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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 218938 matches for " I. B. Omotowo "
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Cigarette Smoking and Attitudes Concerning Its Control among Healthcare Workers in Enugu, South-East, Nigeria  [PDF]
I. B. Omotowo, E. O. Ndibuagu, U. Ezeoke
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.811108
Abstract: Introduction: Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor for many diseases, and according to World Health Organization, health care workers can influence positively or negatively the smoking habits of the community. Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate the prevalence of cigarette smoking and attitudes regarding its control among healthcare workers in Enugu, South-East Nigeria. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among 369 healthcare providers randomly selected in primary, secondary and tertiary health facilities. Data were collected using a self reported questionnaire on cigarette smoking, and were analysed using SPSS Version 21, and statistical significance of association between variables was assessed using chi-square test at p < 0.05. Ethical clearance from University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu and informed written consent was obtained from the participants. Results: Overall, 369 respondents returned the completed questionnaires. 54.2% were males, 75.9% were aged between 20 to 40 years, while their mean age was 27.5 ± 6.2 years. Overall life time prevalence of smoking among healthcare workers was 21.1% with (95% confidence interval 17.3 - 25.6), currently smoking was 6.5% with (95% confidence interval 5.8 - 7.4), while life time prevalence among physicians was 31.7% with (95% ci 28.8 - 33.6). The highest smoking rate was among the internists 72.7% in the physicians group. More smokers significantly agreed that the followings should be banned: cigarette sales (X2 = 22.134, df = 6, P = 0.003), advertising cigarettes (X2 = 42.532, df = 28, P = 0.040), cigarettes smoking in restaurants (X2 = 42.560, df = 20, P = 0.001), and smoking in all enclosed places (X2 = 33.257, df = 20, P = 0.025), but not statistically significant for health professionals to serve as role models (X2 = 24.420, df = 8, P = 0.086). Conclusion: Our results showed high percentage of cigarette smoking among healthcare providers. Smoking cessation programs should be introduced among healthcare providers.
Assessment of Key HIV Misconceptions among Inhabitants of a Rural Community in Enugu State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Edmund O. Ndibuagu, Innocent I. Okafor, Babatunde I. Omotowo
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2017.59007
Abstract: In 2015, about 35 million people died of HIV infection globally, with about 36.7 million infected. Most of the infection occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa. Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS exist mostly in developing countries. The research was a cross-sectional study, conducted in Enugu state, Nigeria. Objective was to assess key HIV misconceptions among rural community dwellers. Interviewer administered questionnaire was used, and information was collected from 296 respondents, most of whom were above 50 years of age, married, had no formal education, and were farmers. Correct responses to the misconceptions investigated were: HIV infection found only among sinners (29.7%); HIV can be transmitted by eating from the same plate with an infected person (24.7%); HIV can be transmitted through handshake (29.7%); HIV can be transmitted by touching the urine or faeces of an infected person (24.0%); HIV can be transmitted by hugging or touching an infected person (28.0%); HIV can be cured (19.9%); Praying daily can prevent HIV infection (20.3%); and Worshipping our ancestors can prevent HIV infection (27.0%). Inhabitants of rural communities are more likely to hold misconceptions about HIV. It is recommended that relevant governments in developing countries design interventions aimed at addressing misconceptions about HIV/AIDS.
Validation of the clinical tuberculosis screening algorithm used in Nigerian national tuberculosis control programme for screening people living with HIV  [PDF]
Emmanuel N. Aguwa, Chika N. Onwasigwe, Joseph N. Chukwu, Daniel C. Oshi, Charles C. Nwafor, Babatunde I. Omotowo, Anne C. Ndu, Anthony O. Meka, Osa-Eloka C. Ekwueme, Nwachukwu C. Ugwunna, Moses C. Anyim
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.511234
Abstract: Background: In high HIV prevalence, tuberculosis diagnosis is challenging. Some countries hence use clinical algorithms to screen for tuberculosis in People Living with HIV (PLHIV). Objectives: The aim of the study was to validate the national algorithm for clinical tuberculosis screening of persons living with HIV who attend comprehensive HIV clinics. Methods: A cross-sectional study of PLHIV who presented with cough of at least 2 weeks duration between 2009 and 2011 at St Patrick’s Hospital, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Sputum smear microscopy for acid fast bacilli was obtained from the participants. Results: Three hundred and twelve PLHIV were studied: 146 (46.8%) males and 166 (53.2%) females. Only 55 (17.6%) of the participants had smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Weight loss (c2 = 2.33; P = 0.127), hemoptysis (c2 = 0.03; P = 0.864), night sweats (c2 = 1.52; P = 0.218), fever (c2 = 3.49; P = 0.06), anorexia (c2 = 0.49; P = 0.484), chest pain (c2
