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Comparative Study of Various Preparation Methods of Colloidal Silica  [PDF]
Hyung Mi Lim, Jinho Lee, Jeong-Hwan Jeong, Seong-Geun Oh, Seung-Ho Lee
Engineering (ENG) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2010.212126
Abstract: Colloidal silica can be prepared by various methods and starting materials including ion exchange of aqueous silicates, hydrolysis and condensation of silicon compounds, direct oxidation of silicon, and milling and peptization of silica powder. Various silica sols having particle sizes of 10-60 nm prepared by these methods and the preparation methods have been compared on the basis of their shape, size uniformity, sphericity, stability against pH variation, cation concentration, and price, etc. Silica sol prepared from tetraethoxysilane affords uniform size control and growth, and high purity, despite the relatively high costs. Silica sol prepared from liquid silicates affords relatively easy size and shape control; however, it is difficult to lower the alkali content to a level that is appropriate for carrying out semiconductor chemical mechanical polishing processes; in addition, the waste water treatment carried out for recovering the ion exchange resin gives rise environmental consideration. The properties of colloidal silica prepared from fumed silica powder by milling and dispersion depend on the starting silica source and it is relatively difficult to obtain monodispersed particles using this method. Colloidal silica prepared from silicon by direct oxidation has a monodispersed spherical shape and purity control with reasonable prices. It generates less waste water because it can be directly produced in relatively high concentrations. The cation fraction located in the particle relative to the free cation in the fluid is relatively lower in the silica sol prepared by the direct oxidation than others. A careful comparison of colloidal silica and the preparation methods may help in choosing the proper colloidal silica that is the most appropriate for the application being considered.
Effects of Reduced Prolamin on Seed Storage Protein Composition and the Nutritional Quality of Rice
Hyun-Jung Kim,Jong-Yeol Lee,Ung-Han Yoon,Sun-Hyung Lim,Young-Mi Kim
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijms140817073
Abstract: Rice seed storage proteins accumulate in two types of protein body (PB-I and PB-II) that are nutrient sources for animals. PB-I is indigestible and negatively affects rice protein quality. To improve the nutritional value of rice seeds we are aiming to engineer the composition and accumulation of endogenous seed storage proteins. In this study we generated transgenic rice plants in which 13 kD prolamin genes were suppressed by RNA interference (13 kD pro-RNAi). Analysis based on qRT-PCR confirmed that the targeted 13 kD prolamins were markedly suppressed, and were compensated for by an increase in other storage proteins including 10 kD prolamin, glutelins, and chaperone proteins. The storage protein profiles further revealed that the levels of 13 kD prolamins were significantly reduced, while that of the glutelin precursor was slightly increased and the remaining storage proteins did not change. Amino acid analysis showed that the reduction of 13 kD prolamins resulted in a 28% increase in the lysine content relative to the wild type, indicating that the 13 kD pro-RNAi rice seeds are more nutritious. Furthermore, a reduction in the levels of 13 kD prolamins resulted in abnormal formation of PB-I, which was small and had no lamellar structure. These results suggest that alteration of prolamins can contribute to improving the nutritional quality of rice.
Age-hardening and overaging mechanisms related to the metastable phase formation by the decomposition of Ag and Cu in a dental Au–Ag–Cu–Pd–Zn alloy
Sang-Hwa Lee,In-Sook Lim,Mi-Hyang Cho,Ae-Ri Pyo,Yong Hoon Kwon,Hyo-Joung Seol,Hyung-Il Kim
Gold Bulletin , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s13404-011-0021-x
Abstract: The age-hardening and overaging mechanisms related to the metastable phase formation by the decomposition of Ag and Cu in a dental casting gold alloy composed of 56Au–25Ag–11.8Cu–5Pd–1.7Zn–0.4Pt–0.1Ir (wt.%) were elucidated by characterizing the age-hardening behaviour, phase transformations, changes in microstructure and changes in element distribution. The fast and apparent increase in hardness at the initial stage of the aging process at 400°C was caused by the nucleation and growth of the metastable Ag–Au-rich phase and the Cu–Au-rich phase by the miscibility limit of Ag and Cu. The transformation of the metastable Ag–Au-rich phase into the stable Ag–Au-rich phase progressed concurrently with the ordering of the Cu–Au-rich phase into the AuCu I phase through the metastable state, which resulted in the subsequent increase in hardness. The further increase in hardness was restrained before complete decomposition of the parent α0 phase due to the initiation of the lamellar-forming grain boundary reaction. The progress of the lamellar-forming grain boundary reaction was not directly connected with the phase transformation of the metastable phases into the final product phases. The heterogeneous expansion of the lamellar structure from the grain boundary caused greater softening than the subsequent further coarsening of the lamellar structure. The lamellar structure was composed of the Ag–Au-rich layer which was Cu-, Pd- and Zn-depleted and the AuCu I layer containing Pd and Zn.
Anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic effects of piperine in human interleukin 1β-stimulated fibroblast-like synoviocytes and in rat arthritis models
Jun Soo Bang, Da Hee Oh, Hyun Mi Choi, Bong-Jun Sur, Sung-Jig Lim, Jung Yeon Kim, Hyung-In Yang, Myung Chul Yoo, Dae-Hyun Hahm, Kyoung Soo Kim
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/ar2662
Abstract: The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of piperine was tested on interleukin 1β (IL1β)-stimulated fibroblast-like synoviocytes derived form patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The levels of IL6, matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs), cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were investigated by ELISA and RT-PCR analysis. The analgesic and antiarthritic activities of piperine were investigated on rat models of carrageenan-induced acute paw pain and arthritis. The former were evaluated with a paw pressure test, and the latter by measuring the squeaking score, paw volume, and weight distribution ratio. Piperine was administrated orally to rats at 20 and 100 mg/kg/day for 8 days.Piperine inhibited the expression of IL6 and MMP13 and reduced the production of PGE2 in a dose dependant manner at concentrations of 10 to 100 μg/ml. In particular, the production of PGE2 was significantly inhibited even at 10 μg/ml of piperine. Piperine inhibited the migration of activator protein 1 (AP-1), but not nuclear factor (NF)κB, into the nucleus in IL1β-treated synoviocytes. In rats, piperine significantly reduced nociceptive and arthritic symptoms at days 8 and 4, respectively. Histological staining showed that piperine significantly reduced the inflammatory area in the ankle joints.These results suggest that piperine has anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antiarthritic effects in an arthritis animal model. Thus, piperine should be further studied with regard to use either as a pharmaceutical or as a dietary supplement for the treatment of arthritis.Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by chronic proliferative synovitis, inflammatory immune cell infiltration into the synovial fluid and cartilage destruction [1]. Proliferative fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) play crucial roles in both the propagation of inflammation and joint damage because they produce a great amount of proinflammatory mediators such as matrix metalloproteinses (MMPs), interleukin (IL)6, IL8 and pr
Evaluation of angiotensin II receptor blockers for drug formulary using objective scoring analytical tool
Lim TM,Ibrahim MI
Pharmacy Practice (Granada) , 2012,
Abstract: Drug selection methods with scores have been developed and used worldwide for formulary purposes. These tools focus on the way in which the products are differentiated from each other within the same therapeutic class. Scoring Analytical Tool (SAT) is designed based on the same principle with score and is able to assist formulary committee members in evaluating drugs either to add or delete in a more structured, consistent and reproducible manner. Objective: To develop an objective SAT to facilitate evaluation of drug selection for formulary listing purposes. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out. The proposed SAT was developed to evaluate the drugs according to pre-set criteria and sub-criteria that were matched to the diseases concerned and scores were then assigned based on their relative importance. The main criteria under consideration were safety, quality, cost and efficacy. All these were converted to questionnaires format. Data and information were collected through self-administered questionnaires that were distributed to medical doctors and specialists from the established public hospitals. A convenient sample of 167 doctors (specialists and non-specialists) were taken from various disciplines in the outpatient clinics such as Medical, Nephrology and Cardiology units who prescribed ARBs hypertensive drugs to patients. They were given a duration of 4 weeks to answer the questionnaires at their convenience. One way ANOVA, Kruskal Wallis and post hoc comparison tests were carried out at alpha level 0.05. Results: Statistical analysis showed that the descending order of ARBs preference was Telmisartan or Irbesartan or Losartan, Valsartan or Candesartan, Olmesartan and lastly Eprosartan. The most cost saving ARBs for hypertension in public hospitals was Irbesartan. Conclusion: SAT is a tool which can be used to reduce the number of drugs and retained the most therapeutically appropriate drugs in the formulary, to determine most cost saving drugs and has the potential to complement the conventional method of drug selection as it is effective in aiding decision making process through the pre-established criteria and increasing scientific ground of decisions and transparency.
