast multi-electron tunnel ionization
W A Bryan,S L Stebbings,J McKenna,E M L English,M Suresh,J Wood,B Srigengan,I C E Turcu,I D Williams,W R Newell
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1088/0953-4075/39/13/S08
Abstract: The probability of multiple ionization of krypton by 50 femtosecond circularly polarized laser pulses, independent of the optical focal geometry, has been obtained for the first time. The excellent agreement over the intensity range 10 TWcm-2 to 10 PWcm-2 with the recent predictions of A. S. Kornev et al [Phys. Rev. A v.68, art.043414 (2003)] provides the first experimental confirmation that non-recollisional electronic excitation can occur in strong field ionization. This is particularly true for higher stages of ionization, when the laser intensity exceeds 1 PWcm-2 as the energetic departure of the ionized electron(s) diabatically distorts the wavefunctions of the bound electrons. By scaling the probability of ionization by the focal volume, we discusses why this mechanism was not apparent in previous studies.
Possible observation of parametrically amplified coherent phasons in K0.3MoO3 using time-resolved extreme-ultraviolet ARPES
H. Y. Liu,I. Gierz,J. C. Petersen,S. Kaiser,A. Simoncig,A. L. Cavalieri,C. Cacho,I. C. E. Turcu,E. Springate,F. Frassetto,L. Poletto,S. S. Dhesi,Z. -A. Xu,T. Cuk,R. Merlin,A. Cavalleri
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.045104
Abstract: We use time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (tr-ARPES) in the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) to measure the time- and momentum-dependent electronic structure of photo-excited K0.3MoO3. Prompt depletion of the Charge Density Wave (CDW) condensate launches coherent oscillations of the amplitude mode, observed as a 1.7-THz-frequency modulation of the bonding band position. In contrast, the anti-bonding band oscillates at about half this frequency. We attribute these oscillations to coherent excitation of phasons via parametric amplification of phase fluctuations.
Isolated vibrational wavepackets in D2+: Defining superposition conditions and wavepacket distinguishability
W. A. Bryan,J. McKenna,E. M. L. English,J. Wood,C. R. Calvert,R. Torres,D. S. Murphy,I. C. E. Turcu,J. L. Collier,J. F. McCann,I. D. Williams,W. R. Newell
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.76.053402
Abstract: Tunnel ionization of room-temperature D$_2$ in an ultrashort (12 femtosecond) near infra-red (800 nm) pump laser pulse excites a vibrational wavepacket in the D2+ ions; a rotational wavepacket is also excited in residual D2 molecules. Both wavepacket types are collapsed a variable time later by an ultrashort probe pulse. We isolate the vibrational wavepacket and quantify its evolution dynamics through theoretical comparison. Requirements for quantum computation (initial coherence and quantum state retrieval) are studied using this well-defined (small number of initial states at room temperature, initial wavepacket spatially localized) single-electron molecular prototype by temporally stretching the pump and probe pulses.
Mapping the Evolution of Optically-Generated Rotational Wavepackets in a Room Temperature Ensemble of D$_2$
W. A. Bryan,E. M. L. English,J. McKenna,J. Wood,C. R. Calvert,R. Torres,I. C. E. Turcu,J. L. Collier,I. D. Williams,W. R. Newell
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.76.023414
Abstract: A coherent superposition of rotational states in D$_2$ has been excited by nonresonant ultrafast (12 femtosecond) intense (2 $\times$ 10$^{14}$ Wcm$^{-2}$) 800 nm laser pulses leading to impulsive dynamic alignment. Field-free evolution of this rotational wavepacket has been mapped to high temporal resolution by a time-delayed pulse, initiating rapid double ionization, which is highly sensitive to the angle of orientation of the molecular axis with respect to the polarization direction, $\theta$. The detailed fractional revivals of the neutral D$_2$ wavepacket as a function of $\theta$ and evolution time have been observed and modelled theoretically.
Evidence of reduced surface electron-phonon scattering in the conduction band of Bi_{2}Se_{3} by non-equilibrium ARPES
A. Crepaldi,F. Cilento,B. Ressel,C. Cacho,J. C. Johannsen,M. Zacchigna,H. Berger,Ph. Bugnon,C. Grazioli,I. C. E. Turcu,E. Springate,K. Kern,M. Grioni,F. Parmigiani
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.121404
Abstract: The nature of the Dirac quasiparticles in topological insulators calls for a direct investigation of the electron-phonon scattering at the \emph{surface}. By comparing time-resolved ARPES measurements of the TI Bi_{2}Se_{3} with different probing depths we show that the relaxation dynamics of the electronic temperature of the conduction band is much slower at the surface than in the bulk. This observation suggests that surface phonons are less effective in cooling the electron gas in the conduction band.
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