Vaccination Coverage and Its Determinants in Children Aged 11 - 23 Months in an Urban District of Nigeria  [PDF]
Beckie Nnenna Tagbo, Christopher Bismarck Eke, Babatunde Ishola Omotowo, Chika Nwanma Onwuasigwe, Edelu Benedict Onyeka, Ukoha Oluchi Mildred
World Journal of Vaccines (WJV) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjv.2014.44020
Abstract: Background/Objectives: Performance of the vaccination programme in Nigeria is lower than the regional average as well the 95% target necessary for sustained control of vaccine preventable diseases. This study is aimed at assessing the vaccination coverage and its associated factors in children aged 11 - 23 months in Enugu Metropolis. Methods: A cross sectional study in which caregivers and their children pair, aged 11 - 23 months attending children’s outpatient clinics in Enugu metropolis was undertaken. Respondents were selected consecutively while data were collected using pretested interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 while level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of full vaccination. Results: Of 351 subjects studied, 84.9% (298) were fully immunized according to the national programme on immunization schedule using both vaccination cards and history. The OPV0, OPV3, pentavalent-1, pentavalent-3 and measles coverage at the time of survey were 100.0%, 97.2%, 98.0%, 98.6%, 96.9% and 95.4%, respectively. On logistic regression: maternal occupation (government employees), children born in government hospitals and knowledge of when to start and complete vaccinations in a child were the likely predictors for completion of full vaccination in the children. Conclusion: The vaccination coverage among the study group was adjudged to be relatively high. Delivery of a child in a government hospital and the knowledge of the age when routine vaccinations should begin and end in a child were the independent predictors of the high vaccination coverage rate observed. Awareness and health education efforts in government tertiary hospitals should be extended to private and other hospitals to improve and sustain national vaccination coverage in Nigeria.
Determinants of Treatment Delays among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Enugu Metropolis, South-East, Nigeria  [PDF]
Omotowo Ishola Babatunde, Eke Christopher Bismark, Nwobi Emmanuel Amaechi, Eyisi Ifeanyi Gabriel, Agwu-Umahi Rebecca Olanike
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.711164
Abstract: Introduction: Globally, the burden of Tuberculosis is escalating. Early diagnosis and prompt initiation of treatment are essential to achieve an effective tuberculosis control programme. Objective: To investigate the duration of delay for treatment and assess the determinants of treatment delays among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Enugu metropolis, South-East, Nigeria. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among 219 pulmonary tuberculosis patients in six randomly selected DOTS centres in the three LGAs in Enugu metropolis. Data were analysed using SPSS version 17, and statistical significance of association between variables was assessed using Chi-square test at p < 0.05. STATA version 13.1 was used to calculate the positive predictors of TB treatment delays using logistic regression. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Health Research Ethics Committee of UNTH and verbal informed consent was obtained from the participants. Results: Overall, 291 respondents took part in the study, 55.7% were males, 84.4% were aged between 16 to 60 years, while their mean age was 35.4 ± 12.6 years. Most of the participants 32.9%, 26.9%, 15.5% were traders, civil servants, and students respectively. Among the respondents, 3.6% knew that Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the cause of tuberculosis. Among the participants, only 23.3% presented for first appropriate treatment consultation within 1 - 30 days of onset of symptoms. The reasons given by the respondents for the delay are: ignorance of necessity treatment (36.1%), Lack of money (24.2%), no health facility close to the house (13.2%), and other reasons 26.5%. Delay in treatment was found to be significantly associated with HIV status (X2 = 23.412, df = 8, p = 0.003), knowledge of the cause of TB (X2 = 42.322, df = 28, p = 0.040), TB symptoms experienced (X2 = 46.857, df = 20, p = 0.001), occupation (X2 = 34.217, df = 20, p = 0.025), and distance of the health facility from the respondents’ residence (X2 = 34.908, df = 8, p = 0.000). The positive predictors of delayed treatment, using logistic regression, were first presentation at: patent medicine dealer (OR 12.3 CI: 3.22 - 36.23), private hospital (OR 10.6 CI: 5.73 - 17.94), prayer house (OR 7.2 CI: 2.75 - 23.64), and traditional healer (OR 11.9 CI: 6.87 - 32.85). Conclusion: Majority of TB patients in this study did not present early to health facilities. The positive predictors of delayed presentation for appropriate PTB treatment were first presentations at inappropriate treatment centres.
Simple Model of Transformation of a Crystal Structures  [PDF]
B. I. Lev
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.716205

A simple model of the closely packed structure for system of hard-sphere particles interacting via the long-range Newtonian type attraction is suggested. Based on density functional theory, the exact equation of state is obtained and the mutual transformations of the crystal structures in such systems are studied. The description takes into account the fact impossibility of hard-sphere particles which have the same spatial occupation place.