Factors associated with use of breast cancer screening services by women aged ≥ 40 years in Korea: The Third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 (KNHANES III)
Kiheon Lee, Hyung Lim, Sang Park
BMC Cancer , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-10-144
Abstract: The Health Promotion Knowledge, Attitude and Practice survey (HP-KAP survey) is part of the Third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 (KNHANES III), a nationwide health survey in Korea. Of 7,802 individuals who participated in the HP-KAP survey, 4,292 were female. Of these, 2,583 were women aged at least 40 years and without a history of breast cancer; these women were included in this study. Information about breast cancer screening participation was obtained from the responses to questionnaires. The overall rate of regular breast cancer screening was measured. Factors that affect participation in a breast cancer screening program were identified using multiple logistic regression analysis.Among women aged at least 40 years, 30.4% complied with breast screening recommendations. Age of at least 65 years (adjusted odds ratio, aOR 0.61, 95% CI: 0.42-0.88), education level (no [ref], elementary school [aOR 1.51, 95% CI: 1.06-1.47], middle/high school [aOR 1.99, 95% CI: 1.36-2.92], university/higher [aOR 2.73, 95% CI: 1.71-4.35]), private health insurance (aOR 1.42, 95% CI: 1.71-4.35), attitude towards screening tests (aOR 0.18, 95% CI: 0.14-0.23), self-reported health status of 'fair' (aOR 1.26 95% CI: 1.00-1.58), and smoking (aOR 0.52, 95% CI: 0.35-0.79) were associated with the rate of regular breast cancer screeningTo increase the nationwide breast cancer screening rate, more attention should be given to underrepresented groups, particularly the elderly, those with a low education level, smokers, and those with a negative attitude towards screening tests. These issues highlight the need for a new emphasis in health education, promotional campaigns and public health policy aimed at these underrepresented groups.Breast cancer is the most common female cancer, with more than 1 million cases and nearly 600,000 deaths occurring worldwide annually [1]. In Korea, the incidence of breast cancer in 2006 was 46 per 100,000 women; previous data have bee
Decreased Circulating C3 Levels and Mesangial C3 Deposition Predict Renal Outcome in Patients with IgA Nephropathy
Seung Jun Kim, Hyang Mo Koo, Beom Jin Lim, Hyung Jung Oh, Dong Eun Yoo, Dong Ho Shin, Mi Jung Lee, Fa Mee Doh, Jung Tak Park, Tae-Hyun Yoo, Shin-Wook Kang, Kyu Hun Choi, Hyeon Joo Jeong, Seung Hyeok Han
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040495
Abstract: Background and Aims Mesangial C3 deposition is frequently observed in patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN). However, the role of complement in the pathogenesis or progression of IgAN is uncertain. In this observational cohort study, we aimed to identify the clinical implications of circulating C3 levels and mesangial C3 deposition and to investigate their utility as predictors of renal outcomes in patients with IgAN. Methods A total of 343 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN were enrolled between January 2000 and December 2008. Decreased serum C3 level (hypoC3) was defined as C3 <90 mg/dl. The study endpoint was end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and a doubling of the baseline serum creatinine (D-SCr). Results Of the patients, there were 66 patients (19.2%) with hypoC3. During a mean follow-up of 53.7 months, ESRD occurred in 5 patients (7.6%) with hypoC3 compared with 9 patients (3.2%) with normal C3 levels (P = 0.11). However, 12 patients (18.2%) with hypoC3 reached D-SCr compared with 17 patients (6.1%) with normal C3 levels [Hazard ratio (HR), 3.59; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.33–10.36; P = 0.018]. In a multivariable model in which serum C3 levels were treated as a continuous variable, hypoC3 significantly predicted renal outcome of D-SCr (per 1 mg/dl increase of C3; HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92–0.99; P = 0.011). The risk of reaching renal outcome was significantly higher in patients with mesangial C3 deposition 2+ to 3+ than in patients without deposition (HR 9.37; 95% CI, 1.10–80.26; P = 0.04). Conclusions This study showed that hypoC3 and mesangial C3 deposition were independent risk factors for progression, suggesting that complement activation may play a pathogenic role in patients with IgAN.
Optimal Proteinuria Target for Renoprotection in Patients with IgA Nephropathy
Ki Heon Nam, Jeong Hae Kie, Mi Jung Lee, Tae-Ik Chang, Ea Wha Kang, Dong Wook Kim, Beom Jin Lim, Jung Tak Park, Young Eun Kwon, Yung Ly Kim, Kyoung Sook Park, Seong Yeong An, Hyung Jung Oh, Tae-Hyun Yoo, Shin-Wook Kang, Kyu Hun Choi, Hyeon Joo Jeong, Dae-Suk Han, Seung Hyeok Han
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101935
Abstract: Background Proteinuria is a target for renoprotection in kidney diseases. However, optimal level of proteinuria reduction in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is unknown. Methods We conducted a retrospective observational study in 500 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN. Time-averaged proteinuria (TA-P) was calculated as the mean of every 6 month period of measurements of spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratio. The study endpoints were a 50% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), onset of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and slope of eGFR. Results During a median follow-up duration of 65 (12–154) months, a 50% decline in eGFR occurred in 1 (0.8%) patient with TA-P of <0.3 g/g compared to 6 (2.7%) patients with TA-P of 0.3–0.99 g/g (hazard ratio, 2.82; P = 0.35). Risk of reaching a 50% decline in eGFR markedly increased in patients with TA-P of 1.0–2.99 g/g (P = 0.002) and those with TA-P≥3.0 g/g (P<0.001). ESRD did not occur in patients with TA-P<1.0 g/g compared to 26 (20.0%) and 8 (57.1%) patients with TA-P of 1.0–2.99 and ≥3.0 g/g, respectively. Kidney function of these two groups deteriorated faster than those with TA-P<1.0 g/g (P<0.001). However, patients with TA-P of 0.3–0.99 g/g had a greater decline of eGFR than patients with TA-P<0.3 g/g (?0.41±1.68 vs. ?0.73±2.82 ml/min/1.73 m2/year, P = 0.03). Conclusion In this study, patients with TA-P<1.0 g/g show favorable outcomes. However, given the faster eGFR decline in patients with TA-P of 0.3–0.99 g/g than in patients with TA-P<0.3 g/g, the ultimate optimal goal of proteinuria reduction can be lowered in the management of IgAN.
The Relationship between Thyroid Hormone Levels and Corrected QT Interval and QT Dispersion in Non-Diabetic Hemodialysis Patients  [PDF]
Heo-Yeong Kim, Ji Soo Kim, Seung Eun Suh, Yu Kyung Hyun, Kyeong Mi Park, Hyung-Jong Kim
Open Journal of Nephrology (OJNeph) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojneph.2014.41003

Background: Cardiovascular disease and sudden cardiac death are common in hemodialysis patients. These cardiac complications are often associated with prolonged QTc interval (QTc) and QTc dispersion (QTcd). Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) can alter autonomic modulation of heart rate and cause increased inhomogeneity of ventricular recovery time. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between thyroid hormone levels and QTc and QTcd in non-diabetic hemodialysis patients. Methods: We enrolled 29 non-diabetic hemodialysis patients without thyroid disease. After each hemodialysis session, a 12-lead ECG was recorded. Before each hemodialysis session, routine laboratory tests and measurement of thyroid hormone levels were performed. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to QTc (group 1 QTc < 430 ms, group 2 QTc ≥ 430 ms). We examined the relationship between QTc or QTcd and thyroid hormone in the respective groups and then compared the results from the 2 groups. Results: The mean age was 54.06 ± 14.72 years and the means of QTc and QTcd were 433.82 ± 22.03 ms, 59.10 ± 28.29 ms, respectively. Homocysteine levels were significant higher in group 2 than group 1 (p < 0.05) and QTcd was comparable between groups. In group 1, QTc and QTcd were not significant correlated with TSH, T3, fT4 and biochemical parameters. In group 2, QTc was significant positively correlated with TSH (p < 0.05) and QTcd was

Risk of “silent stroke” in patients older than 60 years: risk assessment and clinical perspectives
Jae-Sung Lim, Hyung-Min Kwon
Clinical Interventions in Aging , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S7382
Abstract: k of “silent stroke” in patients older than 60 years: risk assessment and clinical perspectives Review (6114) Total Article Views Authors: Jae-Sung Lim, Hyung-Min Kwon Published Date September 2010 Volume 2010:5 Pages 239 - 251 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S7382 Jae-Sung Lim1, Hyung-Min Kwon2 1Department of Neurology, Armed Forces Seoul Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Neurology, Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea Abstract: With the increasing size of the elderly population and evolving imaging technology, silent brain infarction (SBI) has garnered attention from both the public and the physicians. Over 20% of the elderly exhibit SBI, and the prevalence of SBI increases steadily with age, ie, 30%–40% in those older than 70 years. Well-known cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension has been identified as a risk factor of SBI (odds ratio [OR] = 3.47) Besides this, blood pressure (BP) reactivity to mental stress, morning BP surges, and orthostatic BP changes have been demonstrated to contribute to the presence of SBI. Further, a metabolic syndrome not only as a whole syndrome (OR = 2.18) but also as individual components could have an influence on SBI. Increased C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, coronary artery disease, body mass index, and alcohol consumption have also been associated with SBI. The ORs and -possible mechanisms have been discussed in this article. Overt stroke, dementia, depression, and aspiration pneumonia were all associated with SBI. (overt stroke: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.2–2.8; dementia: HR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.09–4.70). We also looked into their close relationship with SBI in this review.
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