Statistical Derivation of the Fundamental Scalar Field  [PDF]
B. I. Lev
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2018.912140
Abstract: Based on a nonequilibrium statistical operator, it has been shown that the fundamental scalar field provides a natural representation of the repulsive interaction that produces scattering in the system and thus motivates law of entropy increasing.
Mothers’ knowledge, perception and practice of childhood immunization in Enugu
BN Tagbo, ND Uleanya, IC Nwokoye, JC Eze, IB Omotowo
Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: Immunization has been shown to be the most successful and cost-effective public health intervention in the 20th century. In the developing world, it does not only prevent about three million child deaths annually, but also has the potential to prevent additional two million deaths if coverage improves. However, immunization coverage has remained low in Nigeria although vaccines are provided relatively free by the government. Efforts have focused on the health worker, health system and logistics with little attention being paid to maternal factors like knowledge, perception, beliefs and practice. Objectives: To assess mothers’ knowledge, perception and practice of routine and campaign immunization in Enugu. Methods: A structured questionnaire was administered to 207 mothers who have at least one child less than 5 years of age, attending children outpatient and immunization clinics at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. Results: Forty-eight per cent of the mothers had tertiary education, 42% had secondary education, and 9% had primary education while 1% had no formal education. Eighty-two per cent knew that children are immunized to prevent major killer diseases, 14% and 3.4% believed it was to prevent all diseases, and to treat diseases respectively. Most mothers took their children to health facilities for routine immunization (95.2%) and also accepted immunization on immunization campaign days (75.4%). However, 23.6% had never immunized their children during campaigns. On the other hand, 13% (27) of mothers had out-rightly rejected immunization during campaign while 85% (177) had never rejected immunization. The remaining 2% were not immunized due to reasons other than rejection. More mothers significantly rejected campaign immunization than the number that did not go for routine immunization (p=0.000). Maternal highest educational level was significantly associated with knowledge of reason for immunization and acceptance of immunization (p=0.000). Religious denomination was not significantly associated with rejection of campaign immunization (p=0.056). Conclusion: Most mothers studied had good knowledge and positive perception and practice of immunization. However, the Campaign immunization rejection rate was relatively high for the south eastern Nigeria where it is often assumed that non-compliance is not a problem. Similarly, the proportions of mothers with wrong knowledge and poor perception of immunization require policy attention. Maternal education was significantly associated with knowledge and acceptance of immunization. These findings are important in the design and implementation of childhood immunization programmes.
Prevalence of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Deficiency in India: A Systematic Review  [PDF]
I. I. Shah, J. Jarullah, B. Jarullah
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2018.99033
Abstract: Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzyme deficiency of human erythrocyte affecting more than 400 million people worldwide. In India, G6PD deficiency was first reported in 1963 and since then various investigations have been conducted across country. The objective of this work was to study the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in different ethnic, caste and linguistic groups of Indian population. A systematic search of published literature was undertaken and the wide variability of G6PD deficiency has been observed ranging from 0% - 30.7% among the different caste, ethnic, and linguistic groups of India. It was observed that the incidence of G6PD deficiency was found to be considerably higher among the tribes (9.86%) as compared to other ethnic groups (7.34%) and significantly higher in males as compared to females.
Effects of replacement of soya bean meal by bambara nut sievate on the carcass and organ parameters of finisher broiler chicks  [PDF]
B. U. Ekenyem, B. I. Odo
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2011.13012
Abstract: Eighty 4-weeks old broiler chicks (Anak 2000 strain) were used in a 28 days feeding trial to determine the effects of replacement of soya bean meal (SBM) by bambara nut sievate (BNS) on the carcass and organ characteristics of fin- isher broiler chicks. BNS replaced soya bean meal by weight for weight at levels 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% for treatments 1,2, 3 and 4; respectively which were replicated four times in a completely randomized design. Feed and potable water were supplied ad libitum to the birds. Also, ap- propriate medication, sanitation and other stan- dard management practices were strictly adopt- ed. At the 28th day, one bird was randomly picked from each replicate, starved of food for 24 hours and then slaughtered and eviscerated for carcass and organ evaluation. Weights were measured with digital weighing scale. Results of analysis of variance of carcass parameters showed significant (P < 0.05) difference in the final live weight, carcass weight and dressed weight. Birds on 10% BNS and 5% BNS were not statistically different (P > 0.05) in the values above but only varied with birds on 10% and 15% BNS. Other carcass parameters were simi- lar (P > 0.05) in value between treatments. The liver, heart, gizzard and intestine significantly varied (P < 0.05) between their treatments. How- ever, kidney values did not differ significantly. From the results, it appeared that 5% BNS in- clusion is optimal for carcass and organ char- acteristics of finisher broilers.
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